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S. 14 •ScV" sa f: $ S&s Si M* fiu A A*,'," 1^4 @H)e (Democrat. BKOHSOH CASS, Publisher). MANCHESTER, IOWA, ,!.v Distance doesn't lend enchantment to one's view of the almighty dollar i, The stork should have been given a hlut that Papa Zimmerman's purse strings could be loosened only by a boy. Eighty-two per ccut of the house keepers of the country get along with out hired girls. The eighteen per cent Love, like Ughtulng, seldom strikes twice in the same place. That's why widows usually marry for money the second time. Countries having the American en gine only need a supply of American coal to make them happy, and the coal is rapldljgl'eacliing them. I Girls, if you haven't found the right one yet, don't be disheartened. A Chi cago woman was recently married the third time to the same man. It was tlie irony of fate. A couple of burglars broke Into a building at Rochester, N. Y., which they supposed was a warehouse. It proved to be a Jail. Bad grammar may be cured by medi cal treatment, acordlng to a German specialist This discovery will be a boon to some of our statesmen and would-be statesmen. I. "The Supreme Court of Michigan has decided that bicyclists have a right to ride on the sidewalks. There seems to be nothing left to pedestrians but the right to trust In Providence. Sarah Grand, author of "Heavenly .Twins," says American gentlemen are the most chivalrous In the world. Ah, there, Sarah, Just tell your manager to forward a list of your lecture dates. Hardly has the twentieth century got well started before a speaker at a wo men's club says the nineteenth cen tury, of whlcft those who lived In It were so proud, was crude nnd unciv ilized. What a woman can't understand Is how a man will stay up every night for six weeks running all over town trying to make votes for a candidate he doesn't know, but getting hopping mad If he has to run across the street to get some paregoric for his own baby, I "Don't watch the clock," was Mr. .Edison's advice to a young man who recently asked hlui how to succeed. Profoundly significant Is that old joke ubout the laborer who left his pickax hanging In the air at the stroke of noon. A hanging pickax Is the fittest emblem for a confirmed clock-watcher—and the pickax hangs always In the air, never digs out a path for him to advance upon. Juliet's "What's In a name?" might .lie asked regarding the vessels of the 'British navy which have borno the iiames of reptiles. It Is said that four jVlpers have been wrecked, the last of the name but recently, and a Cobra still more lately has broken In two and gone to the bottom with officers and men. Also four Serpents, three Lizards, two Snakes, one Alligator, one Crocodile, one Rattlesnake, one Basi lisk, and two Dragons—which are not reptiles, have at various times met with disaster. Brltlsb tars, It Is said, have a superstitious feeling of dislike against sailing in vessels bearing such names. Lucky or unlucky, the names are need lessly disagreeable. 1 The decision of the Michigan Supreme Court that bicyclists have a right to ride their wheels on the sidewalks un der proper restrictions Is likely to cause a great deal of trouble In Michigan cities and In those of any other State which adopts the principle of the decis ion. If bicycle riding were permitted on the crowded streets In the business sections of a city it would amount to an Intolerable evil. Their total exclu sion from sidewalks of this character Is based upon the principle that the side walks, as their name Implies, were set apart for pedestrians, and that vehicles of any kind which would Interfere with the free and safe use of such sidewalks have no right to be or to be operated there, except as such right or privilege may be granted by the City Council. City Councils have, we believe, been usually disposed to extend this privi lege to Bidewalks through sparsely set tled districts where there were no bicy cle paths and either no pavement or a very bad one. All the Just claims of the bicyclist to the use of the sidewalk when the conditions exclude him from the street can be far better met, with a due regard for the convenience and safety of the pedestrian public, by start ing with the principle that he has no original right there and must get his privilege from the Council, than by as suming that he has an oroglnal right to go there and that the Council can only restrict the manner of Its exercise. We do not believe the Michigan decision will be followed by the courts of other States, or that wheelmen generally will regard it with favor. As a rule they have no use for sidewalks where they are liable to cqme Into collision with pedestrians unless driven to them by the bad condition of the street. Life imprisonment Is at its best punishment so horrible that only sense of its absolute necessity can rec oncile one to the infliction of it upon a a fellow human being. To spend year after year in close confinement, living only In order to wait for death, Is a thought from which the mind recoils, and the strength of the instinct of self preservation 4s nowhere more clearly displayed than in the fact that men are "willing to face this project rather than shorten their tortures by submitting to the noose or the electric chair. If, then, life Imprisonment is in any case terrible to contemplate, bow much is its terror heightened when the person who is con demned to undergo it Is so young aB to make it seem probable that four-fifths of his life will be spent within the pris on walls! Smith Jones, of Warwick County, Indiana, entered upon such a term of detention a few weeks ago. He is at present 13 years old, and has been guilty of so cold-blooded a murder that the Judge who tried his case, conclud ing that he would derive no benefit from the reform school, sent him directly to btate prison, there to remain for the rest of his natural life. If the boy is an ordinary boy, betrayed into an act of murder by sudden impulse, the sentence passed upoir,him is certainly unjustifia ble. A certain number of years in the refoon school would probably send him to the worl^ steady and respon sible citizen. But it seems likely that the boy had shown tendencies that made his reformation Impossible. He was probably what the sociologists call a "degeuerate" and what medical men call a "pervert," with a physical and moral nature so hopelessly diseased that the only possible course of action was to separate him from his fellows and to put him in a place where his de praved instincts, altogether ungovern able under other conditions, might be confined and repressed. It is a life lost, but the loss seems inevitable. The most careful investigation should be made, however, and the boy's case should not be abandoned until it is altogether hope less. The other day a j'oung man, son of a. New Yorker, who left a million-dollar estate, was in court, insisting that he could not pay a judgment of $55G, or, In fact, auy of his debts. He declared that he had been reared in idleness, In an atmosphere of wealth. When his father died he left the son $0,000 a year, and no more. He also left him as help less as a baby, with a mind unstockcd with a single thought that would sell for money in the business world. Mus cle! This young fellow had it, but he couldn't compete with the poorest man In a sewer trench. The ?G,000 was noth ing for a man who belonged to several clubs and associated with people who could buy him and sell him and never feel It Viewed from a moral stand point, he is a good deal of a coward. The man who buys things knowing that he can not pay for them is a swindler. You can uot call him any thing else. If he lias anything moro thau water In his veins he will work. He will dump the clubs and high-living associates and get down to business. He will learn, and find no disgrace in toll. But what of a man who allows his son to grow up iu idleness? It Is an Imposition. It Is not fair. It Is in viting disaster. IIow easily fortunes take flight in this country! There is history for it. The millionaire of to day may be the poor man to-morrow. The moving van backs up iu front of his Btone palace and he goes to live in a tenement. There is nothing certain about riches—uot eveu their paramount desirability. It is often easier to make money than to keep it. The youth who grows to manhood without auy greater idea of the practical side of life than how to order a wine supper or guide an automobile may have to wear his tennis suit In lieu of underwear in chill December, and the world doesn't offer him much sympathy when trouble comes. Every man should teach his boys to do something. His bauk ac count Isn't a part of the issue. The real independence is called trained abil ity, and It Is capital that is always available. Every mau should have some of It, for when he does need it he needs it badly. Miss Anna Lyle lias just completed fifty years of teaching In the Philadel phia schools, forty-one years of that period as principal of a primary school. Mr. Claus Sprecklcs has given $12,000 to the University of California. Mrs. Phoebe Hearst has recently increased her benefactions, in giving Hearst hall, to the amount of $45,000. The experiment Is being tried In a large New York public school of giving the boys shower baths in the basement. The equipment is such that each boy can have a bath once in two weeks—a good deal oftcner than the boys would bathe otherwise. The baths are taken in recess time and the institution Is said to be popular. Among all the noble and magnificent benefactions credited to American men of wealth In recent years, we know of none more wisely and worthily be stowed than that of the late Lewis Elkln, of Philadelphia, who left the bulk of Ills fortune of $2,000,000 in trust to create a fund for the benefit of dis abled women teachers who have taught In the public schools of that city for twenty-five years, and have no means of support. The fund will provide the beneficiaries with an annui ty of about $400 each. The bequest is noteworthy because it Is almost with out precedent. Cleveland feels the burden of the task of introducing free text books Into the schools, having only $40,000 to expend and has been trying to discover how much It cost other cities to Introduce thom. The Introduction cost has been found to be varying, but a fairly uni form average of cost for the main tenance of the system Is GO cents for each pupil, annually. In Cleveland the original expenditure Is estimated at $1.81 for each of the 55,000 grammar pupils If all are given new books at the city's expense. The system, how ever, may be started successfully with the $40,000 In hand if a plan to supple ment the financial deficiency be adopt ed. This plan Is to ask the parents to donate to the schools the text books In their possession, nnd 20,000 of them promptly responded In compliance with the request. Am flushed, Poor Fellow 1 "When does the next train that stops at Montrose leave here?" asked the resolute widow at the booking ofllce window. "You'll have to wait five hours, ma'am." "I don't think so." "Well, perhaps you know better than I do." "Yes, slrl And perhaps you know bet ter than I do whether I aui expecting to travel by that train myself, or whether I'nm Inquiring for a relative that's vis iting at my house! And maybe you think It's your business to stand behind there and try to instruct people about things they know as well as you do, if not better! And prehaps you'll learn some day to give people civil answers when they ask you civil questions, youug man but my opinion Is you won't!" "Yes, ma'am!" gasped the booking clerk.—London Answers. Occupations In Norway. Sixty per cent of the population of Norway live by agriculture, 15 per cent by manufacturing and lumbering, 10 per cent by commerce and trade, 5 per cent by mining, and the remainder are in the professions and the army and navy and engaged In different employ ments. Wages of Railway Employes. The New Zealand Government Is rais ing the wages of its railway employes to the extent of $100,000. BWi piw-r INGENIOUS INSTRUMENT FOR *0MAKING SOIL EXPERIMENTS. The division of soils of the United States Department of Agriculture has Just described a new instrument now in use for investigating the properties of soils. This is a great time and labor saving apparatus, giving accurate and reliable results, which otherwise would require mouths to obtain. The physical properties of soils are recognized by plant physiologists to be of the greatest Importance in plant economy. Even in the consideration of climatic conditions it is now generally considered that for most plants the con ditions of the soil hold equal rank with atmospheric conditions. A high tem perature in the soil under favorable conditions promotes extensive root de velopment a high atmospheric temper ature under equally favorable condi tions favors a heavy growth of foliage. A deficiency in water of either air or soil is attended with distress. The new apparatus as devised by the division of soil is an electric affair. It registers a half-dozen or more various soil properties. This method depends upon the principle that the resistance offered to the passage of an electric current from one carbon plate to an other burled In the soil depends upon the amount of moisture present be tween the carbon plates or electrodes. This resistance Is measured. The illustration shows the instrument as used in the field, with the carbon electrodes and temperature cells in place. The carbon electrodes and tem perature cells may be burled in the soil at the beginning of the season and re- THE NEGRO MOSES. Booker T. Washington'. Career from Slavery Up. Brooker T. Washington, whose enter tainment by the President created na tion-wide comment, is a fine example of that much abused term, the self made man. He was born at Hall's Ford, Vn., about 1858. He was a slave until freed by the emancipation proc lamation and never knew who was his father. lie was named Booker Talia ferro, probably because there were many prominent people In tile common wealth by that name, but the name Washington he took after he became free. As a child he was buffeted about main undisturbed throughout the year. The moisture record obtained conse quently deals with the variation In moisture contents In the same portion of soil. This Is one of ilie advantages of the method, since It has been shown that the moisture contents of a seem ingly uniform soil may vary as much as 4 per cent within an area of one square rod. Consequently In order to obtain consistent record of the change in water It is nceessnry to deal with the same sample of soil, which can only be done by this electrical method. The scale of the Instrument is ar ranged on decimal plan, so that the various soil properties can bo deter mined directly upon the scale of the Instrument. It was observed by Prof. Whitney that soil areas of the Connecticut Vnl ley were practically Identical as re gards texture and water content with certain areas In Florida upon which the finest of cigar wrappers are being raised from Sumatra seed. Experi ments were accordingly made on one of the Connecticut areas, using the same seed and methods of cultivation and curing employed In Florida, with the most satisfactory results. Should the moro extensive experi ments ii*'iv In progress support the ear lier work, as there Is every reason to expect, the result will be to Increase greatly the area adapted to the growth of the finest quality of cigar wrappers known, and there will be raised in this country tobacco now imported to the ninount of $0,000,000 annually. be the finest collection ever obtained on active service. Over a thousand specimens of West African birds, killed by himself and his native collector during the campaign in Ashanti, were brought back by Lieut Alexander. "This is the biggest collection of birds ever brought out of Africa at one time," he said to a London Mail repre sentative. "I have been collecting in Africa now for nine or ten years. One lias to be a specialist nowndays. "It is a pity that the government docs not Insist on officers In out-of-the-way parts of the world collecting birds and other things. The German officers do Si (m BOOKER T. WASHINGTON AND FAMILY. in drudgery and want. As the property of the Maiden family lie probably had more comfort in the "nigger quarters" than in the poorhouse to which his mother took him in West Virginia. There as a mere child he worked in the salt furnaces and then in the mines. While working in the mines and fur naces the child had a chance to get a few moiitbs of schooling every year, but he secured employment with a New England woman and had an opportun ity to attend night school, and then and at odd times "between jobs" he worked and studied until 1873, when he started for Hampton School, of which he had heard much. Out of the $0 a month which the woman for whom he worked paid him for his services his savings were small, and when he reached Rich mond on his way to Hampton he had to go to work to get enough money to make himself presentable at the insti tution. But he became the star pupil of the place, and was graduated with honors, although he worked his way through. After spending a little while in his old home and teaching school he returned to Hampton as a teacher, and then started the institution at Tuskc gee, Ala., which will always be a no table monument to his energy and his helpful work in the iutercst of his race. The college was started In 1881 in a shanty. The idea of a higher school for blacks in that part of the country caused amusement. But to-day the Tuskegee College has 40 buildings on its 2,300 acres of land, and 1,200 pupils, representing 27 States, are being taught in the institution. A new hospital is building, a Carnegie library is under way and a new dormitory, the gift of John D. Rockefeller, will soon become a part of the institution. The students receive Instruction uot only in the or dinary school brauclics, but iu 28 in dustries, each pupil selecting the one for which he is bested fitted or toward which he has the greatest inclination. "I formed a resolution," Washington says iu one of his writings, "that I would try to build up a school that would be of so much service to the country that the President of the United States would one day come to see it. This was a bold resolution, and for a number of years I kept it hidden in my own thoughts, not daring to share it with anyone." This dream was realized, and the visit of President Mc Kinley and his Cabinet to the sclfool in December, 1898, is the brightest spot iu the history of the institution. In 1800 Harvard University conferred a degree on hiiu and among those similarly hon ored then were CJen. Miles and Bishop Vincent. MILITARY AIDS TO SCIENCE. British and German OiQccra Send Home Valuable Specimens. Lieut. Boyd Alexander, lifie brigade, who Is well known at South ICeusing ton (London) museum for his studies of birds in Africa, has just returned from the west coast with what is believed to )ii [V so already. The colonial office at Berlia obliges all its officers to collect natural history specimens whether they like it or not, and though their work is in many cases rough and ready it is bet ter than nothing. "We know very little about the birds in the great bend of the Niger and Hausaland, and absolutely nothing of those in the regions around Lake Chad and Darfur. There is not a doubt that when these great areas come under in vestigation it will bo found that one great zoographical region exists from northeastern Africa right across to the west coast. When 1 have finished ex amining my collection of birds they may throw considerable light on the subject. "Marching with the relief force to Ivumasi I left my native collector at Prahsu, where ho formed the uucleus of tlie collection. As the country be came more settled he gradually worked his way up to Kumasi, making collec tions at each station on the lines of communication." Seared by a lawyer's Card. A Newark lawyer was sitting In his office when Mrs. B., a friend, entered, and proceeded to tell him of the diffi culty a Mr. C. was in through a loan he had made to Mr. D. Mr. C. was in great need of the money, but Mr. D. refused to return the sum, which was quite a large one. "I think," said Mrs. B. to the lawyer, "that if you should take hold of the case you could collect the money." "All right," said the barrister, think ing of the neat little fee that would be Ills after lie had succeeded in inducing Mr. D. to part with the sum claimed by Mr. C. "I'll give you one of my cards to hand to Mr. C. If he will step in and see ine I'll handle the case for him." Shortly afterward the lawyer left the city for a few days' outing In the coun try. On his return he inquired of Mrs. B. what had become of Mr. C. and his claim against Mr. D. "Oh, lhat'p all settled," replied the woman. Mr. C. said he just went to Mr. 1)., showed him your card, and said lie had retained you In the case. Mr. I), paid the money at once." Now the lawyer Is wondering where his prospective fee is coming in. Ho believes he has a good case against Mr. C. for about 1 per cent of the amount of Mr. C.'s loan, but has not decided whether to press the case or not.—New ark News. A Daugerous Man. "Papa has forbidden you to come to the house. Ho says you are a daugerous man." "Dangerous! What can he mean?" "He says you are the kind of a man who will bang around a girl all her life and never marry her."—Life. A man's head is so turned by a wom an in his courtship days that after he marries it revolves around so rapidly In untwisting that it Je likely to come off. RAILROADS' PROSPEROUS YEAR. Fiftyfonr Millions iu Earnings—Most Lines Show Satisfactory Results* For Iowa's railroad service there has been paid out during the past, year the sum of $54,357,804.38. Ia other word*, a tax of about $18 per capita on the basis of the State's population has been turned over for the support of railroad traffic in Iowa. The money received from the entire corn crop of Iowa for the year 1001 would just about foot the bill. The sum of $54,357,894.38 repre sents the gross earnings of the thirty railroads operating in Iowa during the past year, while tbe sum of $18,030, 099,09 represents the net income of the roads after operatiug expenses are de ducted for the year. Tbe aunual report of the State Board of Railroad Commissioners this year will si/0w an increase of over two million dollars in the gross earnings of Iowa rail roads during the past year. It will also show an increase of over $000,000 in the net earnings of Iowa roads for the same perhvl. Though the report will show a slight reduction in the number of em ployep on the different roads, there will be a substantial increase in the amount of wages paid. Enough new line lias been built within the State during the past year to bring the trackage up very near to the 10,000 mile mark. Accident statistics have nut changed materially. The Northwestern road heads the list with an increase of $842,431.00, followed by the Milwaukee with a gain of $588, 0(12.30, aud the Itoek Island with $381, 905.10. The Dubuque and Sioux City road is not far behind the Rock Islaud, its showing being $340,085.50. The Great Western with $183,595.39, the Minneapo lis and St. Louis with $140,074.14 ant! the Wabash with $120,440.05 show tli6 next largest Increase. Large decreases are reported by the Burlington, Cedar Rapids and Northern, the Chicago, Bur lington aud Quiney, the Iowa Central aud the Union Pacific. These range from about $200,000 down to $20,000 and less. The net earnings of the Iowa roads increased in the sum of $019,245.90, or from $17,420,253.10 to $18,039,499.09 The total deficit reported by four roads including the Wabash aud three smaller ones, amounts to $207,107.58, thus mak ing tlie net increase in net earnings really but $352,138.41. The Wabash, in spite of its large increase in gross earnings, has reported a deficit of $101,149.10, nearly four times as large a deficit as it reported a year ago. The Milwaukee heads the list of in creases in net earnings with a gain of $708,505.93. The Northwestern follows with an increase ot $309,340.00. The Minneapolis aud St. Louis, the Omaha and St. Louis aud the Mason City and Fort Dodge all report good increases. While the Wabash is the only trunk line reporting a deficit, the Burlington, Cedar Rapids and Northern, the Chicago, Bur lington and Quiney, the Great Western, the Rock Island and the Iowa Central roads all report decreases in net earnings from last year. IOWA BANKERS ALARMED. An Kpidemic of Jobberies of Small Institutions. The recent series of bauk robberies in Iowa has thoroughly alarmed the bank ers of the State and steps are being taken to guard the smaller banks of the State and.also to secure special detec tives to work on the ease. The robbers have left a number of clues and good de scriptions of men supposed to be the robbers have been furnished those iu au thority. The recent robberies in Iowa witli the amounts secured are as follows: Bauk of Hinton $l,fi00 Matlock bauk L',000 Bank of Salix, uo los* Farmers' bunk, SUellsburg 1,000 Private bank at Arlspe 400 Hardy bank 1,000 Bank of lludd 1.C00 Bank of H'lxley 750 Bank of Plymouth 1,500 Bauk of Greenville After the robbery of the bank last named, the robbers were pursued and one of them killed. Two others surren dered to the olllcers. The amount of the loss at Greenville is not given. It is believed the robberies have been by one gang, which is the first time any organized gang has operated iu the State for several years. Previous losses by bauks in the last six years were as fol lows: Bank of Klkport 850 Saving* bank at Sheldahl UTS Farmers' aud Merehuuts' bauk at loutowu 1,823 Commercial bank, Ulppey 1,757 State bauk, Ellsworth tf,800 State Savlugs bauk, Gait 1,015 Bank of Lorliuer 400 Farmers' bauk, luwood 1,(138 K. Bourquliu & Co., New Hartford.... 150 Botnu Valley State bauk, Hastings.. 2,185 Badger Saving* bank u-iO TUor Savings bank 2,732 Stute bank, Hlairsburg €,©30 Bradley's bauk, lCldon C.ifOO Hardy bank (1805) 700 First National bauk. Grlswoid........ 650 Milton Bros.. ISurlvllle CO Adel State bauk, unknown Lehigh Valley bank, unknown Hope for lown War Claim*. There is hope for the Iowa treasury yet on account of those old war claims that Capt. Lothrop dug up last winter. The court of claims recently passed on the claim of the State of Pennsylvania and awarded that State $000,000. The case «*!W identical with that of Iowa in every way except possibly on the score of the statute of limitations. The Pennsylva nia claims were filed long ago. It is pos sible that sonic or all of the Iowa claims have beeu outlawed by neglect, but un less this is so it is morally certain that Iowa will get. about $700,000 from the general government. This will make the Iowa treasury ovcrllow—jiud yet there are ways iu which the $700,000 can be spent to good advantage. The Next LegU'nture* Ou joint ballot the Twenty-uiuth Gen eral Assembly of Iowa, which meets the second Monday in January, will stand as follows: Mouse, Republicans 85, Senate 39, total 124 Democrats, IIousc 15, Sen ate 11. total 20 Republican majority 98. Two years ago the Democrats had nine teen members of the House ami sixteen members of the Senate, making thirty five altogether, aud the Republican ma jority was eighty. An)/)i)if Our Neighbors. The posWllicc at I£nod has hocn dis continued mall to Bedford. There ate three petitions ou file for free rural tuail delivery out of Canton. A postofllce has been established at Lahoyt, with Emerson G. Glover us post master. John Kit^burg. a superintendent in the Lehigh mi.ies, near Webster City, was instantly killed by falling from the top of the shtft to a platform, ouc hundred feet below. Burglary gained an cutrnuce to the store of W. C. Kruiick at Corniug and stole about $50 worth of furs and gloves. There is no clue to the whereabouts of the robbers. Compauy A of the Twenty-fifth Iowa, held a reunion at the residence of Col. D. J. Palmer at Washington. Col. Palmer led this regiment to the front during the Civil War. Father P. Laurent, pastor of St. Mat thews* Church at Muscatiue, has just celebrated the fiftieth anniversary of his pastorate. Stephen E. Roberts was found dead while uittiug upright in a chair at Ply mouth. Death is supposed to have been due to heart diseuse. Fish Commissioner Lincoln has notified the authorities st Boone that he will place a car load of fish in the Boone river at that place. Gov. Shaw has issued commissions to G. EL Van Houten and Wesley Green* of Des Moines, as additional members of the Louisiana Purchase commistioo tram Iowa* .&• ''I' Balicoclc ou the Tariff* Representative Babcoek, of Wiscon sin, liaa just returned from Europe, enthusiastic over his tariff plan. It will be remembered that before he crossed the ocean he cast a bombshell Into the Republican camp, of which he Is one of the burnlug aud shining lights, which caused no end of conster nation among the faithful, by advocat ing a tariff reform that borders on free trade. Since his return Representa tive Babcock is quoted In an Interview In tbe Milwaukee Sentinel as saying: "I want to see the Republican party abreast of the times, dealing with pres ent conditions, and uot grown moss back like the democracy.' How his party may preserve Itself from decay he explains In detail, and his views probably Indicate the at tempted line of action of the progres sive wing of the Republican party In the next session of Congress. "When any article can be manufactured in the United States cheaper than anywhere else," he says, "and is an article of ex port, the duty produces no revenue and affords no protection, but simply en ables those who secure control to' make such prices as they see Dt In the do mestic market up to a point where It can be imported." Therefore, Mr. Babcock persists In his plan of at tempting to put steel on the free list. He was confirmed In his belief by what he saw In his recent trip abroad. While he was In Dublin one concern there ordered 20,000 tons of steel from the United States at a price of $5 per ton less than It could have obtained the metal for in Great Britain. "This is no mere selling of our surplus In a foreign market," Mr. Babcock says, "but It Is dominating the world's mar ket. And yet they yell for protection." Naturally conditions have made It im possible for Europe to compete with the United States in the producing of steel. Mr. Babcock sees no reason for the federal government to help United States steel trust under such circum stances. But, however, much beauty the Wis consin congressman may sec In free trade In steel, that lusty Infant, the steel trust, will not admire It, and will kick like a giant against taking away Its power to levy a heavy tribute upon the consumers of Its product In this country. And Mr. Babcock will find that ho has raised an Issue which. If he can carry his plan through success fully, will split his party up tho mid dle. It is true Congressman Babcoek de clares that he is still a protectionist, but he defines protection as "the fos tering of Industries In their Infancy." That "gag" however, won't work with the gang that provides the grease for keeping the Republican machine in mo tion. What the robber tariffitcs want Is the legal right to rob and plunder, and If that is taken away from them, they will cut off the supply of boodle and then, where, oh where, will be the g. o. p.? This Is a sad outlook for the Repub lican party. Mr. Babcock, however, contemplates It with equanimity, and holds that It gives his party a rare op portunity to take advanced grounds. So It does. It gives the Republicans the opportunity to step up right along side of the Democrats In the advocacy of tariff reform, a position the Dem ocrats have held for* a generation—tho champions of the old Jeffersoulau doc trine that was put Into operation be fore the war and under which the sails of United States commerce whitened the seas of every quarter of the globe, and their flag waved In every civilized port. Undoubtedly Mr. Babcock has point ed out the right way to relieve the peo ple of this country of robbery and op pression by trusts aud robber tariffites generally. But will the party follow his directions? Not If tho steel trust aud other tariff robbers can help it, and they think they can.—Illinois Register. Anarchism or. Partisan.lilp* Is there really any danger to thii country from anarchism? We mean anarchism in Its proper sense of opposl Hon to all government—the theory that government In any form Is wrong and unnecessary. There Is a broader and less correct Idea connected with the term In much of its ordinary use—a sense of mere lawlessness—but anar chism Is a theory, a principle, and not the mere outbreak of Individual pas sion or resistance to restraint Iu a sense anarchism Is lawlessness, but not ail lawlessness is anarchism. It may seem Idle to ask this question on this day, when an anarchist dies for tho-assassination of tlie President of the United States, but let us consider. We have had three Presidents assassin ated In tills country, but only one of tliem by an anarchist. The other assas sinations were by partisans. Ot course tliey were not sustained In their action by the parties or factions with which they affiliated, as the anarchist is, but the underlying motive which urged them to their crimes was partisan feel lng. Booth was uot an anarchist. He did not believe that government was essen tially bad. His theory was that Lin coln's government was tyrannical. It was ail insane thought that prompted nil Insane deed, but It may well be ques tioned that any man who Is worked up to the crime of assassination is really sane. Gultcau was not an anarchist What he wanted was not the absence of government but a different control of government. There have been other assassinations than those of Presidents in tills country, and other attempted as sassinations. Where can you point to ouc that was due to anarchism? Anarchism is not a uatural product of a free country. It Is the fruit of repres sion. Given a free press aud free speech, men may voice their real or Imagined wrongs and learn from the opinions of their fellow-men that they are uot such victims as they lmaglue. But stille expression, suppress freedom of thought and speech, make those who think they have cause for complaint gather in secret places and whisper their grievances to those who sympa thize, and you have the basis for anar chism. The natural tendency In such case is to consider those who suppress complaint as the Immediate authors of. the evils complained of. Any Individual can readily see the evils of the vice of others, but not the evils of his own vices. The gamester may loathe drunkenness, but he sees no harm In gambling. So wltb nations. American detestation of anarchism Is so universal because anarchism Is for eign. It Is not a native product. But \merlcans do not see so clearly tbe ,, t,t, uS'% ft Jf?t? N| evils of Intense partisanship, because it Is their own defect And moderate par tisanship Is not an evil. It Is almost es sential to popular government It Is intemperance in this, as In many other things, that deserves condemnation. No sane man can consider the partisanship of Kentucky admirable or beneficial, even though It shows a dangerous ten dency to spread.—Indianapolis Sentinel. Panama vs. Nicaragua Within tbe last few days we have had more thau one Intimation from Washington that a majority of tbe members of the Walker Isthmian canal commission are In favor of the Panama "route. One correspondent goes so far as to say that the report of the commission will give a decided preference to that route. Another, who probably comes nearer to the mark, says that for obvi ous reasons the commission will ab stain from making any recommenda tion. or that at most It will content It self with supplementing the presenta tion of facts with tho suggestion that It would bo well to take over tho Pan ama canal If the company would accept a reasonable price—say $50,000,000. The principal reasons given for pre ferring the Panama route are that It Is free from tho treacherous shoalB and violent winds of Lake Nicaragua and from the difficulties which must be en countered In securing a safe and per manent channel through the San Juan river. There are Indeed river difficul ties on both routes, but those on the Nicaragua route the commission, it Is understood, find to be much more se rious. Another reason sometimes given Is because the Panama portion of tbe Isthmus Is' much less subject to seis mic disturbances. Still another rea son is that the Columbian government Is more friendly and more disposed to make satisfactory terms than are the governments ot Nicaragua and Costa Rica. These considerations are not likely to prevail with Congress. The fact whlcb probably will bave most weight Is that the distance between the east and west coasts of the United States Is consid erably less by the Nicaragua route. The time would be less, though the time consumed In passing through the canal would be greater. For commercial purposes It may yet be found that the Tehuantepee route Is the best, and a translsthmlan canal may never pay, In the commercial sense. But for the transference of our warships from one ocean to the other a canal Is Indispensable and may prove to be of the highest Importance. This is likely to be' regarded as a vlr.il consideration, not for commercial reasons, perhaps, but for military rea sons. While, therefore, much may be said lu Congress about the comparative com mercial merits of the two canal routes, much more will be thought about their military merits. Senator Morgan Is right, no doubt, In assuming that the Nicaragua route Is the only one to be seriously thought of. —Chicago Chronicle. Men Cannot Be Made Loyal by I.awa. The Philippine Commission having found that soft words do not turn away the wrath of the natives, who want their liberty, and not hypocritical smiles and fair promises, has drafted an act against treason and sedition. It Is drastic 111 its nature, and Is ex pected doubtless to awe the Filipinos Into accepting the government provided for them without their consent. The act provides that death shall be the penalty for treason, and Is framed to include those persons giving aid and comfort to the Insurgents as guilty of treason. Persons who utter seditious words or speeches, or who write libels against the United States or the Insular government are punishable by Impos ing a fine of ¥2,000 or two years' impris onment for breaking the oath of alle giance a fine of $2,000 or Imprison ment for ten years is Imposed. For eigners are placed under the same law as the Americans and natives. Such a law If administered with fairness, would be tyrannical, but administered as it wlU be without regard to the kind of evidence against alleged viola tors, and as a weapon of "forcible as similation" It Is oppression of tbe most despotic character. But it Is just the kind of law the Imperialists believe in, and would like to have enacted in this country, and then construed to sup press free speech aud a free press. The Iron hand of tyranny Is tbe preferred method of Imperialism to establish and sustain Its unholy purposes. It will not be long before there will be an effort made, under one pretext or another, to curtail the liberties of freemen here by laws similar to those this despotic com mission is promulgating in the Philip pines. The Czar of the Russlas never promulgated anything more arbitrary and unjust than tills ukase of the Phil ippine Commission. Hundreds of Inno cent people will be put to death or thrown Into prison to rot, under the workings of this law. It ought to be abrogated by Congress. It will create nothing but contempt In the hearts ol the Filipinos for this country, and will strengthen rather than allay the antag onisms that exist to the government that Is being forced upon tlie people. No vindictive law ever made men loynl. In order to make men loyal to a gov ernment they must be led to respect it If this treason and sedition law Is car ried Into effect In the Philippines in the spirit In which It has been passed we may expect more frequent outbreaks than ever, with more serious conse quences,—Illinois Register. Young Men at tho Head of Colleges. The youngest college president Is said to be John II. McCracken, who, at 25, presides over Westminster College, at Fulton, Mo., while Ills father, Henry M. McCracken, Is the executive head of New York University. Jerome Hall Raymond, president of the University of West Virginia, was elected to that ofllce when 28 years old. President Boothe Colwell Davis of Alfred Uni versity, New York, was elected when 82 years old. Rev. Burrls A. Jenkins was two years younger wl.eu lie be came president of the University of Indianapolis. Dr. Daniel E. Jenkins, president of Parsons College, Iowa, was just 80 years of age when he took the place, In 1806. Dr. Jacob Gould Bchurman was 88 years old when he went to preside over Cornell Univer sity.—Success. Gen. William 3. Palmer has given TOO acres of ground as a municipal park for Colorado Springs. MliKi MONKEYS DEGENERATE MEN. Profeeaor Haeckel Gives Out New Evolution Theory* That Professor Ernst Haeckel, the distinguished Gormau naturalist, and the world's greatest living advocate of ihe blo'.oglcal the ory of evolution, has' reversed hl» views of half a century and taken a stand with Prof. Itudolf Vlrchow In opposition to Dar» 1 1 Is the startllngannounce moiit made In liisxsr- liAi-cKKL. Paris. It Is stated that during his expedition to Java, begun last year, Trof. Haeckel has found striking evidence In support ot the theory, advanced for the first time only a few months ago by Vlr chow, that monkeys are descended from man, and not man from monkeys. That, In fact, monkeys are nothing less than degenerated humans. Ernst Haeckel, now professor ot zoology at Jena University, was the first distinguished scientist to fully ac cept Darwin's theory when the "Origin of Species" was published. The scien tific world was trembling on the brink ot the revolution he caused later by the publication of "The Descent of Man," when Haeckel anticipated Dar win In his most far-reaching conclu sions, and In a measure prepare*} the world for the startling doctrines hinted at In tbe "Origin of Species" and fully promulgated In "The Descent ot Man." Since then Haeckel lias been the moat advanced among the evolutionists. He has long asserted that the history of man Is complete In all Its essential de tails, and that all that now remains to be done Is to fill In here and there su«b concrete evidence as zoological and paleontologlcal research shall reveal. In his "Systematic Phylogeny," a monumental work In three volumes, he made a theoretic systematic arrange ment of the vegetable and animal worlds living and extinct on tbe baals of the law of evolution. Tbe work haa been called a vast pedigree tree, with man at tlie top and the lowest non nucleated cell at the bottom. In this pedigree there were no empty or un accounted spaces. Haeckel construct ed hypothetical animals and organisms, and to lilm, In theory, there was no missing link. Twenty-five years before the discov ery ot Dubois' pithecanthropus Haeckel had foreseen In his phylogeny Buch a creature, and he had christened it "pith ecanthropus allalus," or the apelike man before language. He gave to It a place midway in the order of life be tween the highest ape and the lowest human. In 1890 Dr. Eugene Dubois, a Dutch army physician, traveling in Java, un earthed the fossil remains of a hitherto undiscovered creature. There were only a thigh bone, two molar teeth, and a cranium. Scientists hailed the creature reconstructed theoretically from these few fossilized bones as the veritable missing link. The size of the cranium showed that tlie creature had cranial capacity for exactly 1,000 c. M. 3, as against the cranial capacity of the high est known gorilla of 05 c. M. 3, and tbe cranial capacity of the lowest form of human, the Veddah woman of Ceylon or tlie bushinan of Australia, with 1300 c. M. 3. Tbe thigh bone and teeth were those of a fully developed human of medium height. Dubois called his discovery tbe pithe canthropus erectus, or the apelike man. Scientists- differed as to the origin of tbe pithecanthropus, and tbe late Prof. Cope, of tbe University of Pennsyl vania, was of the opinion that It was a species of the homo neanderthalensls, and about 17.000 years old. To- Haeckel tlie discovery was of Im mense importance. In September, last year, he organized a small expedition and set out for Java in the hope of mak ing fresh discoveries. corroborative of Ills systematic phylogeny. He, with all other scientists who had Investigated Dubois' discovery, regarded the pithe canthropus as having indisputable vis ual evidence of one of the most import ant steps in the evolution of man. "If Prof. Haeckel has made any such discovery," said Dr. Edgar Grant Conk lin, professor of zoology at the Univer sity of Penusylvnnla. "or If he has re cantcd his former multitudinous writ ings and lecturlngs sufficiently to make auy such statement It means tliat-one of the most remarkable revolutions In biological science has taken place. If he lias made discoveries there," contin ued Prof. Conklln, having explained Uaeckel's position with regard to evo lution, "which would cnuse him to re verse all his established views, to re cant the preachings of a busy and a long lifetime, they must be of an im portance I cannot pretend to calculate." Paid Teachers for Bunday Schools. For the purpose of reaching ultimate ly an Ideal Sunday school—one In which every officer and teacher Is an expert there lias been set ou foot in the Church of the Holy Communion, New York, a movement which Is designed to work out this end. It is proposed to create an ediicatlonal endowment fund of $100,000, the Interest of which shall be used to pay the educational experts who shall teach the teachers, to pay the heads of departments iu the school, and to compensate, so far as possible, all teachers who will acccpt remuneration, provided that they can demonstrate their fitness, based upon preparation, conforming to established standard of requirement.—Saturday Evening Post Small Pay for Ivan Ivanovltch. The Russian soldier is wretchedly paid. He Is the worst paid soldier In Europe, aud, therefore, has a very hard time during his four years of service, unless his good folks at home are In clined to be generous. The Infantry soldier is paid about 10 cents a month, and the cavalry soldier only little more. Sergeants receive about 50 cents a month, aud young officers from $15 to $50, according to their regiments. The higher officers are also very poorly paid by comparison to officers of rank In oth er armies.—Pearson's Magazine. Accumulative Wealth. "I suppose," said the Inquisitive tour ist, "that tlie wealth ot this country la in the soil." "I reckon It is," replied the poor farm er, "I don't know nobody hereabouts thet ever got any out of It, so I reckon It's still tliar."—Philadelphia Press. Switzerland's Export ol' Watches. Switzerland's export of watches last year broke the rec-onl. It consisted of 2,300,420 nickel watches, S,086,777 sil ver and 800.258 gold watches, besides nearly 7.000 chronographs and repeat- No, Iudeed! "No' news is good news.'" some folks say, Ajid yet we can't conceive It Is likely they could make, to-day, An editor believe It. •-Philadelphia Press, I ri-*- "1-.