IMPROVED LABOB CONDITIONS.
By Vice President Fairbanks.
There has been during the pnst
few years a very noticeable Im
provement In labor conditions. Tbls
bas been due In a large degree to
the perfection and Influence of la
bor organizations and to tbe co
operation of many thousands who
have believed that the Improvement
of the conditions of labor was a
matter of the very first'lmportanco
to the great,body of our citizenship,
c. w. junuiAaKB. such gratifying Improvement Is duo"
to a wide discussion of labor's Interests and to the edu
cation of the people as to Its condition and as to Its real
and Just needs.
In the earlier days those who advocated an Improve
ment of tbe conditions of labor and sought to enact laws
for Its protection were regarded by many as agitators,
ai encroaching upon certain vested or natural rights of
employers. Much progress has been made since then.
The reforms which have been effected and which are
now generally regarded as Just, the Improvement of con
ditions In many hazardous undertakings for the protec
tion of the persons and lives of operatives, the Improve
ment of Insanitary Conditions which surrdund many
places of labor and other Improvements are proof of the
wisdom of organized effort and of discussion.
SCOPE OF HAN'S WORK.
By Pro!. Kenyan L. ButterSeld.
Tfie sharp distinction sometimes drawn be
tween vocational studies and culture studies
Is already being modified. Some time it may
be obliterated. Probably we shall have a new
definition .of culture. At any rate,, vocation
hereafter Is to be glorified not only for what it
contributes to national and Individual pros
perity, but for its educational possibilities.
Vocation is not merely technique. It Is not
merely breadwlnnlng. At Its best it Is a form of social
service In which tbe whole man is engaged. It relates
Itself to most of the individual demands for growth find
even more vitality to the social demands of fmnlly and
of state and of civil society. Hence we shall discover
a wny-of making vocational training also a liberal traln-
-Man looked upon the sky by night,
••. And loved :its -tender azure, bright
rWith many a softly beaming light
And tang his Maker'* praises.
"Tbe sun declares-Thee in Thy dread
But from the Wars" Thy peace Is shed:
Would that'"by day they comforted!"
.. God heard .and made the daisies.
All In a firmament of green
Thefr golden orbs now float, serene,
Twinkling with rays of silvery tfheen,
To comfort him who gazes.
When Alzora Dunn had shaken the
dust of Brattlevllle^ from her feet—
literally, for It was a hot, dry summer
—and departed for Chicago, Gus Mitch
ell of course had been at the railroad
station .to see her off.
BrattlevlUe boasted only 700mhablt
ants and the celluloid collar was. still
regarded with favor In Its "society cir
cles. Around his ccllulold collar Gus
wore a narrow black string tie with
crumpled ends and there iwas a photo
graph button of Alzora in the lapel of
his coat Be also had abalone shell
cuff links. ..In spite of this he had a
good, square jaw and a look in his
eyes that a woman could trust. 'He
bad a. heroic smile on his face as be
crushed Alzora's fingers: at. parting.
"Sou're sure, Zory?" .he asked, a
trifle tremulously. "There Isn't any
hope for me? You don't care?"
For an instant Alzora Dunn, her yel-'
low balr shining In the sun, her pretty,
frivolous face pink with the excitement
of her departure, felt a sudden qualm.
Ever since she could remember Gus
bad tagged around, after ber. Of
course she liked him—but marry him,
Of late she had felt that she was
born to shine In higher circles. The
letters of a girl friend who had gone to
Chicago and was a clerk in the store
.where a position now awaited Alzora
had caused her to look at Brattleville
with scornful eyes. She shuddered to
think that she might still be stupidly
measuring ribbons In Gus Mitchell's
father's general store ,had It not been
for Carrie's letters.
When Alzora spoke to Gus at parting
It was as from a great height, bending
down to one in a lowly rut, one for
whom she had a friendly, pitying re
'*No, Gus,' she said. "I like you and
all that—but I don't love you
The train whistle*^ long as It spun
across the bridge.' As Gus Mitchell
stood watching It with a lump In his
throat he thought of Alzora at picnics,
at parties. In his buggy, laughing up
at blm. Be bad felt she cared for him
and it came hard.'
Alzora rarely thought of Gus the first
few weeks In Chicago. The newness,
the excitement, the .rush dominated her
entirely, and underneath ran the cur
rent of expectation. Hadn't a girl at
the wiblte gpods counter upstairs mar
ried only the previous week a traveling
man who made $2,000 a year. There
were six in Alzora's family and never
had her father's income exceeded $900.
Only two—and $1,000 each to spend!
Not that Alzora was distinctly mer
cenary, but such things were like fairy
-tales to her.
It was not long before the floorwalk
er in her department began finding that
the best vantage point for him was
near Alzora's counter. At first It made
her nervous, for the girls stood rather
In awe of blm. Then her coquetry as
serted Itself when she found tfine times
out of ten that if she looked up he
was looking at her.
"Gee. Hatton's struck, Isn't he?"
Carrie said to her at last "Never no
ticed a girl before—too stuck-up for us!
He can't keep his eyes off you I"
Alzora blushed. Hatton was very
tall and stiff, like a clothier's dummy,
and wore marvelous collars and won
derful neckties. No one would ever
connect the Idea of abalone shell cuff
links wltbJIilm. One knew by Instinct
that hewope links of plain-sold. He
had beautiful pink'finger nails. He
looked like the heroes In the paper
novels Alzora bad read as a school
girl, and when it came about that he
got Introduced and called upon her she
was very happy.
She remembered Gus only as belong
ing to some far-off hazy existence that
made ber shuddei to recall, because
HE HAD BEAUTIFUL FINK FINGEB NAILS.
roseate dreams as to what she would
do when she was Mrs. Hatton. It
meant a six-room flat at least and a
girl and anew tailor suit twice a year
and gloves to match, always.
When Gus wrote she put his letters
aside and neglected to answer them.
She could think of npthing to say.
It was qnlte by accident one day that
Alzora went Into the stockroom just be
fore closing time and across the room
saw Mr. Button seize a small boy in
overalls' who had stumbled against
blm. He shook the boy violently, cuffed
his ears and swore at ktm, then in his
hurry stumbled over a box-and swore
some more. His face was black and
ugly. He flushed as he met Alzora and
SOME CHINESE HILLS ABB CBUDE
Beana or Grain Damped Into Hollow
PlM. of SlMonry and Rolled.
China in the Interior of the empire
presents many odd sights to the trav
eler. In some_ sections the mills for
the grinding of cereals, while not up
lng. Agriculture Is to be amply reeognlzjed^ii the schools.
If-agriculture, properly defined and tfiughtiis efficient
educational material, both city and 'COvtatry boy may
profit by It, the one because he will renchaiuiowledge
of and a sympathy with nature not easily secured in any
other way, the other because he Is utilizing his environ
ment—physical, Industrial and social—as a means of
"PINK TEA" DIPLOMACY.
By Spencer Eddy, V. S. Minister to Argentina.
The old conception placed on diplomacy by
of European and Amer
ican plants, are fairly well equipped,
but far Inland, where the forces of
civilization have not made material
headway, the "mills" present a ludi
crous sight to the one familiar wltb
the 12,000-barrel plants in the flour
centers of the United States.
Grinding beans In tbe interior of
Americans is fast disappearing. It has not
been so many years back since the impres
sion prevailed that a diplomatic post was noth
ing more than a medium through which our
country maintained Its social entente cordlale
with other nations. And this interpretation
of the functions of the office was held also
by the men In the service themselves. But
men of pink t$a proclivities are no longer wanted in the
A school for Instruction for those who wish, to enter
tbe service, conducted on the lines of some Institution
like West Point or Annapolis, would raise tbe standard
of American diplomatists still further. It ls impossible
for a youngster to jump Into the field anil compete with"
older heads, but with three years of hard training in
such a school be would be fully qualified for the work
LACK OF POLICE SUPERVISION.
By President Bllot of Harvard.
In no other civilized country of
the world is there such absence of
effective police supervision as in the
bas no strong arm.
it grated on ber nerves. Mr. Hatton
always said "one" does so-and-B6 in
stead of "you" no matter how many
times it occurred In a sentence, and he
called Alzora "dear child." He took
her to the theatei- once a week and
"You're a perfect wonder," Carrie
told' her, enviously. "It's because you're
so pretty I Copping out a swell one
like that the first thing I Wouldn't he
howl at Oust Ah, my! Think of Gus
and Mr. BattonI"
Alzora laughed, but she felt ashamed
of herself because she remembered that
look In Gus' eyes, but she dreamed
United States. One must say that
there is none in country districts
and that In urban districts it is or
dinarily Ineffective. Even well
known members of the criminal
class are under no effectual control,
and by merely changing from tlmo
to time their field of operations
often succeed in preying on the
community for years.,— The law.
then his countenance cleared magically.
He was suave, polite ami majestic as
usual when be Bpoke to her.
"Are you going to be at home this
evening?" he aBked. His very presence,
dared her to remember him as he had
been two minutes before.
"No, I—I Bban't be home to-night,"
Alzora heard herself stammering as she
turned and fled.
She felt of a sudden very homesick
and afraid and disillusioned. What
would It be tp have one's husband look
at one that way when he was annoyed
—or speak that way?
For a long time Alzora sat In tbe
dark at her window thinking that night
and then she turned, up the gas and,
getting out Gus' letters, sat down and
answered them. It was almost as
good as talking to htm.—Chicago Dally
The Tehauntepec railway scheme
was originally proposed four centuries
ago by the dlscoverer-conquerer Cortez.
—Review of Reviews..
The facts ^regarding this Interesting
announcement are susceptible of brief
statement. -In the 8prlng-ottbe year
1510 the magnificent oceangoing steam
yictit- belon^ng .to. S^i^^jjiu Hernan
Cortez entered the harbor of Vera
fflHrtheorbg 'ctoonean.earPdyr pu pu
Cruz. Senor Cortez was taken ashore
in his naphtha launch. He
PRIMITIVE STONE FOB GRINDING PURPOSES.
China Is a laborious Job. A stack of
round maspnry Is set up and hollowed.
The beans or grain is dumped In and
then rolled to the proper degree of
coarseness or otherwise. Two persons
operate the roller and, like the Indians,
the men iiaro no scruples against as
signing tbe women to the task, a task
comparable only with the treadmill.
The czarina of Russia Is said by peo
ple who know her well to be verjr «hy,
and to usually sit wltb bar ayea cast
on the beach by tlie representatives of
Montezuma, who took him for an in
land spin in an eighty-horsepower au
tomobile. The Idea of the Tehaunte
pec railway developed in the mind of
Cortez in consequence of the frequent
puncturing of the' rubber tires of the
car by cactus thorns as the machine
plowed its way through the jungles.
Alas! Cortez neglected to live long
enough to witness the practical results
of his intelligent foresight.—New York
Has Many Crowna.
The Czar has as many crowns as a
fashionable lady has hats. He Is re
garded by his people as a religious as
well as a secular monarch, and there
fore has crowns for every possible
state occasion. The Busslan Imperial
crown Is modeled afterapatrlarchal mi
ter. Five magnificent diamonds, rest
ing on a huge glowing ruby, from the
cross at the summit Diamonds and
pearls of utmost perfection render
this crown unrivaled among all others,
and there Is one sapphire In It which
Is said to- be the finest stone of Its
kind ever mined.—London Tld-Blts.
down. When she does lodk up on be
lpg addressed or wishing to speak to
any one, she scarcely ever does so
without a quick glance and flush of
shrinking diffidence. Xou then cannot
help thinking what a pity it Is to so
constantly hide such large and beauti
ful eyes as hers. Soft and brilliant
blue gray they are, and fringed with
long dark lashes. Exceptionally tall
and slight, she Is noted for the mar
velous fineness of her proportions, and
her face Is beautiful In its'Greek con
tour of feature, especially In profile,
when one sees the continuous straight
line of forehead and nose to perfec
tion. Her expression has been de-
scribed by a celebrhted artist who had
th« honor of painting her portrait aa.
one of "singularly sweet wistful sad
ness." Her hair, which, is bronze
gold In sbade Is luxuriant and long,
and In Its striking beauty makes a fit
ting crown to the charming ensemble
of face and figure.—Busslan Dispatch
Ox a Duel.
She—Married life should be on«
He—Yes, like one of Mendelssohn'!
—-wltboot word#—Boston Transcript
FROM THE COMMONER
MR. BRYAN'S PAPER
The Republican party Is silent on the
question of publicity of Campaign funds.
Mr. Taft says that the. list of contribut
ors will be auuomiced after electionJurt
now he desires to con'ceal the sources of
the Republican "slugh" fund.
There are wneral instances on record
of the willingness of Republican: manag
ers to make public campaign contribu
tions after election. One of these oc
curral during the insurance investiga
tions in Now York thjee years ago. The
question of-the donation made by the.
Equitable Lite Assurances -Society came
up in connection with a mysterious loaft
of $685,000, made by -the Mercantile
Trust Company to the EqultSblef
Cornelius N. Bliss, who wa&~ treasurer
of the Republican national rommitteeand
also a trustee in the Equitable .Was ask
ed Oris question, according to the' report
published by the Chicago Record-Herald
a Republican newspaper:
"Did you, as treasurer of theRepute
lican national committee, accept or receive
a contribution of $100,000 from the fund
of $883,000 wiiicli figures as-"a '.loan 'to
James W. Alexander and Thomas .Tor
dan. as trustees from the Mercantile
Trust Company, tlie existence of ibat loan
being known to you as a director of 'the
Mr. Bliss' answer was: "I tfbsdlutelj
refuse to answer any such question The
question is .a' decidedly improper one,"
was'the' willingness,.of the treas
urer of tlie Republican national commit'
tee to make public the,source of the par
ty's contribution,, nearly a year after the
election. Subsequent investigation re
vealed tlie fart that not only .tih'e Equit
able, but the Mutual, the N3w York IJfe
and otlier big insurance- companies bad
contributed tens of thousands' of "dollars
of their policy holders' money to the -Re
publican campaign fund.
Tlie $200,000 fund' which Harriman
raised was not made public until two and
a half years after the election and tjien
Hi rough no voluntary, action on Hie part
of cither Mr. Harriman or Mr. Roosevelt.
The Record-Herald's publication, is an
interesting dhapter upon tih'e question, of
the willingness of Republican managers
to .publish .campaign contributions, even
Ana Why Not Aldrlclif
President Roosevelt'denounce* Senator
Foraker .for his Standard Oil affiliations.
Why not Senator AUlrich also? Is it be
cause Foraker opposed Taft, while Aid
rich is for Taft? Ijast winter the St
Globe-Democrat, a Republican pa
per, said fahat Senator Aldrich has"cap
rtalfctic affiliations" and "openly consults,
with the men who control in that hasy,
yet positive, element popularly known-as
the Wall street croypl.",' it is said that
Mr. Aldrich "seldom takes any. step,:in
or out of the Senate/without consulting
with his New Torts connections," and
that "he is related to tbe men. wlho con
trol Standard Oil, and has made/millions
in association with them."
Yet the Globe-Democrat says "he pos
sesses the ability to' apparently unite ini
common causa.the incongruous elements
of the Senate and direct them'along a
common channel." The Globe-Democrat
is now admitting what has for. yeaqs l^eeii
dharged by Democrats: Maybe. ^c^Jild
rich's success is not entirely due'to his
ability. Maybe the elements of the Sen
ate which Mr. Aldricb controls are not
so .'incongruous" as some would have us
believe. Certainly he is not the only
member of the United States Senate who
^has ".capitalistic affiliations." is
President Roosevelt silent about Aldrich?
tion agent in -the Senate.
Mr. Taft's campaign manager says
nothing about Aldrich. .J#
Difficult to BalMouThem This
YTalter Wellman, writing to. tihe .Chi?
cago Record-Herald from Cincinnafif O.,
"It is significant that the Republican
managers are endeavoring to induce em
ployers to bring pressure upon their men,
as was done in 1800 very effectively and
to a lesser extent. In 1000. But it is ad
mitted these tactics do not work as well
now. In the first place, employers are
not much disposed to. exert themselves.
Most of them are opposed to Bryan, and
some of -them think his election would
be bad for business, but few of diem are
intense about-it~or care to incur the ill
will of their men by trying to coerce or
frighten them. In the second place*'labor
*won*t stand for it/ In tfbe words one
has played out.'
"Here in Cincinnati was a case I.know
of. The owner of a shop called in his
foreman and said to him:
'Sullivan, I think it only fair to tell
you that if Bryan is elected tihitf" shop
will be closed tibe 4tih pf November. 1
am a little ahead of the game, and will
keep wliat I have and shut down rather
than risk my profits in the Bryan dull
t$mes. Now, how are you going to vote?'
'For Bryan/ replied Foreman Sulli
van, 'and so will most of the 1S3 menjn
Watch the- Threats.
Every one hearing of threats to dis
dharge woridug men in the event of Mr.
Bryan's election should communicate the
fact to Norman B. Made, chairman Dem
ocratic committee, AuditoriuM Annex
Hotel, Chicago, 111. The names of suoh
informants will not be disclosed by Mr.
"Will the era- of hypocrisy eyer cease?"
plaintteely inquires ttie PhiJadelplhja
Ledger. Ask "Dear Harriman/' ot''Sen
ator Foraker. They ought to know some
thing about if ..
Judge Taft, who sent a woriririgman
to jail.^n the testimony of a hired spy,
is naturally 'supported by a man who
willingly condemns this fellows without a
hearing on tbe testimouy of a man whom
he once~ denounced as "the real osjsassjn
WITH TH£ SAGES.
-All education should lead to action.—
Perish discretion when it interferes
Measure thy mind's height by tho
The tragedy'of tbe tongue is its pow
er of irremediable harm.—Austin.
Life is too short to dwell on failures
—push on to a new success.—Lavater.
Happy Is that mun whose culling is
great and spirit humble.—Demosthenes.
The way to gain a good reputation
is to endeavor to be wbut you desire to
There is nothing so great that I fear
to do for' my friend, nor nothing so
small that 1 will disdain to do for him.
—Sir Philip Sydney.
All pleasure must be bought at the
price of pain. For tbe true, tbe price
is paid before you enjoy it for the
false it Is paid as surely, afterward.—
llnvh.es Amirem Hnfkea,
Little Rock, Ark., Oct. 13.—To the Edi
tor of The Commoner: In his western
crusade Gov. C. E. Hughes of New York
indulged in hilarious ridicule Everywhere
he spoke of that pl&uk in tthe Denver
-platform providing that legislation should
be enacted to. prevent atiy corporation
or combination in the form of a trust from
controlling more than fifty per cent of the
output of any manufactured product. He
held up his hands in assumed.horror over
tihe fact, as contended by ihim, that this
would deprive many thousands of work
in the industries wfoere-.Hhey had been
trained and turn them out on society with
out tbe mrinis of making a living. The
reading public is familiar with his bois
terous argument but I have seen" no
where, either in speeches or in the cur
rent publications, any allusion to the
Governor's amazing -personal inconsisten
cy. It was be .who-'prepared and used
every power of his Office' to enact into
law tlie New YOfk insurance statute pro
viding that no life insurance "company,
however great its accumulations or how
ever large it/s plan or ^however many with
their families might 'toe dependent there
on for a livelihood,, .should be allowed to
write more than otte hundred and fifty
millions of risks in ajty one year. It may
have an acquired onptrcity to write three
imes that amount, but it must stop and
turn out to grass two4hirds~ of its em
ployes and dependencies. The parable
perfcct and migflit be cemented on
nt length with profit as .a test of the
Governor's sincerity. C. S. COLLINS^
Mr. Taft plcatvthat his party can re
ceive large contributions fftm the inter
ests to be benefited without being obli
ligated to tliem or Influenced by them,
recalls the plea wltfdh 'Francis Bacon
made when impeached before the House
of Lords, for talcing bribes. ~He said
that while he had taken them, they had
never influenced his judgtnent, but he .was
removed in disgrace. It Is a pity he did
not know of the modern method by which
one protects himself from influence, while
at the same time getting the benefit of
the contributions by merely, saying that
it is distinctly understood by the gi/per
that the receiver will not be influenced by
But men are usually influenced by tbeir
benefactors. And this recalls' Itiei story,
of a discussoh that was going on* at Lin
coln several years ago while the Legisla
ture-was in session. A number of legis
lators,. lobbyists and newspaper men were
seated in a: hotel. office dismissing' tho
question, "What is an honest man?" Af
ter several -opinions-bad been expressed
some one asked Herman Timme, a Doug
las couuty mem6err to give an answer.
Herman replied: "Veil, I tink an honest
man is one who will stay bought."
The great corporations finance the Re
publican party's .campaign and tJiey will
control tljeTiepubliean officials whom .thear
Democratic Victory Will
The Democratic party wants, prosper
ity in this country. It wants permanent
prosperity. It wants that prosperity
shared by every,_eltUen. And it knows
that you can have no permanent pros
perity, no permanent progress, no per
manent peace unless you have harmoni
ous co-operation between labor and- cap
ital, between employer and employe.. And
tflie Democratic party knows that you can
ye Jiarmonious co-operatiqn
tweeti labor^and capital except on a bams
of justicehw between man and matti-and*
we ask foi*'Justice for thoise whd' toll.—^
Mr. Bryan's speech at Cedar Rapids.
.William Nelson Cromwell, the -legal
representative of B. H.. Harriman and
the Wall street lawyer who engineered
the Panama deal, was the first big con
tributor to the Republican campaign fund.
^Je^'gave $30,000 to' the. Republican na
tional campaign slush fund. Now it is
announced that Andrew Carnegie, head of
the steel trust, has made a- donation of
$20,000 towards financing the election of
Judge Taft. These are the two contribu
tions from trust sources that have reach
ed the public, and indicate very clearly
on which side the trust interests are ar^
rftyed iu this campaign.
Attention Travellns Salesmen.
Every traveling salesman who desires
a.:copy of the Democratic campaign text
book is invited to send his business card
to The Commoner, together with a re
quest lor the text book, it will, be im
mediately forwarded to him. A supply of
.thrae^bboks have been secured by The
Commoner for the'use and benefit of trav
"Mr. Taft is a pronounced revisionist—
has been one for over two years._^ Htf
wants the. schedules revised and cut
down/' says the Milwaukee Sentinel. Then
why doesn't he say so? AH be has said
is that he believes some of the'sched
ules are too high and others too low.
Railroad men who went through the
Pullman strike will, of course, fall over
themselves to contribute money to the
Republican campaign fund, provided they
can send it to Frank Lowden, son-in-law
|'I can not hit a man when he is down/'
said Mr. Taft recently. This is poor
consolation to Mr. Foraker as he now
site-and fondles his sore ribs.
We trust that the/jarmert- of the "West
%ave not overlooked, the fact that this
fiqe fall weather they are enjoying-cornea
to them under the beneficent provisions of
the pingley law.
To date President Roosevelt has not
indicated just how thoroughly James
Schoolcraft Sherman might push "my
policies" under certain contingencies.
::F.oraker? "B pluribus un'um.-f"
A small boy, writing a composition
on Quakers, wound up by saylug that
ttfe "Quakers never quarrel, never get
into a fight, never claw each other, and
never jaw back." He added: "Pa Is a
Quaker, but I really dou't think ma
Either Truthful or Unlucky*
"He's a very truthful man,- isn't he?"
"I guess so. He goes fishing and
never seems to catch anything/'-HDe
trolt Free Press.
In the Art Gallery,
Old Lady—Haven't you got any
n^ore figures in marble?
Attendant—No, madam these are
aU* Is'there sopie particular one you
are looking for?
•Old Lady—Yea. I Want the statue
of limitations I've heard my husband,
talk so much about.
Meyer—Jugglngs lias a good record
pi a pedestrian.
.• Oyer—Then what-Is be always try
liV'to break It tori
Prof. H.'Kammerllngb Onnes of Ley
Cen has succeeded In liquefying" he
Terrifying In Its destructive aspects
tnd ajipalllng In its danget', yet In
tensely'fascinating In its possibilities
for beneflting .the "world, the latest
explanation of chemical science bas
placed mankind literally wltbln but a
tew degrees of the frozen, pole of
Heat Is life cold Is annihilation.
The final and absolute extremes of
these ire. as yet heights so exquisite
and depths so profound that thfey mock
at once the lens and the plnmmet-llna
of human conception.
For the. sake of convenience, hojr
erer, science hos establlsbed. a pure
ly arbitrary starting point for the
measurement of heat and cold. This
is called-the "absolute sero,"' and. Is
died at 459 degrees, below the fam
iliar sero mark., of the Fahrenheit
thermometer—a point which chemists
have vainly sought to reach- ever
since. Prof. Dewnr most nearly ap
proached^ by his astonishing feat of
liquefying air and hydrogen.
But even Dewar's greatest cold was
hundreds of degrees from absolute sero
That was some ten years ago. Now"
comes news from the old town of Lev
den in Holland—birthplace of the elec
tric buttery—tb'nt Prof. H.. Kammer
llngb Onnes of that city has succeeded
in liquefying the rarest and most vo
Mttlr of all gases. He bas reduced
fi&Uum Jo a visible fluid," determined
ItS'ltepipcrnture nnfl made the Incred
ible dlscovcry that It is but a frac
tion over four degrees from supposed
ly theoretical Jumping-oB place of Jack"
In order to appreciate the-rast »l|f
nlflcance of Prof." Onnes' achievement
it Is only necessary to recall the means
by which the .air Is 4:ept at zero tem
perature In a cold storage warehouse.
As everyone know.s, evaporation causes
cold." It is the evaporation "of the wa
ter wjth which yoa batije your face
—not the temperature-of the water 't
lelf—which produces the -sensation of
According as the evaiioration Is slow
or rapid, the "cold produced is less or
greater.: So. in cold storage plant,
ammonia gas, wblch is extremely" vol
atile. Is allowed to evaporate,'either
directly Into the air or It^ls released
in the presence of brine (which freezes
only at less than zero temperature)
tuid the -brine, taking the, temperature
of the evaporating ammonia, is then,
distributed in pipes' throughout tbe es
tablishment. Thus the desired degree
of cold Is Imparted to the storage
Kow fancy. If you can, a" cold, com
pared with wblch the. deadly chill from
ammonia gns. :Is hotter than boiling
oil »11 this the temperature of liquid
hydrogen. Then, with this as a new
point of departure, try to Imagine a
cold so profound that betride It ,liqu.J
hydrogen itself Is as a boiling oil, aad
the ..frozen'. heart of an ice plant IS
hotter than tbe bowels of a smelting
furnace, and .vou have some conception
of tlie temperature^—if it can be cali 1
temperature—of liquefied, helium?
Dr. H. T. Oalpln, a well .known
anthorii on refrigeration, a. member
.of the Condon Society of Chemical In
dustry, tbe American Chemical Society
and the'Society of Electrical Engineers,
attempted to explain in: non-technical
language what the new discovery means
to science and humanity.
"The liquefaction of helium," he said,
"to of the most startling aud far-reach
ing signlSance. It opens the door
to possibilities of wblch students of
refrigeration have long been aware,
but which thus far have been beyond
our reach In actual practice. It' is
apparent,"for example, that if we. can
distribute ammonia chilled brine'from
one room of a cold storage warehouse
to all tbe other rooms In It, we-should,
theoretically, be able to distribute it
from a central point of houses, office
buildings, theaters and the like, at a
distance, as is done with gas and steam.
"But the size and the cost of the
plant required, the impossibility, of de
veloping a degree of cold which will
not be dissipated In transit unless
pipes of prohibitive size are employed,
has placed the. Idea In the category
©f_ laboratory dreams. EH-on the use.
of liquid air or liquid hydrogen would
not obviate 'This last, objection. The
cost of the production and the distribu
tion would outweigh the benefits.
"Science does not recognize, the im
possible, however, and If Prof, ennes
bas produced a liquid which, forced to
distant points through pipes small
enough to be strung like telephone
wires, is so cold that such, distribution
cannot materially Impair Its effective
ness—and this seems to be tbe case—
science has achieved a most revolu
tionary triumph." jp-
Way. of French Walter..
Three Americans traveling in the
French provinces thought at dinner
fhat they would go a Uttls higher than
the vln ordinaire Included In their 8
franc, table d'hote, and accordingly one
ordered a bottle of Margaux. The sec
ond ordered Pantet Canet The third
ordered Haut Brlon. -The waiter, suit
ably Impressed with these: orders, re
tired. But he incautiously as he re
tired left the •door open, aud thus. It
was that the. throe startled guests
heard him giVe their order to these
"Baptiste, three-bottles of~the red.'*
In a Parisian cafe an American or
dered a bors d'oeuvre, sole^ agneau pee
sale, artichoke salad,, peche Melba.and
so on, and when the waiter brought
him a bill of 30 francs he paid it-like
a inan. -After his change was brought
he counted, it and pushM a franc to
wttTd- the waiter for a'tip. But the:
man, pushing .back the franc, laid In
gentle reproaqh: ..
"Pardon, monsieur, but that Is the
counterfeit franc."—San Francisco Ar
4JUXU0US HOTEL CUSTOMS..
Wher* Krrry Cut War! Casta a
A curious custom prevails at an Edin
burgh hotel, says Tit-Bits. Whenever a
customer 1b heard to swear he is re
quired to place-a penny in a box on the
bar counter. -It Is not a matter for
surprise, that the landlord hears much
iess bad language than'some of his fel
low publicans in the capital of Scot:
The following la a quaint Idea for
provldtag-fdnds for picnics and social
evenings. It Is carried on with much
success at an Asbton$n-Mersey inn:
A "knocking club" is connected with
the Inn,-and when a customer calls for
refreshments he is expected to knock on
the table or counter before drinking. If
be fails' to do this he is fined, one penny!
Any one-who wrongfully accuses anoth
er of breaking this unique rule Is -also
fined. The money thus obtained pro*
Tides funds for many enjoyable outings
and pleasant evenings during the course,
or the year.
At another hotel, known as thk Old
'Hundred, cusfomers are allowed only
ode drink. If one Is not sulllclent to
quench their thirst they are'obliged to
go ont of the hotel and take a walk be-1
fore they are allowed to, have another.
Till recently the proprietor of an old
time hotel In Warwickshire used to In
vite all his customers to accompany-him
and his wll&to the service at the parish"
church on Sunday mornings, which was
situated on the opposite side, of: the
road, the house being closed while they
were away. On returning each custom
er was Invited to partake of refresh
ments offered by tbe hospltableiandiord
free of charge.
Visitors to a certain hotel in Aber
deenshire" who wear brown boots must
remember to keep them In their room
over night. Otherwise the boots will be
blacked, regardless of the original color
of the same. In one of the rooms of a
Dumfries public house is an old arm
chair which Is
to have been fre
quently used by the' poet Burns.
A small hotef In Wales until quit* re
cently was used by tbe Catholics as a
place of worship on Sundays, and po
lice court proceedings were held on fh*
premlaes during the* week.
New Blatae ladaitvlHs
Though the Maine farmer has food
and clothing enough for tmnxdlat*.
wants of .himself and family, though
he pays no rent and never knows ths
tight pinch of poverty that la often
felt In the tenement districts of th*
big cities, be frequently lacks for ready
.money and In order to relieve this con
dition he resorts to various expedients,
says the Philadelphia Record.
In the last dozen years a score or
more of new Industries have" been un
dertaken In rural Halne. There are
five, times as many hens kept In Main*
today as. there were. ten- years ago..
Three larjs firms are canning, rabbits
for shipment Ten years ago .a man
couldn't sell rabbits for ten cints
carload. There -are three, condensed
milk factories, more than eighty cream
eries and over 100 corn and apple can
ning establishments In active operation
Where there was not one twenty years
Popcorn In the eai? Is shipped front
Malne nojv.by the carload.- Ten years
ago more than half of the corn that
was popped In Maine was raised la
N'ew -..Jork and Massachusetts. On*
couiity in Maine has Increased ltii yleld
of potatoes by over' 5,000,000 bushels
within-the docade. Last blocks, han
dles for axes, hammerv brusbes and
brooms, veneerljf hardwood, exctlslor,
starclT by the .trainload, canned "bin*
berries by tlie shipload, canned clams
and bottled elam Juice, sealed Jars of
"sweet, sardlneis by. tbe million are also'
amonit the" hew articles which -Matas
produces and sends away for sale.
KEFUSB BDBNIVa BASKET.
Derle* for Getllai Htd RaasakaU
"OB my! Whatever shall do..with-"
all this rubbishV' exelalms the house
keeper, beholding, a "miscellaneous col
scraps and "past*
roundup of- tb*
A. Illlfe Award.
I have flown so high that I consider
the palm beneath me."—Kansas City
A RBMABKA.BLB FIGUBE IN A TYROLESE DANCE.' "'r-'
By courtesy of Mr. W. A. Balllle-Orobman, the well-known expert on
Tyrol and Tyirolese, we ar* enabled to illustrate a remarkable figure In an
equally remarkable dance. Mr. Balllle-Grohmdn describes the movement at
follows ln bis book, "Tyrol and" the Tyrolese:" "In Brandenburg, and one or
two other Tyrolese valleys which "boast of a particularly muscular fair sex,
the girl at the conclusion of her swain's fantastical Jumps catches bold of
him by his braces and hoists falm up bodily, aided, of course, by a correspond
lng. Jerky action of her partner, and while he, balancing himself wlth botfcl^lit
hands on her shoulder*, treads the celling of the low room to the tune
the music, she continues her dance--round tbe room, displaying a strength
and .power that .can only be appreciated if one bas seen the strapping six
foot fellows that are thus handled by their fair partnen." Such dance* an
rapidly falling into disuse, and It Is well-nigh Impotable for the ordinary
tourist to wibMM om nonraday*.—lUMtrated Lgndon Mswi.
ashman decllni^i to
take anything but
ashes, the robblsk
man picks out-oiil}1
bUbkino. oimAOK. find use for, and
the second-hand man will have nothing
but'whole papers, and they must b*
clean at that" This little monologus
maybe heard moat anywhere. The con
ditions are about the same In any dty
of- large or medium size. There Is a
great-deal of accumulated material
atound a house which is quite difficult
to dispose of. It might be burned, but
an effort to dispose of the mass In an
ordinary stove would^ more than likely
lead, ,to ^aster^even, if th*, stove is
.of raitable'proporti%iis to accommodiaSf'''
the.collection. Most of them are not'
The. housekeepers quandary-- has led'
to'tbe.ihventlon-oir a model devlc* t»-'
be added to the eqnlpment of th^ honse
hold. It is a refuse ^destrnctor, (a"
wtjich the accumulations of the house
hold are to-be disposed of by burning
In tbe back yard without danger. Th*
destructor Is a basket of wire built on
an rjron frame, supporting it several
Inches above the ground. Int?*tb!s tb*
household accomolatlonji-are dumped,
as well as the sweepings, A-match ap
plied soon reduces the big pile to a
handful bf dust Such a device soM £,1
completely the problem of the dlspo*al..M,,!''r?.
of a great deal of material.
"To yon we' award the palm.*? -iJRjp
"Can't you give me something mow
lofty," masked the aviator, disdainfully.':
A wonian says of every hired gltl
she*ever has: "My, but she can mak*
the buttgr fly!"
DANCING WITH THE FEET ON THE CEEUNG.
xml | txt