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Lof CIVILIZATION HABKS DOOH OF STIMTJXANTS. drugs ln walks glass. By Ada May Krtcker. There needs no argument to press home the proof of a decline in the use of liquors. It Is perfectly evident throughout the country. And In narcotics a similar change of heart Is com ing about. John J. Hayes, winner of the' Mar athon race In London, confesses In a maga zine article that "No long distance. runner can smoke either cigars or cigarettes and run. One thing is essential, abstinence from tobacco in any form. I suggest running as a certain cure for the tobacco habit to anyone who wishes to break himself of it" Oo where we will among the savages and we find powerful and plentiful employed for setting into action men's powers. It Is only among the finest types 0f the most advanced races that we see them discarded favor of subtler Btimull. Prof. James, the Harv&rd psychologist, urges the superior claims, as excitants, of morning air and sunlight and fine skies and mountain and dewy flowers and great thoughts and sweet aspirations above the frothy hopes of the foaming They are the natural stimulants of refined or- ganlsms. These need no other. No, not even coffee and tea. An Englishman, E. Baron Russet by name, ha» been mak ing predictions for the year 2000. A. D„ and he has It that by that time the huipan system will have been so refined that tea and coBee wlll^be placed In the same -category that alcoholic stlmulantB occupy nowadays. The prohibitionists of that remote hour will be cam paigning against tea and coffee and teetotalers will sign their pledges in favor of coffeeless breakfasts and after noon teas without "the cup that cheers but does not in ebriate." QUESTION OF CAPITAL FUNISHHENT. By Cetare Lombroao. In spite of prison, deportation and forced labor. I argue that the criminals will go on repeating their crimes for the third or fourth time. There Is nothing left, therefore, for society to do but to inflict the extreme but elective punishment of death. Assuredly for barbarous men whom prisons do not inspire with dread the death penalty Is the only thins feasible. Still, this cold-blooded execution or dered by judges and not infrequently accompanied by the gaping of crowds, Is repulsive, to the delicate senses civilized peoples. It oven may frequently be fol lowed by similar crimes Inspired by the law of Imita tion and the executed victim may become the founder of a criminal cult, so~to speak. Of course, If we place upon life and living things the most rigorous and most snored rights, we who are not God's emissaries have-no right or authority over the life of human beings of our kind. But. then, GBAND OLD MAN GONE. Venerable Doctor Hale. Dlstln salahed Clergyman and Writer. One of the "grand old men" of the nation passed away In Roxbury, Mass., in the death of Dr. Edward Everett Hale, one of the leading Congregation al mintsters of the country and since 1903 chaplain of the United States. Benate. Distinguished on two conti nents as a clergyman, he was also fa mous as a story writer and philan thropist, and some of his stories, no tably, "A Man Without a Country," have been read throughout the world and stand as classic in the English language. His contributions to histo rical literature have been valuable and years he edited the Christian Examin er and the Sunday School Gazette. He Is survived by his wife, who was" Miss Emily B. Perkins, a granddaughter of Rev. Lyman Beecher and four chll: dren. PAYING GERMAN PIPES. Europe's Most Powerful Nation Lives ly Grace of Money-Lenders. The piper to whose lively tunes the German empire has been dancing mer rily for so many" years has sent In bis bill, and the nation or the nation's representatives, though quite willing to go on with the dancing, are by no means prepared to settle up, the New York Times says. Prince Buelow, who EDWARD EVERETT HALE. rarled. and his efforts in behalf of international peace and of the aboli tion of war have been noted. In Wash ington be was as deeply beloved as In Boston, where practically all of his life had been spent and where he wr.s held in veneration. The world Is the richer that he has lived and is much the poorer that death has claimed him, lifter a useful, upright and honorable life of 87 years! Sr. Hale was born In Boston" in 1822 »nd graduated from Harvard in 1839. In 1842 he was licensed to preach by the Boston Association of Congrega tional Ministers, after which he spent several years in ministering to various Congregations, passing -the winter of 1844-45 in Washington. His 'first -regu lar settlement was in. 1846 as pastor. Of the Church ot the Unity in Worces ter, Mass*, where he remained until. 1856. In that -year he was called- to the South Unitarian Church In Boston. Where he was pastor for 30 years. E*rly in life "Dr. Hale engaged In Journalistic work apd before lie had attained his .majority contributed reg ularly to the Monthly Chronicle and Boston Miscellany. While 'connected with the Advertiser he-began histori cal studies. For six years he was the paper's South American editor and was regarded as an authority on Spanish American affairs. Dr. Hale's Influence was extensively felt in all iihllanthroplc movements. His book, "Ten Times One Is Ten," published In Boston In 1870, led to the establishment, of clubs devoted to char ity, which beiame scattered through out the United States, with chapters in burope, Asia, Africa and Islands of the Pacific. He also took a great In terest in the Chautauqua Literary and Scientific Circle, of which he was one Of the counselors and freque'nt con tributor to the Chautauq[aan- In later has naturally, been held responsible for the entertainment and for the ex pense thereof, is disgusted and dis couraged, and it is now formally an nounced, as It has been often predict ed, that he will lnBlst on his resigna tion. There are three essential elements In the German financial situation: (1) a rapidly "Increasing expenditure far outrunning the actual Income (2) 3. rapidly growing debt, from which In great part current expenses hare been met (3) a system of taxation Wholly unequal to annual require ments and framed largely to benefit the land owners on the .one hand, while leaving their property largely unburdened on the other. The chief objects of expenditure have been pub lic works, especially canals, the army and fortifications and the navy, and a good.deal of money has been spent —much of It wasted—on the various colonial enterprises, whloh have been very costly, and only recently show any signs of paying for themselves.' But, as in every other modern coun try, there has also been In Germany a strong tendency toward a general In crease In the scale" of expenditures. Living has become much more costly. The old German thrift and economy are disappearing, all branches of the public' service are more expensive and the treasury has for years been un able to make both ends meet. The gap has been filled by borrowing. The most powerful and prosperous nation of Europe has been for a long while |n the humiliating position of depend ing upon the money lenders to pay its day-by-day requirements. Natur ally, its credit has suffered and It has to pay more for its loans than many a third-rate-country. neither have we the right to deprive them of Iheir liberty nor to Inflict upon them any punishment what ever. To pretend that the death penalty la contrary to nature means to feign ignorance-, of the fact which is written In nature's books in laxge letters, the fact that organised society is based upon a struggle for existence followed by the most fearful hecatombs. The fact that there are born criminals, organized for destruction, criminals who are living reproductions not only of the most savage men, but also of the most fero CIOUB animals, far from rendering us compassionate to wards them, only hardens and deprives us of all pity towards them. There remains, therefore, but one excuse for the death penalty, and that is that of radical elimination of a dangerous element. Bat here we must not forget that in order to attain this desired elimination of a dangerous class one must kill, not ten or twenty criminals a year, but 3,000. criminals in Italy and 2,000 in France. This would be a veritable butchery. And I believe that in our age, In an age so thoroughly Imbued with a spirit of humanity, not even the most ardent partisan of the death penalty will suggest such a course. WHY SHOULD MAN HOLD SUPREME POWER By H. C. De Beer. Ethically there is no such thing as the sex question. Why manufacture one? Are not man and woman alike, yet different each equal, each distinct, absolutely necessary to each other? Why any antagonism, with in creasing distrust, disdain, even'dlsgustT One may understand antagonism from the house hold tyrant, the pompous bully, the master of the old school, who will woo a maiden on his knees,'promising all things, and promptly relegate her to a position of domestic servility once she haa sur rendered herself. But this antagonism is itot under standable and cannot really exist among a great ma jority of thinking ^good rrien, who regard woman as man's helpmate and companion, the friend in all need. In France apparently woman has not been subjected to the position of servility. She Is a factor. French men recognize in her their natural companion and the source of their happiness. The Frenchwoman has not been forced to descend from her pedestal of womanhood to enter Into' the arena against man. In France worn an's influence is permanent, and the Frenchmen, who consider woman a more Interesting study than dogs or cricket averages, realize and appreciate It The French mothir is respected, complimented, reverenced. There are no jokes at the expense of the French mother, the higher mentality, more natural humanity of the French man revolts at thqt being a subject for lampoons. What has man to show for his undisputed possession of power during countless ages? Besides certain med ical blessingis his science has given us many interest ing, perhaps noble discoveries. But what of beauty and happiness? Oh, that Is woman's province. SOME MARRIED HESITATIONS. By Clarence L. Cullen. Favorite feminine Bromidion: "All men are perfect boobies when they're sick abed." The man who permits his wife to designate a certain little spot in the house as the one place In which he shall smoke deserves all that he gets, and he never falls to get It. Slathers "of married women* get in bad by heeding the queer advice of Lady PenBmlths (mostly spinsters)', whose dictum is that the proper way to hold a husband is to hold him at arm's length. The highly exalted faithfulness of, women often Is a matier of plain pol-' Icy. Plenty of careless men would strictly toe the faithful mark if their reward for so doing were to be agree ably taken care of for life. The man who knowB the difference at sight between a $25 embroidered shirtwaist and one of those cute lit tle ruffle-front |1.48 shirtwaists usu ally a male person whose^ opinion Isn't worth valuing anyhow. It Is the woman who shrieks at "Central"-through the phone and calls her a saucy hussy and such like who wonders why It is that telephone girls are so much more polite and prompt in responding to men's callB. Familiar quotation: "Oh, I've got 'plenty of leftover summer clothes, dearie. All I'll need to eka out will be a few little linen suits and seven or eight more shirtwaists and three or four summery hats and some tan and champagne-colored shoeB and a new supply Of silk stockings—juBt a few little odds and ends like those!" Did you ever feel kind of onery and things with yourself when, after blowing J7.85 on a bunch ot cheer ful workers, you went home and found her tacking some frizzled old sweet peas on a last year's hat frame? Extract from "The Dairy of a Neg lected Wife:" "'TIs now mid-summer, and my birthday Is In December and my husband hasn't said one word about It yet, nor what he Is going to get me. Gracious powei, give me the strength to go on enduring." Orders jr Pigeon Post.' An entirely practical use of homing pigeons was cited recently in the Lon don Dally Mall. The inventpr of the Bystem is a butcher's son, who employs his birds regularly to carry orders from outlying districts—presumably where there are no telephones—to his father's shop. The plan works excel lently. JVhen the boy goes to collect orders he takes six of his fastest birds In a trap- with him. After he has gone a mile or two and collected a dozen or ders, he liberates a pigeon with the slips enclosed In a little metal case attached to the bird's foot. Before five minutes have elapsed these orders are liuthe delivery wagon on the way to the customers. At the various stages of his round, which usually takeB three hours, the other birds with more orders are set free, and by the time the shop Is reach ed all the orders received by this pig eon-post have been dispatched. MOM than She Could Bear. Marion was a little American girl ot BIX years. For three months her mother and aunt had dragged her through the museums and art gal leries ot Europe. She was-made to look at the Bllp pcrs of Marie Antoinette, the prayer book of Catherine de Medici, hats of Napoleon and endless -fuimbers of un interesting Madonnas. TheBe, her mother told her constantly she must remember, for when Bhe' grew up she would realize how famous they were. At last Marlon rebelled. She re-' fused to go to a world-famed mu seum. After much persuasion, she yielded upon one condition. "I'll go any place you like," she said, "if. you'll promise never again to make me look at anything famous." One suggestion In a thousand U. ac cepted. HE. Why Mr. Aldrleh Is Angry. The fresh outbreak of hostilities be tween Senator Stone and Senator .Al drleh over the German wage scale brings under close scrutiny again the remarkable declaration of the Chi cago platform that, "In all tariff legis lation the true principle of protection Is best maintained by the Imposition of such duties as will equal the dif ference between the cost of produc tion at home and abroad, together with a reasonable profit to American Industries," In the application of this method of maintaining the "true principle of protection" the first thing to be done is to ascertain the cost ot production at home and abroad in the several in dustries and then make the difference the basis of the several schedules of our tariff, not forgetting the margin of "reasonable profit" to the Ameri can concerns. It should be. the duty of the Presi dent elected upon that platform to diligently seek Information through our own Department of Commerce and Labor regarding the home cost and through our consular service and the courtesy of foreign governments re garding the cpst abroad. Having ob tained the information, the duty fol lows to transmit it to Congress. To get the correct statistical data is dif ficult enough at best and the fluctua tions in the cost of production make the best information a most unstable basis for legislation. In the case of Germany, at least, our government entered upon this task.of getting the facts a little more than a month after Mr. Taft's elec tion. Be it-remembered that the Ger man statistics of wages which Sena tor Aldrleh so hotly resents as Ger man impertinence were collected at the request of the United States gov ernment through the Imperial Govern ment of Germany, and by it from the several States composing the German Empire. It was .then forwarded to the State Department in Washington.' The reports arrived in this country about April 8 and were transmitted to the Senate Finance Committee, where they slumbered peacefully in a pigeonhole until Senator Stone six weeks later wrought Senator Aldrleh to white heat by informing the Sen ate of their existence and suppres sion. Senator Aldrich's wrath against Germany and his denunciation of Sen ator Stone and others as representa tives of Germany and traitors to American interests were not Because the German labor figures were given to the Finance Committee, but be cause they were altogether too high to please the radical protectionists. Without kicking the Chicago tariff plank Into kjndllng wood, the Aldrleh Senators cannot now make the tariff margin against Germany as broad as they wish to and as they doubtless will make it in spite of the platform. Hence these tears and hence all this hot anger. The Finance Com mittee claims to be the sole reposi tory of knowledge about the cost of manufacture at home and abroad, but the committee's statistics are strange ly and wonderfully compiled. It is the duty of the President to exhaust, every resource In order to keep the Finance Commltte and Congress cor rectly informed in this vitally Impor tant matter.—St. Louis Republic. A "Steam Roller" Tariff Bill. They charged up against the Repub lican party that it carried. Its platform and presidential candidate through at last year's Chicago convention by "steam roller" methods. There will be another charge of like nature coming when Senator Aldrleh finishes jamming his tariff bill to pas sage and to conference committee. Aldrich is forcing upon reluctant mem bers of his own party the option of being whipped into line as supporters of a measure they know is fraudulent or being .held up to scorn as party wreckers. It is this dangerous intrusion of the political element that bids fair to blast the hopes of American consumers for a real "downward" revision of the tar iff at this session. It Is because Aid rich knows his power over his col leagues^ and also because he knows— or thinks he doea^-that President Taft will hesitate long before throwing his party into chaos with a veto message, that the Senate "steam roller" Is work ing overtime. The United States Senate Is proudly called a deliberative body. It has no closure nilfe, like the House. Members can talk "around the clock," if they chooso, and send their speeches in printed form to their admiring con stituents. Yet the Senate Is ruled by a Czar. The progressive Senators, like DollI ver, Cummins, La Follette and Bev eridge, can only thunder their protests against specially raw features of the tariff bill. To prevent its passage they are helpless. That is why the eyes of the nation turn to President Taft in a crisis. He alone can rob the "steam roller" of Its terrors with an executive veto.—Chi cago Journal. President Tart's Income Tax Plan. Taxation of 2 per cent on the net in comes of corporations, as suggested by President Taft, is not an adequate measure of relief to the millions of wage-workers, small tradesmen and farmers who carry the vastly larger part of the national tax burden. Mr. Taft knows full well that the principal profits of the corporations he proposes to tax are derived from the tariff on imports, which enables the corporations In question to plunder the American people of about $5,000,000. 000 a year. His plan virtually, licenses these Eastern tariff barons to continue to rob the people of $100 for every $2 tax returned Indirectly to the people as a tax on corporations. The tax of 2 per cent on corpora tions would be slight burden to corpo rations and ho relief whatever to the people. Reductiqn of the import tar Uf 50 per cent would lighten by more than $2,000,000,000 the toll paid to t&r iff-protected industries annually out of I he pockets of the American con sumer. And such a measure of relief from paying taxes to tariff barons would easy enable the vast" army of Ameri can taxpayers to bear the entire bur den of national government without feeling oppressed. New England's Tariff Idea. "Everything indicates that the tariff bill which will be submitted to Presi dent Taft after its consideration by the conference committee will Involve a general scale of duties which are higher than those proposed by the ex isting law." Here are the exact words of a Chi cago newspaper which last October urged Western voters to support Taft, while the Journal warned voters that a Republican administration would mean higher tariff, because it would be controlled by New England. Observe how the Journal's prophecy is coming true. The six New England States have twelve Senators, of whom four easily dominate important finance legislation, such as the present framing of a tariff law. These are Aldrich of Rhode Isl and, Hale of Massachusetts, Galllnger of New Hampshire and Frye of Maine. To use a homely simile, when one of these faew England Senators takes snuff the others sneeze. Aldrich rules the guild, because he Is a postmaster In political craft. But the otherB never fail to show, in their more limited spheres, the same contemptuous disre gard for the rights of other States outside the charmed New England cir cle. The total area of the six New En gland States is less than 70,000 square miles, and the total population is about six millions. Six Western States—Illinois, Missouri, Iowa, Min nesota, Wisconsin and Indiana—have more than 350,000 square miles and a population of 18,500,000. How does the influence of these six Western States compare with the New England Influence In framing the present tariff law? Iowa, Wisconsin and Indiana have Cummins, Dolliver, La Follette and Beveridge on guard. But what Is their influence compared with that of the New England group? These Western Senators are voicing the sentiments of the really representative American States. But what headway are they making? The great.West and Middle West could put New England in an obscure corner, geographically, and still have an American empire left. Yet New England continues to assume that all real statecraft, all tariff wisdom, all loyalty to American ideals are vested in Its senatorial representatives. When will the West throw off the New England yoke?—Chicago Journal. The Lesson of the Gonld Salt. The Howard Gould suit has another value than simply as a revelation of the sordid side of a gilded New Yorker. It furnishes a neat array of solid ar guments for Inheritance and Income taxes. Mr. George Gould on the witness stand testifies that his father left an estate ot $80,000,000, and that each ot the six children enjoys from the es tate alone an Income of something like $15,000 a week. Mr. Howard Gould admits that his income so greatly exceeds even hla laviBh expenditures that he has been able to set aside the tidy sum of $10, 000,000, a neat savings bank account for a rainy day. Mrs. Howard Gpuld estimates that her expenses annually for dresses are something like $40,000, and airily In forms the court that her suite at the Hotel Belmont costs her $300 a week, the rent of. her automobile is $500 a month and the pay rol of her servants amounts to more than 10,000 a year. Such huge estates as the Gould for tune should pay at least^a 25 per cent Inheritance tax, and any man whose Income, due to no effort or ability on his part, is $700,000 a year, can pay 10 or 15 per cent income, tax without being financially embarrassed.—Chica go Journal. Object.to Flimflam, "There is one thing the American people do not like," said Senator Dol liver the other day. In urging "Aldrich's men" to tell the truth to their- constituents. "They often sub mit with patience to being robbed, but no American community is willing to be, flimflammed." The expression Is not elegant, but neither the Senators engaged in the operation nor the peo ple who are to be its victims, can have the slightest difficulty In under standing the meaning of the word. It describes in a plain and accurate fash ion substantially, what Mr. Aldrich and his associates In the leadership of the Republican party have been doing with the "revision" of the tariff since the Payne bill came over from the House.—New York Times. Call It a Roosevelt Tnx.®ggf If there Is to be a temporary de ficiency of revenue which no properly constructed tariff bill can supply, let the emergency be met by an adequate stamp duty on checks, deeds, notes, proprietary articles, and so forth. Let the occasion of the emergency tax be recognized frankly by calling it the Roosevelt tax. Let every revenue stamp bear the likeness of Roosevelt, even though he Is yet alive. Let his countenance be kept before the tax payers and voters as long as the need of extraordinary taxation exists. The reminder and warning will be of priceless value to this country—New York Sun. The British government is building a number of Immense oil tanks at va rious ports around the British isles for the use Of her warships now using oil for fuel. The tanks wlli be sur rounded by mounds of earth to pro tenet them against gun fire from the Nearly 90 per cent of the population ot Venezuela are Illiterates. Cause of Llmberneelc. Llmberneck with chickens Is caused Dy tne birds eating decaying flesh or filth containing maggots. The mag gots lodge in the throat of the bird, causing paralysis of the muscles of the neck and consequently inability to swallow food. When affected the chicken remains Inactive in one place for days at a time without control of Its neck to take food or drink, it grad ually dies of starvation and, perhaps, Blow poisoning. Very few that become afflicted ever recover. Not much can be done with a chick en Buffering with llmberneck. Soft bread soaked with turpentine or kero sene is said to be effeotlve In remov ing the cause, If the case is taken In time. »•:—_ IUIMM Grinding Corn for Hogs. Authorities disagree as to the ad visability of grinding the corn for hogs, some-feeders claiming that It does not pay for the cost and trouble of grinding, while others think that it does pay well. My experience Is that some hogs will chew corn well, while others will not break half the grains. Usually a young hog will chew Its food better than an old one. I fattened a hog last year on dry corn, but not one-half of the grains were broken. Where a hog will not chew its feed well I think it will pay to grind its feed. Hogs will not chew wheat well, and no hog will chew buckwheat well, so these grains should always be ground before feeding to hogs. If corn Is shelled and scattered on a floor or on the ground, so that the hogs will have to pick up one grain at a time, they will chew It better than when whole ears are thrawn -to them.—A. J. Legg. Some Alfalfa Pointers. Alfalfa grows best on a deep, sandy loam, underlaid by a loose and perme able subsoil. It will not grow If there 1B an ex cess of water In the soli. The land must be well drained. Plow the land deeply—alfalfa Is a deep feeder. Sow alone and screen seed before using to separate the dodder and other weed seeds. Dodder Is the worst enemy of alfalfa. For a hay crop sow 20 to 30 pounds of seed per acre. For a crop of seed sow 14 to 18 pounds per acre. Alfalfa does not attain maturity un til the third or fourth year, so do not sow it expecting to get the best re sults In less time. Keep the weeds mowed and raked off the first season, Or they will choke out the crop. Cut the hay when the first Sowers appear. If cut in full bloom thff hay will be woody. For seed cut when the middle clusters of the seed pods are dark brown... Whether or not alfalfa Is a hardy, profitable crop in the Northern States -has not been fully demonstrated, but in some instances it has been grown successfully even in Canada.—Lexing ton (Ky.) Herald. Ceiuent Floors for Granary. There has been a good deal of dis cussion of the utility of cement floors for granaries and cribs. A correspond ent of the Famers' Tribune contrib utes the following favorable expert-' ence: "I have a cement floor In my gran ary and corn crib, and it is an abso lute success. I did not build till late In the fall. I made a grout floor BIX Inches in thickness right down on the ground, for which I used five parts sand and gravel and one part Univer sal cement then I set up my building on this floor. I fastened the sills by means of big bolts set In the cement. Grain was moved into the new bins from the old granary and the grain is just as bright next to the cement as It Is in the middle of the bin. All win ter long when there were thaws the water stood on the north and west sides of the granary to the depth of three to four Inches and the cement on the inside was seemingly perfectly dry all the time. There Is one thing 'certain, the mice aud rats have no harbors under the floor, and there are' no cracks to batten to keep the grain from running through. It Is a nice floor to shovel from, there being no nail heads to bother.' Everything is clean." |P||||P§| Destroying (fcnnck Grsfe*. I often see directions given for kill ing out quack grass, but I think they are all Inferior to the method that I employ. I would never try to drag out the rOots with harrow or rake, because not all of the roots will be gathered and those, left will soon flll the soil again. The pest can most easily be killed right where It Is, the roots furnishing an abundance of plant food, by using a double-action cutaway harrow. Now please don't think that any kind of a harrow will do, because It will not. It you rely on any except the one I Save men tioned you will be. disappointed. I have used one to destroy what I am writing. It you plow before quack grass many times and am sure of us ing the harrow, run the plow shallow —just deep enough to turn over the quack roots, bottom side up let lay thus for a week and then go over the field with the double-action cutaway harrow then after a few days repeat the harrowing and keep at it, going over the field at Intervals of a few days until the pest Is all destroyed. It Is no use to think that the field be gone over "perhaps a dozen times in one day, the quack will be killed, for the sun, as well as the harrow, must get in its work. The way to do Is to go over the field once, then watt a few days for the roots to dry and repeat the operation. By being thor ough In this the grass can be destroy ed and a crop grown the same year If commenced early In the spring.—Ag ricultural Epltomlst. Plilcluir noys on Farms. •J— Bert Hall, who has been the chief truant officer of Milwaukee several years, has Inaugurated a system which promises to go far toward solving one of the most bothersome problems which perplex tho school and police authorities of nearly every city. A year ago Milwaukee was full ot boys who were chronically Inclined to ruh away from school. Mr. Hall set his brain to work to devise some meth od to remedy an evil which the courts could not stop. Early last spring he found place* for a few of these truant-Inclined boys upon Wisconsin farms, with wages from $5 to $20 a month and board, and the plan worked so well that the sys tem already seems to be a pronounced success, over 200 boys being located during the summer. Fully 80 per cent of these city wrecked lads have made good in every way, and their letters telling of the Joys of country life, air, food, scenery, new associations and the good sleep and appetite induced by regular work have created a desire for farm lift among hundreds of their old asso elates. Work of Earthworm*. It is said that Darwin spent, thirty years of his life In studying the earth worm. He found It blind, deaf and dumb. He discovered that while it lives in the cold, dark earth it knowa how, better than man, to plow th ground so that all the green things can grow. It helpB huge trees by plowing the ground, turning It ovei and loosening lt-~up so that light and air and sunshine and rain can get Intc It. These earthworms cast up pllei of earth, and the longer they work tht thicker the layers grow, until thej form a vegetable mold. Nearly ever bit of this vegetable mold has been through the bodies of these worma and the soil where this mold is found is finer, darker and richer. It Is finei because it has been ground up by the little stones In the worm's gizzard. It is darker and richer for having beet mixed with juices and dead leaves ID the worm's 'body. When to Prune. With most orchardists and garden era pruning can be be done during th winter or early spring months, anc where the object Is the removal small branches this Beason Is undoubt edly quite as satisfactory aB any oth ers. In fact, pruning during lat spring, about the time or just prevl ous to the beginning of growth. Is par tlcularly advantageous with the peach because at that season, as a rule, al Injury to the anual growth from win ter killing will be apparent and thi pruner- can take advantage of this remove all dead or Injured branch'ei and at the same time modify his plat so as to leave a maximum quantity o: wood In order to secure a profitabli crop of fruit, which might not be pos slble were the usual practice of re moving one-half the annual growtt followed In such seasons. With th apple and pear, which suffer less fron winter killing, the annual pruning cat as well be done in February or March in the North, as at any other season With the grape, however, which li likely to produce a heavy flow ot sa[ If the pruning Is delayed until late In the season, It Is undoubtedly best tc do the pruning during the late fall and early winter months. Any sub stance which Is not corrosive or detri mental to growth which will protect the heartwood from the attacks of rot Bpores will prove a satisfactory cover lng lor a cut surface. Among such substances may be mentioned white lead, yellow ochre, coal 'tar and graft ing wax.—Corbett, UivIUd States De partment of Agriculture. TOSS Fruit Tree Borers. The adult of this Insect Is a beetle It lays eggs, probably mostly In April and May, in crevices In the bark ot suitable trees, usually on the south west side. The eggs hatch In a few days, and the young grubs eat their way through the bark and burrow In the wood, sometimes completely gird ling the tree. By next spring the grub has-grown to full size. It then bores outward nearly through the bark of the tree, and then undergoes trans formation into a pupal Btage, corre sponding to the chrysalis of a hutter fly. After about three weeks In this condition, the adult beetle emerges from the skin or case of the pupa, cuts" a hole through the bark, and comes out prepared to do its part in the work of laying more eggs. Several methods are used to check the work of the borers. The presence of the borers In the trees may be de tected by dtscoloratlons of the bark, by the exudation of Bap or gum, or -by the presence of castings beneath the burrow. In such cases, if the bur rows be not too deep or too long, the borers may be killed with a pointed wire. Otherwise they may be destroy ed by cutting them out with a knife, or by pouring kerosene or hot water into the holes. The best way to combat the borers is by preventing the laying of eggs on the bark of the tree trunks. Wrapping the trunk with newspaper or wrapping paper is one of the easiest and best methods of securing this result, and it has the advantage that besides keep ing the female, beetles from the bark, the paper protects the bark from the Injurious effect of the heat of the sun. Paper used 'or this purpose should cover the tree trunk completely, and. be held In place by twine not strong enough to injure the growing tree. Soli should be drawn up an inch or two around the paper at the foot ot the tree, to prevent the female beetles from getting Inside the paper from below, and the top of the paper should be made to fit the bark closely. A band of cotton lint just inside the top of the paper will serve to keep the fe males out from above. Various washes have been used to prevent the insects from laying their eggs on the bark or to kill the newly hatched grubs before they make their way Into the bark, but Jt Is not cer tain that the use of these will always be found profitable. Even more Important than protect ing the bark of the trees from the egg-laylng female beetles is the mat ter of' keeping the trees in vigorous condition by proper cultivation of the soil. Grass and weeds Bhould not be allowed to take the moisture needed by the trees. After rains the crust ol the soil should be broken Into a fine mulch to reduce the rate of evapora tion from the soil. It is also recom mended that tree3 be headed low, so that the leaves may shade" the trunk from the hot midday sun. Tho total number ot Immigrant] coming into the United States Blnci 1820, the year of earliest record, ex ceeds 26,000,000. Miss Boston—The picture was badly hung. Miss Concord—And yet very well executed. "Why are you so enthusiastic about pedestrianism?" "Because'I can't af ford an auto."—Pittsburg Post. "What happens when a man's tem perature goes down as far as it can go?" "He has cold feet, ma'am." Bride—Here Is a telegram from papa. Bridegroom (eagerly)—What does he say? Bride (reads)—Bo not return and all will be forgiven. First Office Boy—De boss' grand mudder died last night. Second Office Boy—Gee! I wonder if he's goin' to de ball game.—Philadelphia Record. Mrs. Knicker—Do you let Bridget eat with the family. Mrs. Bocker— Yes it's much cheaper tlian to have her eat with the policeman.—Puck. "I see Robinson's married again— married hiB first wife's sister." "Yes He said he didn't want to have to break in another mother-in-law."— Judge. He—CongreB3 will never be com posed of women. She—Why do you think so? He—Can you Imagine a house full of women with only one speaker?—Judge. Dr. Plllem—You needn't worry about your wife. She has a remarkable con stltution. Henpex—Say, doc, you ought to see her by-laws, rules -and regulations.—Life. "I see that young Noodle and Miss Sharp have made a match of It. He's got no head at all, but she's a clever girl." "Well, you can't expect a match to have two heads to it." Mistress—Well, Bridget, do you want to leave or stay? Cook—Don't thry to boss me. Faith, I dunno. II yez want me to shtay, I'll lave, an' yez warft mo to lave, I'll shtay! A tall man applied for a position as overseer. "What do you know?" he was asked. "I don't know anything," he replied, "but I'm tall enough to look over all the men you've got." Teacher—Jlmmie, suppose you had ten apples and ten oranges, and gave nine-tenths of them to some other lit tie boys, what would you have? Jim mle—I'd have me head examined! "Little boy, don't you know that you shouldn't go fishing on Sunday?" "Sure I know it, but you see the fish ain't been educated up to keeping-the Sabbath yet."—Detroit Free Press. "My lazy son has at last decided on a profession that he thinks he'll like." "Good. What has he chosen?" "He wants to be a lineman for a wire less telegraph company."—Cleveland Leader. "And you wouldn't begin a journey on Friday?" "You bet I wouldn't!" "I can't understand how you can have any faith in such a silly superstition." "No superstition about It. Saturday'a pay-day." Rampus—Yes. I'm willing to admit that football is a good game for those who play, but most of the students take no part In It. Campus—Well, we've got to have somebody to root for us. haven't we?—Philadelphia Ledger. "Yes," said Mr. Dustin Stax, "I have succeeded In life, and by the hardest kind of work." "You don't look as If had much personal experience with «nrd work." "Of course not 1 hired It done."—Washington Star. The gueBt glanced up and down the bill of fare without enthusiasm. "Oh, well," he decided finally, "you may bring me a dozen fried oysters." Tho colored waiter became all apologies. "Ah's very sorry, sab, but we's out ob all shellfish 'ceptin'aigs."—Every body's. A lady was applied to for ehnrity by a well-dressed woman. 'Are you mar ried?" was the question. ."Yes." "What Is your husband?" "Out-o.-work." "But what Is he when he is In work?" usked the lady. "You don't understand, miss," was the reply. "lie's regular out-o'-worker." Was there ever a better example o( the witty and concise form of expres sion than the answer of the grim mail who, when asked about the character of a neighbor, sententlously replied: "Mister. I don't know very much about him, but my impression Is, he'd make a flrst-class stranger." "I declare," Bays the young house wife. "I don't know what we are to do, when round steak costs as much as porterhouse. It Is outrageous." "Yes, mum," agrees the marketman. "What's a body going to do if this keeps on?" "I would advise you, mum, that beln' the case, to eat porter house."—Life. Young Wife (rather nervously)—Oh, cook, I must really speak to you. Your master is always complaining. One day it Is the soup, the second day It Is the flsh, the third day It Is the joint—In fact, It Is always something or other. Cook (with feeling)—Well, mum, I'm sorry for you. It must be quite hawful to live •with a gentleman of that sort— Philadelphia Inquirer. Mr. Youngmarrle (tasting)—What makes the oyster stew so thifk and sweet, dear? Mrs. Youngmarrle—I can't ltnagine, John I made It exactly according to the recipe: "one dozen fine, large oysters and one quart ol rich milk." The milk was lovely, and It came In cans, and I had to use four cans to make the quart. I think the grocer called It "condensed" milk.— The Bellman. The Joy or Having tt Cold* I have often asked to be told why It is that a man with a cold In the head feels himself to be a superior sort of being to the man with no cold. You must have observed for yourself that this is the case. Take, Indeed, your own cold. You refer to It thirty or forty times a day as "My cold." You feel quite sure that everybody you meet will know that you have a cold, and that everybody will be Interested In its progresr. You will find your self when in the full enjoyment of a cold airing opinions that you would certainly keep to yourself under nor mal conditions and casually contra dicting the statements ot those for whom, as a matter of fact, you cher ish a very sincere respect. There must be some simple physiological ex planation for this, and I should be greatly obliged If some medical reader would put me In the way of under standing it. Is it that the cold acts In some soothing way upon the nerves, thus freeing the self-conscious mau, temporarily, from his timidity? O- Is It that the fever accompanying a cold has a stimulating effect upon an .oth erwtse slightly torpid brain?—London Sketch. ... •.