OCR Interpretation

Martinsburg gazette. [volume] (Martinsburg, Va. [W. Va.]) 1833-1855, May 21, 1846, Image 2

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ter of to* Land Office to publish the resolution
h> such newspaper* as may be most lAely to
give notice of the same.
ftonMiw requesting the Government of the
Cmted States to provide for the satisfaction of
unsatisfied Virginia military land warrants for
revolutionary services, aDd to reimburse the
State for judgments recovered against it for
pay, half pay, or commutation for similar ser
vices. Requests the Representatives in Con
gress from Virginia, ami instructs the Henaters,
to preas upon the < toveranient of the U. States
the propriety of providing by law for die satis
faction of such ciaitns.
Reviotioxi authorising the Treasurer to in
vest certain funds for the hem fit of the ('incin
naii Society. Directs him to invest in Virgin
ia six per cent, stock, or in six per cent, bonds
having the .State’s guarantee, the money now
in iiih- hands, or which may lie hereafter re
ceived by him in trust for -the benefit of said
Remlxitum providing that the register of the
I md office shall tie ex oj/icio a member of the
Board of public work*.
Re&nbitiin providing that the register of tin
land office shall lie rx officio member ol certain
rublic boards. Makes him a member of the
literary fund board, of the board for the North- [
Western road, of the board for the .Southwest
ern road, and of the board of commissioners
of the Sinking fund.
Resolution for s impending the/lugr/ the State
over the capitol during the sessions of the
General Assembly. Provides that hereafter
during the actual sessions of either house, the
said flag shall be so suspended.
/ipnohrfiVrtijfcgButhorising the preparation and
publication onhe sketches of the laws. Re
quires the clerk of the House of Delegates, at !
the expiration of each annual session of the !
legislature, to prepare for publication a sketch
or synopsis of the several acts and joint reso- ,
lotions passed during the session; and makes
it the duty of the public printer to print, and
cause to lie forwarded by mail, to each dele
gate and senator, postage paid, one itundred
and fifty copies thereof, to be distributed by
them among the people; allowing the clerk
forty dollars for making the sketch, and the
printer to be paid as for other printing ordered
by the House of Delegates.
Trout Washington*
Vy the President of the U. Slates of America
Whereas, the Congress of the United rotates,
by virtue of the conslitutioun! authority vested
in them, have declared by their act, bearing
date this day, that, “by the act of the republic
of Mexico, a state of war rxists between that
Government and the United States
Now, therefore, I, JAMES K. POLK, I’re-1
sideul of the United States of America, do
hereby proclaim the same to all whom it may ;
concern ; and do specially enjoin on all persons
holding offices, civil or military, under the au
thority of the United States, that they be vigi
lant ant1 zealous in discharging the duties res
pectively incident thereto : and 1 do moreover
•xhort all the good people of the U. States, as
they love their country, as they frel the wrongs
which have liecn forced upon them the last
resort of injured nations, and as they consult
the best means, under the blessing of Divine
Providence, of abridging its calamities, that
they exert themselves in preserving order, in
promoting concord, in maintaining iheauthor
ity nud the efficacy or the laws, and in sup
porting and invigorating ail the measures
which may be adopted by the constituted au
thorities for obtaining a speedy, a just, and an
honorable peace.
In testimony whereof, I have hereunto set
my hand, and caused the seal of
the United States to be affixed to
these presents. Done at the city
of Washington the thirteenth day
of May, one thousand eight hun
dred and forty-six, and of the in
dependence of the United States
the seventieth.
By the President:
James Bi;chasms, Secretary of State.
The following is a correct copy of the im
portant Bill which passed the House of Rep
resentatives on the i 1th mat., by a vote of 17 1
to 14 :
“An art providing for the prosecution ofthe
existing war lietween the Lnited States and
the Republic of Mexico.”
Whereas, by the act of the Republic of
Mexico, a state of war exets lietween that
Government and the United States : There
fore— •
lie it emitted hi/ the Semite ami House of
H'present at ices of the l nited Staten if America
in Congress assembled. That, for the purpose
of enabling the Government of the !’. States
to prosecute said war to a speedy and success
ful termination, the President he and is here
by authorised to employ the militia, naval and
military forces of the United States, and to
call for and except iIip services of any number
of volunteers, not exceeding fifty thousand,
who may offer their services, as cavalry, artil
lery, infantry or riflemen, to serve six months
after they shall have arrived at the place of
rendezvous, or to the end of the war unless
sooner discharged. That the sum of ti n mil
lions of dollars be and is hereby appropriated
out ol anv money in the Treasury or to come
into the 1 r*-asur\ not otherwise appropriated,
for the purpose ot carrying the provisions of
tliis act into effect.
tec. 2. . i'A la it further enacted. That the
militia, when called into service of the United
State* by virtue of this act, or any other act,
may, if in the opinion of the President of the
United States the public mt. i, ,t r< ijuires it. be
compellej to serve foi a term not exceeding
six months after their arrival at the place iff
rendezvous, in anyone year, unless sooner
Sec. o. .hid U. it further enacted, Thai the
said volunteers shall fmr.rsh thm own clothes,
an 1. if cavalry, the.r own horses • nnd, when
mustered into service, shall !»• armed and
equipped at the ( spouse of the United Stat*.
Sec. 4. .Iml he. it further e,meted. That said
volunteer*, when called into actual seme,
and while remaining the. in. shall b subj, !
to the rules and articli s of war, and shall lie,
in all respects, except as to clothing and pav,
placed on the same footing with similar i urj,s
of the United States army; and, in lieu of
clothing, every non-coinun-sioned officer and
private m any company who may thus offer
himself, shali be entitled, when called into ac
tuul service, to receive in money a turn equal
to the cost i f clothing of a non commissioned
officer or private (ns the case may he) in reg
ular troops of the I nited States.
•Sec. 5. .Iml he. it further riMted. That the
raid volunteers so offering their services shall
be aceeptisl bv the President in companies,
battalions, «quadions,nml regiments,whose of
fi lers shall be appointed in a manner piexrrih
eil by in'.v in the several Stat. ' and Territories
to which such companies, battalions, squad*
mns, and regiments shall respectively U long
tree. *’>. ,h«l he U further enacted, That the
President oi lac 1 nit,'d States lie and is hereby
authorised to orgariiz, companies so tendering
'heir services into battalions and srgiadrons or
into regiments ; regiments into brigades, and
brigades into divisions, as soon as the number
of volunteers shall render such organt/ation,
in his judgment, expedient; and shall, by turd
with the advice ol the Senate, appoint the
generals of brigade and division*, and tin gen
eral stall', as now authorised by [aw ; Provi
ded, however, That major generals and bt,gi
dkr generals shall have the appointment of
their aids-de-camp, and the President shall, if
necessary, apport on the stall', field. j { *,,
eral sfleers among the re p»oiv« , , „d
Territories from which the 'volunteer* *h*ll
tender their sernice*, as he may deem proper,
j Sec. 7. Jlnd be it further enacted. That the
volunteers who may be received into the ser
vice of the United States by virtue of the provi
sion* of this act, who may be wounded or
otherwise disabled in service, shall be entitled
to all the benefit which may be conferred on
frersons wounded in the service of the United
Sec. 8. Jlnd he it farther enacted, 1 bat the
President of the United States be and is hereby
authorised forthwith to complete all the pule
lie armed vessels now authorised^ by law, and
to purchase or charter, arm, eejuip, and man
such merchant vessels and steamboats as upon
examination may tie found fit or easily con- j
i verted into armed vessels, fit for the public
service, and in such numlier as he may deem
necessary for the protection of the seaboard,
lake-coast, and the general defence of the
Sec. 0. .hut lie it further enacted, That,
whenever the militia or volunteers are called
and receivedjnfo the service of the U. States,
under the provisions of this act, they shall
have the organization of the army of the U.
States, and shall have the same pay and allow
ances, except as follow*, to wit: Privates of in- i
fan try, artillery, and rifiernen, shall receive ,
ten dollars per month, and privates of volun- j
teer mounted corps twenty dollars per month
for their services and the use and risk of their
The following incidents, which occurred du- j
ring the consideration of the Bill, are properly
published as part of the history connected with
its passage:
At that stage of the proceedings of the House
when this Bill was ordered to 1st engrossed for
a third reading—
Mr. Garrf.tt Davis rose and said: Mr.
Speaker, I ;t>k the Hons" to excuse me from
voting on the passage of this bill, and i will
assign very briefly my reasons.
This is a measure, directly and indirectly,
of very great importance, and yet no opportu
nity, not a single moment, has been allowed
any Whig of this House to say one word up
on it. So far as it can operate upon the fate
of the gallant General and his little army upon
the Del Norte, there is no need for such un
paralleled haste in urging a measure of its char
acter through this body. He is on a frontier
three thousand miles distant. In the exercise
| of a discretionary power vested him by the
j Executive, he has made a requisition on the
f Governors of the neighboring States for ten
j thousand troops. At this moment, the desti
ny of General Taylor and his gallant hand is
I sealed, and 1 doubt not that ere now the prompt
j succour which he has received from the States
I contiguous to the theatre of his operation has
given him such force that he has beaten back
the enemy, and that his victorious standard at
this moment floats over Matamoras. What
ever it is, his fate is now sealed,and any thing
we may now do will be too late to influence it.
There could then lie no valid objection to give
a day to the consideration of this bill, and no
persons would desire more. But the haughty
and dominating majority will not allow now
this much.
But, Mr. Speaker, I have an objection to the
preamble of the bill. It recites that war exists
between the United States and Mexico, and
that this war was begun by Mexico. That in
formal war exists between the two countries
is undeniable; but that Mexico commenced it
is utterly untrue, and 1 object to the preamble
because it sets forth so bold a falsehood. 1 am
decidedly strongly in favor of the appropria
lion of the money, and of the raising of the
forces for which the bill provides. For these
purposes, it is sufficient for me that our conn
try is at vrar, tie it formal or informal, wheth
er began by Mexico or our Government. 1 re
quire only to know that our army is in danger,
and whether it be in the territory of the United
States or Mexico, 1 am ready to vote men and
money even to the utmost resources of the
country for the rescue. If the war be wrong
ful, at a more convenient season I would hold
them responsible who made it. But I protest
solemnly against detiling this measure with
the unfounded statement that Mexico began
this war. That position is not necessary to
give this hill any possible effect. It could have
been as' well omitted, and, had it lieen reject
ed, I doubt notthe hill would receive the unan
imous vote of the House. But that was not
the object of its authors. Their purpose was
to make the Whigs vote against, or force them
to aid in throwing a shelter over the adminis
tration, by voting for a bill which set forth
that this needless ami unexpected war was
commenced by Mexico.
Sir, if the bill contained any recitation upon
, that point in truth and justice, it should be
j that this war was begun by the President.—
j The river Nueces is the true western bounda
I ry of Texas. The country between that stream
i and the Del Norte is part of Mexico ; and that
i Power had people and establishments in it.—
j Months ago the President, of his own will, or
ders Gen. Taylor and his army to take post at
Corpus Ohristi, on the west bank of the Nile- ;
ces, where they remained until a considerable '
j time after the beginning of this session oft on
gress. In March last, under the positive or
1 dors of the President, he moves through the
I disputed country upon the Del Norte. The
: Mexican authorities meet him at several points
with the declaration that he lias invaded their
country, and with protests against the agree- j
sion. They warn him unless he retires east of i
thoNcuees.hewill be deemed to be making war j
i upon Mexico, and they will resort to force.— !
lie refers to the positive orders of the Execu j
live, and in the execution of them he presses ]
! on to Matamoras ; strongly fortifies a position i
i overlooking the city, and mounts a battery of i
cannon within three hundred yards of it, liear
mg upon its public square, and from whence !
he could, in a few hours, hatter it down. He
then blockades the port of Matamoras, orders i
olf English and American vessels, and directs ]
the capture of a Spanish schooner. The Mex-:
ican commander treats all these as acts of war;
and, on the goth ot April, (.en, 1 ay lor is in
formed by a messenger, from the Mexican
ramp, that hostilities exist, that the Mexicans
will prosecute them according to the usages of
civilized nations. That night a detachment
of the Mexican army crosses the Kio (irande,
On. Tax lor sends out a scouting party to re
connoitre, which attacks the Mexicans, and is
defeated and captured by the Mexicans, and
thus war t.s waging in bloody eartuestncss.
It is our own President who began this war.
He has been carrying it on for mouths in a se
ries ni acts. Congress, which is vested exclu
sively by the < onstilution with the war-malt- j
ing i i wit, he lias not deigned to consult,
much I) -s to ask it for authority. Now, for
sooth, when it lias unexpectedly broke forth
in bloodv reverses, a position must be taken by
the ft lend* of (he President in Congress to pro
tect him l>\ charging Mem o with lieing the
auihor o! the war : and he, in cold blood, tea
ebe> cullers to sacrifice a brave and veteran of
ficer, w Iteucter it m»v become necessary to
cover bis mistakes and mcompetency.
I have yet anmber objection to this bill. All
tint is pro|«w. d to be voted by this bill is
to be misled to hint. He is to conduct this
w ir. lie is our I ommander-in chief, our
(jKtifroliuiuKi of army and navy. He knows,
or ought to know, how much money and how
, many men die pic-sent exigency requires; and
yet lie ha* not named the sum or any number
of troop*, as has been invariably the usage m
such i aws by all former Presidents. He
leaves u* to act upou our informal ion and
judgne'ot in the premia**. Are we to under
stand mat he abuudou* the rtsspoUMbilili'-s and
duties as Pn-aaicul and Commander iu Chief
in the conduct of this war 7 I V*-s he intend
to beun leratood by CongressauMtx mg to lie in,
(wlxat must be now apparent to tue whole na
Uou.) “1 am unequal to llie high positiou 1
occupy. I kuow in4 how to adviw you a* to
the amount id* money and the number of men
you must raise to rescue the military renown
of the country from the paw mg cloud which
now oncers it In xai> mPortiDl matter you
must assume mv duties and my r**pr>Mibih
tiee, and adopt the necrswarT measures to tin
dieate the suffering honor of the nation V* If1
this be the position of the President, he has
exhibited more good sense m assuming it tt. i
ali the arts of his administration bndn , if ,t ;
he not, he exhibits bis usual ivpteh- n*^ve^ec^■
But, Mr. Speaker, the essence of this men*
ore is the supplies. They will ail b» required
before the nation get* out of the diflicultv. (
will vote lor tin? supplies id the tail with hear
ty alacrity, at the same time protest.ng against
its falsehoods. Since th" play has begun, t
am for fighting Mexico on our sot), on ben,
every where, until we drive her across the
Rio Grande, and retrieve our annent renown.
I am then for withdrawing <mr army to the
east side of the Nuives, and then seining by
treaty all our points of dispute with th it wea'x
and distracted country ii|>un the most liberal
[Mr. Dxvts was frequently iutemipted bv
rails to order, and finally declared, when tak
ing his scat, that he withdrew his n-quest for
leave to be exeused from voting, and said be
should rote for tbe bill.)
Those Members who voted against the Bill
Messrs. John Quincy Adams, Ashman, ;
Cranston, ('ulver, Delano, Geldings. Grinin I,
Hudson, Daniel P. King, Boot, Severance, 1
Strohin, Tilden, Vance—14.
When the final vote was taken the follow
ing members severally assigned reasons, viz : I
When Mr. Fuu’i name was called lie ;
rose and said : Mr. Speaker, 1 ask to lie excu
sed from voting. I cannot vote in silence with
out placing myself in a false position. Icon
sider this bill virtually a declaration of war,
made without Executive recommendation ; for
1 do not understand the Executive as recom
mending a declaration of war. And made too I
when we do not know that the invasion of our
territory and aggressive acts an sanctioned by
the Government of Mexico. They may yet
be disavowed, and reparation made. I am.
therefore, unwilling to vote the declaration of
war. I do not consider such a declaration lie
cessary to meet the emergency. On the oilier
hand. 1 am anxious to vote such supplies of
men and means as will afford succour to our
army and rejiel the invasion. I must, as I am
now placed, decline to do this, or vote lor the
bill before the House. If 1 am not excused 1
shall vote for the bill, as I consider withhold- |
ing the supplien under the circumstances as
the greater evil. Mr. 13. withdrew his request
to Ik- excused.
When Mr. E. 13. IIoi.mfs was railed, he
rose in his place and said: "Mr. Speaker, 1
vote av, because 1 cannot withhold supplies
from our army in its present condition ; but 1
solemnly protest against the pri-auiUc to this
bill, and publicly denounce it as base, fraudu
lent and false.”
When Mr. Ai.nr.iiT Smith's name was ral
led, he rose and said : “Mr. Speaker, I vote for
the hill, but I do so under a protest to the pie- !
amble of the bill, as false in its facts and ojic
rating as a fraud upon the nation.”
During the consideration of the War Rill in
the U. S. Senate on Tuesday, after Mr. I lev
tinoton had moved the striking out the pre
amble, viz ; “W hernia, by the act of the Re
public of Mexico, a state of war exists lietween
that Government and the United States:
Therefore”—Mr. Johnson of Md. rose and
made the following remarks:
Mr. Kevekdy Johnson said that, from the
first moment he had heard that the American
army was in danger, and that the honor of the
nation required its relief, fie had in his own
heart resolved that nothing he could do would
lie wanting to secure the one and to vindicate
the other; and if for that purpose it was deemed
necessary to place the whole physical and t>e
cuniary power of the Government at the dis
posal of the Executive, he was prepared to do
it. In voting upon the several amendments
which had been proposed upon his own
side of the Senate, he had betn actuated by the
single purpose of procuring, if such a thing
were possible, a unanimous vote of the Senate.
That most desirable end seemed to be now itn
1 In relation to one of the amendments which
had been proposed, his own personal wishes ,
would have been gratified could it have been
adopted, so that he might have beeen relieved
from the necessity of asserting that a state of
war now existed between the United States
and Mexico. Rut in this he had been disap
pointed, and he had found himself obliged to
act upon such information as was now m his
possession; and, forming his judgment from
that alone, he must believe that a state of war
did now exist; not, to be sure, in the constitu
tional sense, because the Constitution conferred
upon Congress the exclusive power to declare
war; but in a sense equally important. The
territory of the I 'nited States has been invaded.
And why did he say this ? He had n t been
here at the time Texas had been received into
the Union : hut it was but frank in him to say,
hutvewr his opinions might he now, siuce In
had seen how Texas was represented here, he
should at that time have vuted against Iter a i
Rut Texas was now received ; she constitu
ted one of the States of this Confederacy. And
how had she been received ? \\ hat had been
her condition then, and what is it now ? She
had claimed the Rio del None as her boundary
line ever since lSHO. She laid announced that
river to the world as one ot her boundaries.— !
W hat else had she dong ? In pursuance of
the offer of the United States she had adopted a
Constitution; and in that instrument she asser
ted the same limits to her jurisdiction. In
view of that instrument, the portion ofcoun-j
try now occupied by our troops constituted by
law as one of our own < 'ongressional districts. 1
Rv receiving her we had made that district as
much our charge as any other portion of the
United States—whether by Mr. J.’s consent or
not, was immaterial to him. Texas was now
in the Union : and her rights and interests, as
one of the States, were now as dear in the
view of every true American as those of any of
the other States. We were bound by our
plighted faith to maintain her territory as it
was. We had received her with boundaries
specifically delined ; and, certainly, the nation- 1
al faith was pledged to maintain those boun
daries as we had recognized them, and to de- -
feud her territory in its entire extent.
Air. J. was unwilling to vote lor Uic amend
ment of lus friend lioin Connecticut, (Mr.
I Ii KTiNuroN.) Thai gentleman was unwil
ling to adopt the preamble of this hill, because
it asserted not only that a war existed, but
what was the cause of the war; and it charged
it altogether upon the act of Mexico. Rut
what would he the effect of striking out this
part of the bill ? It was virtually to say that
the war was owing to some other cause ; and
what was that I It could be nothing else than
some wrong done by the United Stales. Now
Mr. J. was willing to adopt no amendment im
plying the dishonor of his own country. He
never would consent by a vote of his to declare 1
to the world that in this war the United .States
had been the aggressor, lie would not have
voted to declare war; hut if war was necessary
and could not be avoided, lie was not going to
begin it by telling the world that it had been
tuduced by the fault of the United Stales Gov
1 le was not called upon to vote that the cros
sing of the Rio del Norte was an act of war, or
that it was done by order of the Government
of Mexico. He had no positive proof that it
was; but he could not but believp, with the
ho in. i able St nitorfrom Michigan, (Mr. Cass,)
ti.at ttie pr. umption was strong, nay, violent,
that it had be. n ordered by that Government.
H wa asked to vote simply that a state of
war !ul exi t, and the amendment moved by
his friend from Connecticut asked him to say :
I 1 ■ me wrong on oof part.— |
I Ins h». w uId not do. If he was right in hoi
du.g the Rio pel Norte to be the western ,
boundary of Terns, that m had a right to
march our army to that rim. Whether it waa
etfwdirtit to do *o waa irertb»r question. We
were bound, if » Miev»d that the Iiafetr of
Texas required ft, to take ff*a* Hep.
He ron'e Ks.t tbs*. bad the responsibility
b« ‘ n bi». !> ttmidd have ' cter! otherwise: but
the act wti dope,the advance had lawn made;
our arm) vo ia a stale ofrityw; Gen. Tar
Loa waa surrounded by three limes his owa
number; his supplies were cut off; and ere
this it was [Maeilie that the whole command
had falier; victims to their own reckless brave
ry and want of caution. ('oukl he sav tliat
war did not exist ! ('ertawlv it did ; and it ex
isted |w the act of Mexico, if the advance of
Gen. Aaivrt had been made by order of the
Mexican Governn.. nL He nnild not cousent
to the aniotiilm, nt, and thereby to say that if
war existed, it exi-ted by our own fault, and
not by tlie aggression of Mexico.
Mr Mobi.hk iu said lhat the Senator from
Mary lanj must be mistaken on the question of
boundary. The subject of boundary was ex
pressly referred to in the discussion on the an
nexation resolution itself. The second section
of that resolution says:
Sec. d. . hul It* UJ'm-thrr rrsrdnrd. That the
foregoing const nt of Congress is given upon
the folio wing conditions, and with the folkiw
ing guaranties, to wit: First Said State to be
formed, subject to the adjustment by this Gov
ernment on alt questkwsof boundary that may
arise with other Governments.
The question which xv- ;ire now called up
on to determine, he understood to be, waa
whether the war declared to exist has been
caused by Mexico. Whether it is waged bv
the authority of Mexico may depend on cir
cutustances. We have not had an opportunity
to investigate the subject. The question may
hereafter present itself in a different light from
lhat in which we now see it; and yet, under
these circumstances, we are called upon to de
clare that this is a war authorized by Mexico.
Mr. Ilsxnxmx thought his friend from
Maryland was laboring under a mistaken idea
with respect to the purport of his amendment.
If we erase ihe preamble, we do not thereby
deny that war exists; nor do we assert that
Mi xico ha* not authorised these hostile acts.—
We only declare, by striking out the preamble,
that we wished to investigate ; lhat we do not
know ; that we have not evidence whether war
does exist authorised by Mexico.
Mr. Joussos,of Maryland, said that Mexico
claims the whole of Texas. We esnn t go to
Mexico, therefore, to ask about our bounda
ries. She denies the existence of such a Stale
as Texa«. We go to Texas to inquire about
the boundary.
Mr Hxanir x said that in the debates on the
annexation of Texas the question of the true
boundary was one of much doubt and difth-ul
tv. It was difficult to understand whether the
\cnees or the If to i irande was the boundary be
tween Texas and Mexico, and the section re
ferred to was added by the Senate for this very
reason. It was to settle this disputed bounda
ry that the amendment referred to was made.
In the 1'. S. Senate, on the I ith mst., when
the motion to print ‘dt 1,0110 copies of the Presi
dent's Message and arcompanving papers on
the subject of our Mexican relations wax un
der discussion, Mr. I kittkriier of Ky. made
the following remarks :—
Mr. CaiTTEsnr.x, after making some inqui
rv ax to the documr-nts communicated with
the President’s message, and after the order of
General Tay lor to advanceto the Km del Norte
had been read, proceeded to remark, in sub
stance, that he deeply ngrettcd the intelligence
communicated bv the message of hostilintrs
with Mexico. That it was our true policy to
cultivate peace with her. That such had Urn
our policy in relation to Mexico and all the
South American Republics. That we had
hailed their first struggles for liberty, and their
establishment of Republican Governments,
and looked upon them a forming a system of
republics opposed to the monarchical system
ol l’.unipe. As the head of the republican
system, it has been our feeling, as it was our
tine policy, to cherish the kindliest relations
and sympathies towards them all. And such !
had been our course till our late unfortunate
difficulties with Mexico, which resulted, as
wc are now informed, in actual hostilities.—
Mr. I . f ared that all hau not been done by
our executive that might have been done to
avoid that result. He hoped the Senator from
Arkansas (Mr. Sr.t ier) might be able to justi
fy, m every partieular, the conduct of the Pre
sident ; but at present lie could s*-e no good ;
reason for advancing our army through a di»
Putt>d territory to the banks of the Km del
Norte, and pointing our canoon upon the town .
of Matainoras. Such a course could hardly 1
fail to be reganled as an insult, and to provoke
hostility. But he did not wish preuiatuHy, i
or without the fullest information, to impute
blame. As to Gen. Taylor, he knew him
well ; he was a brave and pmdent officer, 1
worthy of all confidence, and he felt assured
that he was warranted by his orders in all that
he had done. J
He aid the time would come hereafter for
mquiiing into the circumstances and cutises of
the present hostilities ; and the scrutiny, he i
trusted, would be strict, and such as the im
portance of the event demands. Whoever
should ho found to have caused the hostility,
il it has bu n caused upon our part, ought to
lx- held to the highest responsibility. Con
gross alone can constitutionally declare war,
and the pi ople of the I ruled Stales are not to
be involved in war by any other authority than
that of their own representatives.
There would come a time, however, for that
scrutiny. For the present we must provide
instantly fur the defence of the country. That
was our first duty, however hostilities may
have been occasioned : and he was prepared
to grant at once whatever of men or money
was necessary fur the purpose. Our corn,In/
is not in fault, though her servants or agents
may lie, and it is our duty to stand by her.
But 1 trust that while we adopt all the ip or
like measures that the occasion may require,
we shall be equally unanimous in adopting all
the most prompt and efficient means of restor
ing, if wc can, friendly Hattons with Mexico.
We can have no motive in pressing too far
on a weak or fallen foe. The belmgsof Mex
ico, under ail recent occurrences, must natur
ally be excited and wounded.
Policy and magnanimity require that we
should be as forbearing towards her as we can.
Our superiority is such as to relieve us from ,
the responsibly of our forbearance or generos
ity lieing construed into fear,or ascribed io any
improper or unworthy motives. No states
man could render a greater service to hiscouu
try than by restoring our peace and friendship
with Mexico. And so important do I regard
it, that, if it was in my power, 1 would, as
soon as circumstances would possibly permit,
send her a high and honorary einbasy of peace
—1 would appoint Clay, Van Uuren, Calhoun
and Benton—any one, two, three or all of
them. Mexico would feel herself honored by
such a mission, and such embassadors would
give peace, cordial peace, to the two countries.
Increased Postage.—A bill is now pend
ing in < 'ongress, proposing to change the rates
of postage—so that, instead of a uniform
charge of 5 cents, that sum shall lie charged
for every quarter of an ounce, or less, convey
ed 300 miles or less ; 10 cents for all distances
over 300 and not exceeding tiOO miles ;nnd 15
rents for all distances more than tkXI mile*.—
For every additional quarter of an ounce, or
fraction less than the quarter of an ounce, an
alkhtional postage except when a letter is writ
ten on a single sheet of paper, weighing over
one quarter of an ounce, or less than half au
ounce. The rates of 15 cents to be discontin
ued after the first ot July, 1848, if, in the opin
ion of the Postmaster General, the revenues
of the Department equal its expenditures, and
in that case, 10 cents shall Lie charged for all
distances over 300 miles.
On newspapers, the postage 100 miles. I
cent; and over 100 miles, 2 cents. Pamph
lets. per sheet, same rate*.
! « ALTE-L
THURSDAY, MAY 2!, 184&
HnblUhtit every THI'KIDAY. MOllMYU
at 9*4,00 In •dranve, 9*4,50 within nls
months, and 93*00 after six months.
We devote the greater portion of our col
ums this week to the subject of the war with
Mexico and the important proceedings of our
Government induced by it. We have endea
vored, as far as our limited space would per
mit, to place before our readers an intelligent |
view of the whole subject, andhope every one
will deliberate upon it with that candor and
consideration so justly due to its importance.
We have not the space this week to enter into
any discussion of the point of whether tear
existed or hostilities existed—to all practical
views they are the same in their consequen
ces, especially as they are demonstrated in the
actions of the parties now engaged in the“hot
test of the work.” We care not now who J
began the war, or wbat kind of Statesmanship i
brought it to the point, the important nows i
which we present in our columns from “ the |
seat or war” shows very plainiy that “war ex
ists,” and that in a pretty severe engagement
a portion of our gallant army, under Major
Ringgold, has sustained itself manfully and
covered our arms with a glorious victory.
The Proclamation of the President of the
United States declares that war now exists be
tecn the U. States and Mexico—that is enough
for us, as it has been done in obedience to the
law passed hv the Constitutional War-making
power of our Government. That question
ought now to be shut and every .hnerwan
Citizen feel il Ins duty to stand by his country
“in heart anil soul; in mind and strength.”—
We feel assured that the sentiment of the
whole people « now with their country, and
whatever some may think of the folly of “pre
cipitating th, war,” now that it exists, they
nrefor carrying it on vigorously and efficiently.
The President has ordered 43,000 men to be
enrolled and made ready to be called into ser
vice at any moment. The response of the
country to the call is prompt, and we have no
doubt at all that men enough and more than
enough will lie found ready and anxious to lend
themselves to their country.
The plain duty of the people of the United j
States now is, to be as one man, and from all
that we can see among the “rank and file” but J
one sentiment prevails, and that is “our eoun- j
try right or wrong.” We cannot pass front ,
this subject without expressing our contempt at j
the long and windy attempts of “Father Ritch- !
m” daily blown out in the columns of the '
“Union” against the Whigs, charging them
with want of patriotism, and factiously oppo
sing the Administration tn its efforts to vindi
cate the rights and honor of our country against
the invasion of a foreign enemy. The “Union” |
knows these charges lo ire fulse in every par- |
tieular—the Whigs in Congress voted freely
men and money to meet the present condition
of affairs—while Mr. Calhoun and some
others of the “Democracy” held back and
hurled bitter and withering anathemas at the
"Statesmanship” that brought on the war.— i
Where are the thunders of the “Union”
against its own party V Is the Editor of the
“Union” afraid to attack Mr. Calhoun open
ly, or is he whipping hitn over the shoulders
ol the Whigs ? We despise a mraking ry>po
nmt—and particularly one of these mrahi who
talks so boldly and valiantly when no foe is
near. As for the Loco Focos making Capital
out of this war and appropriating its glorvffif
victory crowns out arms,(if whicn we hare no
doubt) to themselves is ridiculous in the ex- 1
triune. It is not he who talks the most loudly
of his patriotism, his courage, and his devotion
to the country, that is the most ready to slund
up lo “the scratch” when 'the tug of war”
cornea. As to the Whigs of the United States
their .hn> neon flint M of "Oir right Mript''— j
all of their efforts and measures show that. In j
their domestic policy they are true friends of
their ownroouiry—in the field of belli* they will
be foesd *1 their poela- we mature to iar, that
they will »H be fumii ••.hot is ike berkami
that lb* remit will show tliat "lb* boiti at of lb*
fight” Lend ihen le it. IV* doubt nor lb* rowreg* sad
palriolian of our political opponent! and w* nek*
thru remaiki aol lo real iwpalalmae npoa then,
bin 10 repel onworlhj aeperetooa 00 our own party
ami lo esprrei terr coolrmpt at ibe uotmely logging
■ ato tor It *a ewrrgenry a* o*>w eagagre ibe aMra
tiooof 'be eounlry-per/p pe’ilire We should like
Mr. Rnouis lo aaewer ret lyurettoo—are Ibe Dm
ueraU of rbe country willing eioglo bonded lo un
dertake lha war and figkt rl through t Wa Ibiok
We have been repeatedly asked during the
past week why the “Heuimektai. Piuh"
was not published as usual—and when the
(ieneral Muster was to take place! To the
first we replied (hat we did not know;—to the
second query we replied that an Orderly Nor
jeant told us. that a Second Lieutenant told
him, that a First Lieutenant kdd bun, that a
Captain told him, that a Major told him, that
the Colonel told him that the < .c tiers I Muster
was to take place on Saturday tkr £M out
Wc wonder il'the “bold 67th" is disposed to
reinforce Oen. Taylob ! I lent ia a chance ft*
covering your “Cornstalks'’ with glory'
Tb« K icbaiuud pi;»ii mhum I hr J.aih ui I ha
Ho*. Koscav bra Hasan, m U I ha Jiet«a. nf iha
Court nf Appeal#. I<« as. ntinrkad os Monday,
Iba tllh last , wilh pstmly.u abtianugnfad in ha
Offier, i« lh.prrpninl.oa af na opm.un, and dwd aa
*> t iiu4-ft<]«y fallow i»f
Ocp • 'b»t I Dr report f fvu'at »f
over ibe routtr; iluu Mr Pa««*«4ji. BmMk
Minister, Dm protnUO *f tutt «wr iroo|« crowta|
th«r *‘H»o Oriodf," u witlmit L««.Uf <«
OCPM^J Oft. Wiirmp Ittn, liU —*4. wiH
frl'4‘r M**^*M| lo 'b« PoutH mn! U*t rpftaul
of otr Amf, *>• tb0 Titttt frcwtitr
..'■ I I ,IL„
M®wo of tilk® ID>siya
A wealthy individual (whose name » not
given) is reported to the London papers to
have recently deceased, who has left by will,
the sum of ■£100,000 in trust to the then Lord
] Chancellor for the benefit of the individual who
should clearly demonstrate the square of the
circle ; the interest until the condition of the
will is complied with, to be paid to one of
the colleges at Cambridge, it is believed St
John’s College.
The Methodist Episcopal General Conference,
South, is now in session in Petersburg, Va.
The Maryland Mining Company's Rail
Road was opened on the 13th inst The
Road is 91miles in length and connects the
very extensive Coal Mines in Allegany Coun
ty with the town of Cumberland.
! Since Texas has been admitted into the
! Union, California, has become the ".Isylum”
| for all scape graces; and instead of the enigmat
ical letters “G. T. T.” being appended to the
names of all who “leave for parts unknown,”
the letters “G. T. C.” will hereafter be used.
A man in Kentucky has invented a pill so
powerful strong in its operation, that it will
work otf the tightest pair of boots.
In the single County of Mercer, Pennsyl
vania, there are now erecting fourteen new
Iron Furnaces.
The Lexington (Va.) Gazette Office is of- ;
fered for sale. The material* are good. Pos- j
session given in September next
‘'Fashion” has again been victorious. In a
race over the Canton Course on the 11th inst., ’
she beat “ Orator,” and took the purse of $(500.
The Legislature of .Xeio York adjourned
tine die on the 13th inst., after a session of 128
Two Pennsylvania woolly heads fought a 1
duel near Mercersburg, on the4th inst. They
fought with shot-guns, and one was wounded
in the shoulder.
The “Hagerstown Torch Light,” in June .
next, will be published semi weekly, at $1,50
in advance.
On the 20lh u!t., the business receipts of the
Reading Rail Road were over $7,000, or at the
rate of $2,170,000 per annum. This is the
largest business ever done in a single day by
any Rail Road in the world.
Fcrmont has more Revolutionary Pension
ers, in proportion to her population, than any
other State in the Union.
A new material for roofing nouses has been
invented by two gentlemen of Pennsylvania,
which is more durable than shingles, slate or
tin, as brilliant as glass, fire and water proof,
red, blue, green or any other color that may be
desired; and is a non-conductor of electricity,
1 a reflector of heat, cheaper than tin, lighter
than slate, is almost indestructible by time or
weather, and so easily put on that the lurgcsl
roof can be covered in a single day.
The Charlottesville (Va.) Advocate states
that the ravages of the Jly in Eastern Virginia
have appeared to an extent heretofore unpre
The “Alexaudria Gazette'* make* the following
jn»t remark*-and iu corroboration of the truth of
them, we will merely remark that we fell iu com
pany with a plain, sensible and sturdy Germau from
Penns) Ivania, on Tuesday, while riding in the coun
try, and our conversation turning upon “the War
with Mexico," and its probable effects, &e , he re
marked : “Well, 1 voted to put the present Admin
istration iu power, but every day convinces me that
('lav ought to have been (he man—his name aloue
would have carried a weight that would have caused
all Foreign Nation* to reflect well before they mo
ved "
We think that all unprejudiced men must
acknowledge that the predictions of the W/iig,
as to the probable state of the country in the
event of the election of Mr. Polk, and the con
sequent elevation to power of those likely to
assist in the conduct of his administration;
have thus far been fully realized: and we also
think thal there are few who will not admit that
had Mr. Clay been elected President, we
should have been relieved from much of the
trouble through which we have passed, and
much more likely to ensue. We need not car
ry out the idea. Every day only serves to in
crease our regret that Mr. Clay is not now
at the head ol the government, exerting the
great powers of his great mind, his patriot
ism, and his influence, in preserving the hon
or, the rights, the prosperity, and the peace of
the country. Are we wrong in believing that
many of those who opposed Mr. Clat’s I
election, begin to agree with us in these regrets, i
and to be utmost ready to express their candid j
opinions ? Let not the obstinacy of party or i
the false pride of adherence to party, longer
prevent them from doing justice to themselves j
and to the Hum of the age /
Oj-'Vt ukc Ibe following rxir.cl from ihe New
Oilcsor correspondent of Ibe Nntioual Intelligencer,
listed Ihe 11 lb inal
The reported destruction of Matamoras and
the heavy loss of the Mexicans, must, 1 think,
I* exagg* rated, as continued cannonading
was heard in that direction up to the hour the
steamboat left.
I augur favorably from the fact that Gen.
TXTLOB intending to return forthwith with his
force ; for, if he entertained anv doubt of his
ability to force his way, he Would have waited !
the reinforcements, which would so soon be
at Point Isabel from hence. About sixteen
hundred men have already been actually mus- ;
ti red mto the service at this place. Such t>or
uon of them as are composed of our uniform
companies are probably nearly as efficient as
the regulars, as they are nearly or quite as
well disciplined, and are far superior in intel
ligence to the rank and file of the army. The
new recruits will be serviceable, whilst they
are under drill, in performing garrison duty,
acontiug parties, and fatigue men, reliev
ing the regulars m these respects, and thus
allowing all the latter to muster in the line of
buttle; and (he new volunteers will soon be m
sufficient drill and discipline to take up
their station and do good service in the field.
Three steamboats full of volunteers have
left here within the last forty-eight hours, all
in high spirits and confidence. | presume the
whole quota must now be full, and that no
draft will he required. A regiment of moun
ted gunmen are rapidly organising in the
country, who intend proceeding, by forced
marches by land, from the western Parishes.
Our l exan neighboia do not appear to have
responded to Gen. Txfuoa’s call. Instead ot
two hundred men, as re|K>rted, having gone |
from Galveston, only fifteen went. It is ****'•
however, thev are organizing in the interior.
I see no alternative now for the Govern
ment but at once to collect an effective force of
>-ight or ten thoueand ruefl on the Mextcan
frontier ,
We look for the next news with great anx
tetv. and 1 wdl keep you advised ol any thing
that may occur. ' ary Wtrfy*!k<"
yp WSal has Www •( Ik* ■■Bssaai.BY Aasi- ;
rviTvaai. Bociar»y" Was there aot s rueeii.ig
.rr. ,..,d tar ssm*«» the w^ub of May, at Ibe
A semi Meetisg ia Octaber ts»l» 1
SWJIUXI I.-U I. . 1.. I'l . I
Tfcrrm fioiMrrr* and tKr Me*.
Wasbirstor, May 16, P. M 1846.
Messrs. A 8. Abel «c Co.-The mat! boa.
w just m, and brings an Extra from the No
Bulletin, May 9.
By the arrival of theschr. FJlcn &
Captain Griffin, front the Brazos St Jam,
counts from Point Isabel to the inornmg 0r th.
29th ult., have been received.
The fact, however, that communication had
not been had for three days between Point k»
liel and the catnp of Gen. Tavlor is aloue suf
ficient to keep anxiety on tip toe.
We learn from Capt. G. and Dr. Briggs, a
passenger, who has been several months with
the army, and Capt. Walker, formerly of the
lexan revenue service, who has been sta
tioned between Point Isabel and On. Tat
noM’s camp with a company of twenty-four
1 ex as Rangers, found several of the teams
wlm-h had started from the Point for the camo
were returning and reported that the Mexicans
^ ere on the road.
He started from his camp on ihe 28th with
his whole force to reconnoitre: and if possible
emeu a communication with Gen. Tavl.ir —
He had proceeded as far as about mtd-dav be
tween Point Isabel and the camp, when an
overwhelming Mexican force appeared very
suddenly. A portion of his troops were mw
recruils. He instructed them to keep ou hu
right, and gave orders to the whole to retire UI1
der cover of a chapprral in Tiew. But his raw
troops, panic stricken scattered iu confusion
The Mexicaus advancing with overwhel
ming numbers, he was compelled to retire.—
He was followed until a mile of Point Isabel,
where he arrived with only two of his men —
Six others subsequently came on.
Capt. W. estimates the number of Mexicans
he encountered at 1500, and he supposes that
at least thirty fell during the 15 minute* he en
gaged them.
This forre is supposed to be a portion of llmi
which had at last accounts crossed the Rio
Grande some 20 or 25 miles above Matamoras,
aud which is estimated at 3000 men. It is be
lieved that they had taken a circuitous route on
the eastern side of Gen. TatlorV catnp.
The post is very strongly defended, thanks
to the exertions of Majors Monroe and Hahn
ders. With 500 men to defend the post, it is
believed it can be made good against 3,000
Mexicans. There are now about 3.000 Mexi
cans on the American side of the llio Gmnde.
One half above and one half below Gen. Tav
lor’s camp.
from the licmjime nf the 9m inti.
The greatest apprehension now felt for the
American position is that the Mexicans may
eroct fortifications which command Brassus
Santiago. The natural formation of the ground
ts mostly favorable for such a purpose. The
men would be effectually protected from onv
naval force by the natural embankments, and
the position could only be carried by actual
iterating of the works.
The brig Josephine, Capt. Robinson arrived
yesterday at VeraCruz ; had sailed thence on
the 2Gth,three days later than previous advices.
The sloop of war John Adams, the only vessel
of the United States lying off Sacra Gcios when
the Josephine left; tnc squadron not then hav
ing returned to its anchorage.
The Royal Mail steamer Tweed arrived at
Vera Cruz from Tampico on the 24th ult.,but
the papers say not a word as to the state of
things in the latter city.
The latest advices received at Vera Cruz
from Mntatuoras, were to the 15th ull., imme
diately after the arrival of Gen. Ami-uiha.
His notice to Gen. Taylor to retire behind
the Neuces was known, and the Vera Cruz
people expected to hear of hostilities. We ham
heard it reported that the British Consul saw
the letter from Ampudia to Gen. Taylor be
fore it was sent, and approved of the same.
Col. Trueman Cross.—The Marlboro'
Gazette notices the death of Col. Cross, and
The death of Col. Cross, under such cir
cumstances, has spread a gloom over ibis cm.
munity. Every man who knew the deceaMxi,
loved and respected him. His high-minded
and gentlemanly deportment, and Ins l-mve
and liberal spirit, endeared him to a lm.re cir
cle of acquaintance's. Col. Cross was a na
tive of Prince George's county. Hetounvn
ced life in humble circumstances, but by trr-at
industry and application, had amassed a i.« go
fortune, and won his way to a high ] ■! in the
Army. Col. Cross served many year* under
Gen. Jackson, and was highly esteemed by
that distinguished man lor his indomitable cour
age and bravery. May he rest in peace!—
And tnay his friends be condoled by the reflec
tion that he left a runrie pure and unsullied.
‘•How ilecp the brave whe vmh to rest.
By all their Country’• honoic bli-vt.,*
The Girard College.—The splendid pile
of buildings for the Girard Collage are now
so rapidly approaching completion that they
daily increase in beauty, and amply repay nu
merous visiters. The pillars of the northern
portico are all up, together with a large portion
of the entablature above, ami the workmen art
engaged in commencing the brick arches
springing from the portico to the main wall of
the building for the suppott of the roof. The
pillars of the portico an-now completely flu
ted, with the exception of a small portion near
the base of one. The western and southern por
ticos having been completed a long lime since,
those of our readers who hove uot been there
lately may judge from the progress made that
the completion of the main building will not
be long delayed. The marble pavement in
the rooms upon the second and third Hours are
laid, together with two of those on the first
floor. The pavement of the other two rooms
is all that remains to lie completed of this por
tion of the work.—The two out buildings com
menced about a year since, to the east of the
main building, are also nearly completed.—
One of them has been roofed in and is now be- t
mg covered with copper, and the other is tea- I
ly to receive the supports for its roof.—Philo H
Jdjihia Ijtdgtr. I
The Late Flour Seizure—The Miller
Indicted.—The Grand Jury, on Saturday re
turned a true bill charging Joseph C. Keks,
miller, at Fainnount, with cheating at com
mon law, by packing in his barrels a less
i quantity of Hour than is required by law, and
by means of false tare passing them on lor
j full weight The flour, it will be recollected,
1 was stopped by the deputy flour inspector, al
ter it bad been put oil board of one of our Liv
erpool packets for exportation, found to be de
ficient, and was repacked at the miller » ex
pense Subsequently, the authorities thought
that'an example more signal was neeeeaarylo
break up the practice, which, if continued
would destroy if it had not already destroyed,
the character of the Philadelphia importations
of bread stuffs, and hence a bill was sent be
fore the grand inquest, and yesterday returned
as above stated. Upon this finding, Mr. Kern
was sent for, and on appearing was held in
JgtKIO bail to appear and answer the charge.—
Philadelphia ledger.
Scraps ior the Curious.—If a tallow
candle be placed in a gun, and shot at a door,
it will go through without sustaining any inju
ry ; and if a musket ball be fired into water, H
will not only rebound, but be flattened as il ti
red against a solid substance. A musket may
be fired through a pane of glass, making lb®
hole the size of the bal! without cracking urn
glass; if suspended by a thread it will make no
difference, and the thread will not even v ibrate.
Cork, if sunk 'AX) feet in the ocean will uot
nee on account of the pressuie of the water.—
In the orotic regions, when the thermometer is
below zero', prison' can converse more than a i
mile distant

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