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111 OUR COUNTS Y H E R C 0 M M E R C E A NO HER FREE INSTITUTIONS. VOL. IV. OTTAWA, ILLINOIS, FRIDAY, FEBRUARY 23, llili. NO. 3C. 10 iWA fill TRADER, 2 ?0 UL21!lri f rrrm js-: n f a io . -i ,-j7 r Carrepnlar of Grirral Jfmrph Huiiih una lion, j, v. t nitioun. Nauvoo, (III.) Nov. 4th, 1843 Hon. John C. Calhoun, Dear Sir, Ai wo understand you arc a candidate for the Presidency at the next election ; and as tho Latter Day Saints, (some times called Mormons,) who now consti tute a numerous class in the school poli tic of this vast republic, have been robbed of an immense amount of property, am endured nameless sufferings by the State of Missouri, and from her borders have been driven by force of arms, contrary to uur national covenants ; anu as in vain we have sought redress by all constitu tional, legal and honorable means, in her courts, in her executive councils, and her legislative halls ; and as we have petition- ml Congress to take conizence of our suf ferings without effect, we havo judged it wisdom to address you this 1:0 111 in ti men tion, and solicit an immediate, specific, and candid reply to ivhat will be your . rule oj action, relative to us as a people, ' should fortuno favor your ascent-inn to the chief niajestracy? Most respectfully, sir, your friend and the friend of peace, good 'order, and constitutional rights, J . JOSEPH SMITH, In behalf of the Church of Jesus Christ 'of Latter Day Saints. linn. John C. Calhoun, Fort Hills, N. C. ' HON. JOHN C. CALHOlVs JtErLY. Fort Hills, Dec. 2, 1843. Sir, You ask me what would be my k rule of action relative U the Mormons, or Latter Day Saints, should I be elected President to which T answer, that if I '.. nhnuld bo elected, I would strive to ad minister the government according to the t.m constitution and the laws of ihe Union; . Mil J that an they make no distinction he tween citizens of different religious creeds, I should make n ine. As far as it depends n the executive department, all should have tho lull benefit of both, and none should be exempt from their operation. Hut as you reft r to the case of Missou ri, candor compells me to repeat what I said to you at Washington ; that accord ing to my views the cane dots not tome . within, the jurisdiction of the federal gov .;Vrrnment, which is one of limited and spe cific power. Willi respect I am. &c. JOHN C. CALHOUN. "V Mr. Josnrii Smith. JO SMITH S REPLY. Nauvoo, (III.,) Jan. 2, 1811. Sir, Your reply-to my letter of last ., November, concerning your rule of action towards the Latter D-iy Saints if elected , President, is ut hand ; and that you and your friends of the same opinion, relative . to, the matter in question, may not be dis- ; - appointed as to nie, or my mind, upon I .so grave a subject, permit me us a law J abiding man ; as a well wisher to the I perpetuity of constitutional rights and :'w liberty, and as a friend to the free wot ', -ship of Almighty God, by all, according I tilhe dictates of every person's con ; .science, to 6av am surprised that a man, or men, in the highest station of puoiiu ue, biiunu nave maun up such a fragile 'view' of a case, than which there ' is not one on the face of the globe fraught . with to much consequence to the happi ness of men in this world, or the world to como. To bo euro, the first para- graph of your letter appears very coin . placent, and fair on a while sheet of pa per, and who, that to ambitious for great ness and power, would not have said the the same thing? Your oath would bindi you to support the consiitution and the j ' laws, and as all creeds and religions are alike tolerated, they must, of course, all be justified or condemned, according to merit or demerit but why, tell me why, are all the principle men, held up for public stations, so cautiously careful, not to publish to the world, that they will judge righteous judgement law or no law ; for law and opinions, like the vanes of the steeples change with the wind. One congress passes a law, and another repeals it,nd one statesman says that the constitution means this, and ano 1 therthat; and who does not know that 1.1 : . 1 :f. t t 1 1 all may be wronjT The opinion and pledge therefore, in the first paragraph of your reply to my question, like the forced team from the engino of a steam boat, makes the show of a bright cloud at first, but When it comes in contact with a purer atmosphere, dissolves to common air again. Your second paragraph leaves you nak ed before yourself, like a likeness in a mirror, when you say that 'according to your vitwt, the federal government is one of limited and specific powers,' and has no. jurisdiction in the case of the Mor- , mons. So then, a State can at any lime, , expell ny portion of her citizes with im- punity, and in the lamruacre of Mr. Van Burtn, frosted om with your gracious 'views of the case,' though the case is ever so just, government can do nothing for them, because it has no power Go on, then, Missouri, after another set of inhabitants, (as the Latter Day Saints did) have entered some- two or three hundred thousand dollars worth of land, and made extensive improvements thereon ; go on, then I say, banish the occupants or owners, or kill them as the mobbcrs did tho Latter Day Saints, ant take their land and property as a spoil : and let the legislature, as in the case of the Mormons, appropriate a couple of hundred thousand dollars to pay the mob for doing tlicjob ; for the renowned scnat or of South Carolina, Mr. J. C. Calhoun, says, the powers of the federal govern ment aro bo specile and limited that it has no jurisdiction if the cane ! Oh, ye people who groan under llm opprcs sion of tyrants, ye exiled Poles, who have felt tho iron hand of Russian grasp; ye poor and unfortunate among all na lions, come to the 'asylum of the oppris sed ;' buy yc lands of the general govern ment; pay in your money to the treasury .1.1 1 losirengmen me army ana me navy ; wor ship (iod according to the dictates ofyour own conscience ; pay 111 your taxes to support the great heads of a glorious na tion ; but remember a 'Sovereign Sati!' is so much more powerful than tho Uni ted States, tho parent government, that it can exile vou ut pleasure, mob you with impunity; coiiscate your lands and property ; have the legislature- sanction it: vea, even murder vou, as an edict of an Jwnpcror, and it docs no wrong, lor the noble senator of South Carolina, says the power of tho federal government is so limited and specific that it has no juris dirtion of the case! What think e ol imperii m in tmpciio! Ye spirits of the blessed of all ages, bar!.! Ye shades of departed statesmen, listen 1 Abrah am, Moses, Homer, Socra tes, Solon, Solomon, and all that ever thought i.f right and wrong, look down from your exaltations, if you have any, for it is said that in the midst of counsel lors there is xaffly, and when you have learned that lifieeu thousand innocent ci tizens after having purchased their lands of tho Uniied States, and paid for them, were expelled from a 'Sovereign Slate' by order of the Coventor, at the point of the bayonet; and the right of migration into said stale, denied under pain of im prisonment, whipping, robbing, mobbing, and even death, and no justice or recom penee sdlowtd ; and from the leg Mature, with the Governor at the head, and down to the justice of the peace, with a bottl:; of whiskey in one hand, and a bowie knife in the other, hear them all declare that there is no justice for a Mormon in that state, and judge ye a righteous judge ment, and tell 1110 when the virtue of tho states was stolen; wheie the honor of the general government lies hid; and what clothes a senator with wisdom? Oil nullifying Carolinia ! Oh little tempcMuous Ulioile Island ! would it not be well for tho great men of the nation to read the fable of the varliul jtu'Zc a!'J vv''en part of the fice citizens 01 a stale nan oeen expelled contrary to the constitution, mobbed, robbed, plun dered, and many murdered, instead of starching into the coyrso taken with Jo anna Southcott, Ann Lee, the Trench prophets, the Quakers ol New England, and rebellious niggers in the slave states, to hear both tides and then judge, rather than have the mortification to say, 'oh it is tny bull that has killed your'on, that alters tho case ! 1 muat inquiro into it, and if, and ij ?' If the general government has no power to reinstate expelled citizens to their rights, there is a monstrous hypocrite fed and forstcred from the hard earnings of tho people ! A real 'bull beggar' upheld by sycophants ; and although you may wink to the priests to stigmatize whee dle the drunkards to swear, nnd raise the hue and cry of imposter, false prophet, God damn old Joe Smith, yet remember, if the Latter Day Saints nr'c not restored to all their rights and paid for all their losses, according to the known rules of r ..ill . , justice and judgement, reciprocation nnd common honesty among men, tint Cod will come out of his hiding place and vex this nation with a sore vexation yea, the consuming wrath of nn offended God shall smoke through the nation, with as much woe, as independence has blazed through with pleasure and delight. Where is the strength of government ? where is the patriotism of a Washington, a Warren, and Adams? and where is a spark of the watch firo of '70, by which one candle might be lit, that would glimmer on the confines of Democracy ? Well may it be said that one man is not a state ; nor one state a nation. In the days of Uen. Jock son, when France refused the first inslal ment spoliation, there was power, force. aud I10110T enough to resent injustice and insult, and the money came ; and shall Missouri, filled with negro drivers and men stealers, go 'unwhipped of justice' for tenfold greater sins than Franco ? No I verily no ! White I have power of body and mind ; while water runs and grass grows; while virtue is lovely and vice hateful ; and while a stone points out tho sacred spot where a fragment of American liberty once was ; I or my posterity will plead the cause of injured innocence, until Missouri makes attoue ment for all her sins, -or sink disgraced, degraded and damned to hell 'where the worm dieth not, and tho fire is not quenched.' Why, sir, the power not delegated to the United States and tho states, belongs to the people, and congress sent to do the peoples' business, have all power and shall lilteen thousand citizens groan in exile ? Oh, vain men, will ye not, if ye do not restore them to their rights and 2,000,000 worth of property relinquish to them, (the Latter Day Saints) as a boby, their portion and power that be- ongs to them according to the constitu tion ? Power has its convenience, as well as inconvenience. I he world was not made for Caesar alone, but for Titus too.' I will give you a parable ; a certain ord had a vineyard in a goodly land, which men labored in at their pleasure ; a few meek men also went and purchased witli money from somo of the chief men that labored at pleasure, a portion of land in the vineyard, at a very remote part of it, and began to improve it, and to eat ind drink the fruit thereof: when the ord of the vineyard, rose up suddenly and robbed these meek men, nnd drove them from their possessions, killing many. 1 Ins barbarous net made no small stir among U10 men 1:1 the vineyard where the men where robbed, rose up in grand council, with their chief man, who had firstly ordered the deed to be done, and made a covenant not to pay for the cruel deed, but to keep the spoil, and never let those meek men set their feet on that soil again, neither recompence them for it. Now these meek men, in their distress, wisely fought icdress of those wicked men 111 every possible manner nnd got none. They then supplicated the chief men, who licit the vineyard at pleasure. ind who had tho power to sell and defend it, for redress and redemption, and those men, loving the fame nnd favor of the multitude, more than the glory of the lord of the vineyard, answered, your cause is ttst, but we can do noiliin fur you. be- tuso we have 110 power. Now when tho lord of the inevanl saw thai 1 irL.r- and innocence was not icgardcd, and his vineyard occupied by wicked men, he scut men and took the possessi jii of ii to himself, and destroyed those unfaithful servants, and appointed them their por tion among hypocrites. aiiu ici me say, that all men who say that congress has no power to restore and defend the rights of her citizens, have not the love of tho truth abiding in them. Congress has power to protect the nation against foreign invasion and internal broil, nnd whenever the body passes an act to maintain right with any power ; or tJ restore right to any of her citizens, ir is the si piiLMi: law or tiii: land, mid should a stale refuse- submission, that state is guilty of insurrection or rebellion, and tho president has as much power to repel it ns Washington had to march against the 'whiskey boys of Pittsburg,', or General Jackson had to suppress the rebellion of South Carrolina. To close, 1 would admonish you, be fore you let your candor compel you again to wiight upon a subject, great ns the salvation of man, consequential ns the life of the Saviour, broad as the principles' 01 cieinai mini, nnd valuable ns the jew els of eternity, to read in the 8th section of tho 1st article of the constitution of the United Slates, the first, fourteenth and sixteenth 'specific' and not very 'limited power' of the federal government, what can be done to protect the lives property, 1 1 . r . 1 . . . aim rignis 01 it rigiiteous people, when tho administration of the laws and the lawmakers nrc unbought by bribes, 1111 corruptcd by patronage, untemplcd by gold, unawed by fear, and uncontamina tcd by tangling alliances even like Cic sars wife, not onlu unspotted but unsus pected! nnd (Jod who cooled ihe heal of a Nebuchadnezzar's furnace, mid shut the mouths of lions for the honor of a Daniel, will raise your mind above the narrow notion, that the general government has no power to the sublime idea that con gress, with the president as executor, is us idmighty in its sphere, as Jehovah i in his. With great respect, I have the honor to bo your obedi int servant, JOSEPH SMITH. Hon. ('Mr,'?) J. O. Calhoun, Fort Hills; S. C. Pay your small debts,' and especially tnc printer. Oi l Con. Wo see thai the bouse of representatives hai finally got at thin suljrct; ami we extract the follow ini; report of tlio debute upon it on the 2 1th ult., from iho New Vort Herald : Mr. Thomasson, of Ky., whig, said he should regret to see any premature action on the subject. It was a very important matter, and a Minister from Great Britain is shortly expected here; what will be the use of our negotiating or trying to nc gotiate with him w lieu he arrives, if you tell him ttiat you arc going to take pos session of it whether Great Hriiain likes it or not. I coincide with the gentleman in all he says as to our clear right and ti lie to the territory ; and give these pio. neers that are now settling there but ten years more, and they will have possess ion oi me country ; they are bound to havo the country; and they will not ask you to legislato for them unless it be to take them into the Union. Why, sir, there are already over 20,000 of our citi zens there, between California and the north of Oregon. Uut give Great Britain notice to terminate that treaty, and you stand pledged before the world to lake possession of it at the close of a year. Is there any necessity for this ? And can you Keep ti : u ny to move an army across the Kockv Mountains to protect your 20.00U citizens would cost more than your whole annual expenditures for five years. From the time you leave the timber on the Mississippi, till you strike the sea, you have to travel 18,000 miles ; and you must keep a force equal to any that Great Britain can bring against you. We all remember at the lime of the Ash burton Treaty, her line of mail steamers to the West Indies after that Treaty, we heard nothing more of them ; why, be causo they weru war steamers in disguise. And she would in six weeks send a very large disposable force from China and the West Indies to the Oregon coast. Why should we provoke unnecessarily the anger of tliis most powerful nation ! I am a peace-living, law-loving, law-abi-t'iug man, niu! not for heedlessly running ourselves into a difficulty that we may af terwards be sorry for. Mr. Wlntworih then rose and said, sir, I have been busy at my desk on the business of my constituents ; I have heard the gentleman from Indiana with gieat pleasure, and when my friend fiom Ken tucky arose, I supposed he, too, would take the side of justice and humanity. Uut I was never more surprised in my life, than 1 have been, at the tenor of his remarks, so entirely repugnant nrc they to the feelings of the whole western peo ple, and In the honor and dignity nf our nation! He ncknow ledced that Oregon was ours by light; that we had a clear and indisputable title, then w hy not de fend our rights? As the palriots of '70 did unfortified as our nation then was, un prepared as they then w ere for war, poor as thev were, both as Stales and individ uals ! Shall it he said that ere the last revolulioner has gone down to the grave this nation will condescend to pailey, to hesitate, w hen a tract of country embra cing one fourth more than the thirteen original States is at stake, llccause we fear Great Urilain ! because Lord Pack enhani is coming ! because, as the gentle man says was the case when tho treaty was made, (treat Uiitain stood prepared with a terrific licet of West India mails, with nn ostensible licet of mail steamers in the shape of cannon, cannister and grape, to terrify the American govern ment? I always wond.Teil nl the late treaty ! nnd so have my western friends generally wondtrod at it. The gentle man from Kentucky has just let the cat out of the b ig. That Great Britain stood ready to baiter down our cities if the dis graceful treaty was not approved. My blood boils with indignation nt the utter ance of such sentiments, knowing, as I do, that these remarks of nn American Congressman will givo a hint to Great Urilain, how she cae get another treaty signed. The gentleman says Lord Pack en'iam U coming, nnd asks for delay on that account. He cautions us not to be precipitate. He would have us beware how we provoke the anger of that great man who may come, as he says, Ashbur ton did, with West India mils, load ed with his giapo and cannister to terrify os into a base surrender of American citi zens into a sale of a valuable part of our country. Sir, I hope, if ho does come in this shape, there will be no gentlemen as in former times to burn blue lights for his benefit. 1 ny, let Lord Packcnham come! And let him come to take Ore gon, nnd the mouth of the Columbia ri vcr, if he daro ! Sir, wc have had one Packenhani on a visit to our shore's, with a view to take the mouth of atiother cele brated ri vf r ; and does the gentleman re member the warm reception he met with, nnd the result of his negotiations? ' He found more canister and grape here than lie brought in hit mails; and before ho could open his despatches he was ties patched to another world, aud his tallow ers despatched about their business. Ant the sympathies in reference to that wat were shown by 'sundry gentlemen the other day, in their votes on the bid to re fund General Jackson's fine. Now, sir if this gentleman has come to take the mouth of the Columbia river, I predict that another Jackson will rise up to de fend that against the ravages of an infa mous crew, with 'beauty and booty' for their motto; and also to imprison the Halls and Louaillers, and such oilier trai tors as may appear. Sir, 1 will not stop to count ihe cost, as the gentleman has, when our rights are invaded when our citizens aro hourly exposed to the brutal massacres of ihe Indians and are repeat edly arrested, and punished must summa rily by a mob court, instituted at the will of tho Hudson Pay Company, v.-ho are interested in driving every American ctti zeu from the country who make laws to suit every case, and, Jedburgh fashion, King first and try afterwards. The gen tleman says, wait ten years. I wonder that this modern temporizing policy ne ver suggested itself to our sagacious fore- fathers. Sir, 'twas a rash act throwing lhal lea overboard in Charlcstown Har bor. The battle of Hunker Hill was con trary lo the law and the constitution. Our revolutionary 6ircs should have waited about ten years ; then they'd have taken the country without lighting for it. And there was a man in these davs who cried out ihat wc were weak; but whether he wanted to wait len years or not, I cannot say ; but in reply, said Patrick Henry, "Wo aro weak, but when shall we be stronger?" Apply this to Oregon. F.v cry day's delay only makes that 'fVmi.' ry the more dillictilt lo take possession of. And iho very remarks of the gentle man will but kindle a new lire in Hritish breasts, and make that government still more haughty and imperative in its requi sitions. I wonder his advice was not thought cf in the last war, when England was nabbing our gallant seamen. There were those, then, that not only cried "wait" "Don't make war with the mighty king dom of England;" but they even went further and denied and refused to vote appropriations for that war. And further yet, and fed, for pay, clandestinely, the Hritish army! I hope, if gentlemen will not aid us in inking Oregon ihey at least will not turn trailers to their country and help Grcal P.ritaiu take us. Wait ten years ! Out upon tho proposition ! ' Hu manity revolts nt it! When we know our riglus, as the gentleman acknowl edges, it is nous too soon for us to defend them. Sir, the proposition has been in troduced hero expressly because Lord Packenhani is corning. This u the very lime to speak, ere the country is negotia ted away, nnd the Senate have confirmed it. What can the people say to advan tage on the late Treaty, disapproved us it is by nino tenths of them. Anil what can they say afier Oregon is traced off by the advice and consent of the U. S. Senate. This is the very lime to speak out, and speak wc will. Wc shall introduce pro position after proposition as we have con tinued to do, lo keep up debate on this subject to arouse members cm this floor, and to impart a common fire into the breasts of ihe whole American people. Sir, let them know that another Packcn ham is coming heie to get by negotiation a part of uur country, since- his namesake of yore failed in gelling another portion by force of arms. The West have conic here united, us one man, (except, perhaps, the honorable member from Kentucky,) in favor of tho immediate occupation of Oregon by this Government ; ami if Eng land hopes to get any portion of it, those hopes nrc vain and delusive. I go fur ther, sir, and slate that I believe that Eng land has got her la.;l inch of the American Continent. Hereafter she is lo loose ter ritory on this continent, chd. rot to gain any. 1 exas she never shall havo I nor California. And w henever Canada again strikes fir freedom, no vole of mine shall ever send another peaco establishment to aidGreatUritain in putting down the strug gling sons of ficcdom. In my opinion God never mado this county for a colony of (treat Uritaiu or any other foreign pow er, lie mado this for the "Land of the Free," and I hope our action on this question may prove it the "I loom of dm Uravc." With this view, Fir, I think wc can rightfully take possession of any por tion of America, as against Great Hiiiain. When dd Eihan Allen took possession of a Hritish fort, and his authority was de- minded, ho replied, 'Hy tho authority of Almighty God and tho Continental Con gress." 1 say it, sir, with religious zeal, that the Almighty God bids uj onward to tako Oregon, and all I ask, nil we want farther is the sanction of tho present, though it is not the Continental Congrrss. Sir, in behalf of tho west, I close by bid ding Lord Packcnham nud Ureal Urilain defiances ; that nation and that name have before been weighed in the balance by us, and lounu waiiui: o' Stumping it. A letter from Washing': ton gives tlio outline of a speech delivered by a Mr. McConnell, Member cf Con gress from Alabama. His competitor was a whig end an unmarried man.- Mc Connell in reply to ,'iint said: "I grant that my friend is a fine looking man, just forty, and not yet marred ; look r.t him, ladies, and I assure you 1 do hiin no dis credit. Hut I do say, men must be judg ed by their nets a fine looking man, jus forty, and npt yet married 1 Look at that picture, (pointing down upon his compe titor) and now lorJk at this." (Here th? speaker drew himself up to his full length," tntl running both hands through his fine bushy hair, gazed round nnJ found upon the audience, and continued :) "I am, I think, a pretty considerable good looking man for" my ego aud inches, and I have one of the best and prettiest little wives, a strait and strict member of tho inethodist persuasion, that this or any other country ever produced. And why did I get her? Hecause I possessed that passion which my more' polished friend rubbed out year ag) yes, years ago nine hundred and sixty mollis have shown upon him, and yet unmarried ! W hen I discovered lhat the consent of her father could not be ob tainedand he, by-the-byc, was a eood old fellow, although a whij like a man I entered beneath the roof of her parents. and like a man, I bore her upon my shoulder from the house to the bridal al tar, chased by dogs howling and barking and biting, to the very portals of the Church. A happy wife, three little Mrs- Councils, and an easy cousciev.ee. are tho fruits of the lender passion a I possessed II he can say as much, Felix Grundy McConnell backs out from ihe canvass; if not, let him forever hold his peace." nothing could have been more cfiec- live; Hie ladies waved their white hand kerchiefs in an ccstary of delight; tho men shouted and stamped as men never stamped before, and the country gave tbe eccentric McConnell an ovcru helmtnir majority. Farmer and .Irlist "Of what tss is all your studying and your books," said an honest farmer to an ingenious ar tist. "Thcy.dont make the corn prow, ti'r produce vegetables for mciket. My Sam does inore good with his plough in one month, than you can do with your books and papers in one year." "What plough docs jour son use?", said tho artist quietly. "Why, he uses 's plough to bo. sure. He can do nothing with enj olh- er. Hy using this plough we save half the labor, and raise three times as much as we did with the old wooden concern." The artist turned over one of his sheets aud showed tlio firmer the drawing of his much praised plough, saying with & smile, "I am tlio inventor of your favor ite plough, and my name is ." The astonished fanner shook the artist heartily by the hand, nnd invited him to call at tho farm house nnd make it his home as long as he liked. London pa per. Antique. The Journal of the crazy ones nt Hraltleboro has gathered up the follow ing scraps from an old almanac; A gentleman stepped on a piece of wa termelon in Iront of the Slate House got capsized on the Illiini Melancholy accident. Dead horse found basking in the sun an illustration of animal maggot'ism Loafer picked tp in the street v.o sense in his head, no cents in his pocket, powerful scoit to his breath, sent to thu watch house. Lady caught in a shower stranger of fered the shelter cf his umbrella, rrccptcd got home, found him wrong color for a rain-beau. Cool weather man carghl stealing his neighbor's wood certain' specific for the' removal tf the piles. During the last rrupukc nt Point a retro, (Guadabupc.) a gentleman wts rescued from death by the heroic efforts of a slave. Ho w as immediately cflVrcd a handsome rewnrd for I. is humanity. 'No, no,' said the generous fellow 'noth-. ing for money to-day nil the love of God!' History scarcely records a nobler senti ment, The Colonial Coucil voted him ','000 francs, 13U0 to purchase freedom, 300 for an outfit in his new career. Why don't you gel matricdP sid n' young lady iho olhcr day lo a bachelor fiicnd. 'I have been, trying for tho last ten' years to find nunc one who would be sil ly (hiotigh to have nir, was the reply. 'I guess vou havn't been up our wsv. was the insinuating rejoinder.