- ITM 7U W-nr TV T - w.I -7
VOL. VII KOT I: ?
BY WM. 03MAN & CO.
OTTAWA, ILLINOIS, ERIDAY, JULY 3, 184G.
' THE FllEE T il A DE 11.
F0BM4HED WEtiatf BV
j, .WM. OSMAN CO.
nconiiory, Sort html of lieddick's
v,neu brick bUk, on the public square.
Twa T) maa per innum, if paid in lnce ;
Two Utt " ",",f if paid within
six minthei nil Thru Dolia r UcUjreJ
until th end of the year.
Advertisements inserted at per "' 'or
th Brit Insertion, nJ 25 cetils for each subae
uuent in.ortion. A liberml discount allowed ta
Ibota who advertise by the yer.
frNo parjer dieconlinued unlil all arrearages
ripei J, unea it the opium of ih Editor.
(T CoroUiunicalione, to in.ure imerltnn. must
tway be. free "pottage, inJ accompanied with
the author name. -
"I J5TICE AND EQUALITY."
THE FREE TRADER,
o r r. wa, m.t Pridun Jr 3. ist.
TUF.0PIIII.U3 L. DlCKt.,
-Attorney at Law. Ottawa, 7'. '
- OlBce on the east side of the public equate, be-
Iweon the Mansion Homo ud City Hotel.
Ottawa, Augual 13. 143.
GEOttOE S. FISUEU,
Attorney am! Couscllor at Law, and So
licitor in Chancery, Ottawa, Ill's.
Collections promptly attended t in this, (9th.)
Judicial Circuit. Aug- H-ft .
Atinrney anil Counsellor at Luv, Solici
tor in Chancery, an J Justice of the
O.bVe No. 2 Court Il ium', opposite the Circuit
t.'.iurt Clerk's Ollice. lf
J;IHN V. A. HOES. AniUHA II it.
J. V. A. & A. hoes.
' Attorneys ami Cminaellur t l.a, ami
S ilicituM in Oli.iinJi;ry, 0 lavt. Ill's
O lie on (tin North sidu of the public sqoare.
June 2J. Ml..
MILTON II. SWIFT.
Attorney tut'l Ctniiinillur at L'tw,
tfrr.. A P.Kiil .trri. nrifiinito Cnhinin t.V
ffivcrJriTT... n nun.
. , ' j Q L'lVLIIi
. f! wrll,ir at Law.
Ottawa, . JIT
OiW-e on til" Mil mJ-! ol the piih lit 'iuarc.
June 10. IA!3.
IJENRV 0.V"dN. ED V IS . Li I. AND.
COTTON & Mil. AM).
Attorney an 1 Counsellor at Law, mil
Solicitor in Clunctry, Olia va, Ill's.
Oilie n tlicM.t ii)e of the public iipnre. .
June 7. 15U.
ttornev aaUCpuaaf Unfit fawt i'tru, ; Rail Unifier,
We ire iniJi'bteil to Mr. K. E. Gooiiili for the
follnwing table, giving the name, nativity, and
occupation! of the officer and privatea in Capt.
Dicker ' Company. It will be found both in
ter eming and useful.
Capt. T. L. Dickey, Lawyer,
I.t. E.S. Uolbrook, Lawyer, Urartrn,MaM,
It. J. ReeJ, Caliinet-maker, Erie, Pennvl'a.
Wm. H. Wallace, Lawyer, Urbane, Ohio.
Joneph Bending. Tarpinter, Marion, Ohio,
J. U. Skinner, Miller, Minraauque, N. York.
MiMca ()man, Printer, Grata, Vennaylvania.
A. L. Evana, Carpenter, Lowellham, N. York.
A. lV'ikiiH, Miiiwright, Waterloo, New York.
II. W, Clay, Farmer, Delaware Co., Ohio. .
L. II. Carr, Farmer,
A. W. Fay, Munii ian, 8ulina, New York.
8. Z. Poworn, Miller, Fcrri.hurgh. Vermont.
Wm. ( Atwonil, Fanner, ('iiicinniii, Ohio.
Prler lloea, Piinter, C.ilun.hiac uiily, N.Yoik.
Wm. Omiinn, Klitr, lir.itz, PeiMfylvania.
It. B. (,'Kiili ll, . Aliington, I'liniiecjirul.
(ianrge 8. I'i.her, Lawyer, ISn.ton, Mao.
W.tli iin Kt lhy, Meilienl ltudeiit , 1rl.iml .
I',. Morse, SmMlor, (Seildirlmrgh, New Yoik.
William I., (iihaon, Furoier, llnrii,liiiTtli, W
Willinin F. Ti(ou, Farmer, Hellville, I iiini.
William U. Skinner, Farmer. FlniL.N. York,
(i. N. Dewiil. Clnlli Dreawr. N. II irll .r.l. N. Y
Levi Clay. Mamn, 8iark ouniy, Ohio.
Nichi)ln Gili:l, Lali trer, France.
Erick Ericknn, Clerk, Norway.
P. V. Ilnyd, Gnn.niilli, New York L'ily.
Phillip Ulack, Laliorrr, ,lhio.
Thoinaa 'wiTiier.ni, 1. ilmrer, ILirJi n cnumy, Ky.
A. Uowcn 2 1 1 Cooper, Grimtille, New Yoik.
Jowph Qlickley, Mi I r, (iennany.
II. Hopper, Carpenter, M.irlile, New Yoik.
It. It. Falitun, Cooper, Pen Van, New York.
Vi. 1 1 arris., Laliorcr, Waterloo, New Yoik.'i
Charles Haulalii g, W.ig n-maker, Lodi, N. Y
E. P. Ktlley, Tailor, Phil id. lpnia. IViin'a.
John V, Lynch, Hlurknmitli, Marietta, Pemi'a.
W. M. Datea, Laborer, Montelii r, Vt.
I". E. I.rlaude, do France.
From Santa Ft. The 8t. Loui rtepuMican
ofThuraday,the 18 h of June, haa the fullowing:
An eitra from the office of the Lexington Ex
preaa elate, that Mr. Hourk bad arrived at Inile-
pence fiom Santa Fe,having made the trip in 2.1
day. He ia aaid to have brought intelligence
that the aulhorilic at Banta Fe were fortifying
it, and beaidea two thousand men then under
rma, the Governor had made requisition for
five thousand men from Chihuahua. Every
third man in 8anta Fe and ita vicinity wa In
bear arme in ita defence: Tho place waa pre
paring for aiege. Mr. Ilouck, it ia added, ex
prcsaea the opinion that Colonel Kearney ought
not to lake leas than 5 000 men on hi expedition
against New Mexico."
Trxnt. TheTexe Register contains com
plete list of the membere of the Legislature ol
that State. Senate 31; House 65. Of the
whole number, 4 are classed a Whigs, 2 Loco
Focoa, 2 Tyler men, 1 Polk man, I Texian, 1
Nullilier, 4 Republicans, 1 Anli-'a ilT man, 1
Tariff man, 11 not ipeciGed, the real Democrat.
The oldest member ia 57, the youngest 22.
Thirty-seven are farmera, 16 lawyers, 8 mer
chants, 4 physicians, 4 mechanics, 3 urveyora.
3 aoldiera. 1 nlanler. 1 printer. 9 not specified.
Seventeen members are from North Carolina, 13 sucll monstfOUS Usurpation ?
from Virginia, 9 from Kentucky, 9 from 'I en
neasee, 8 from Georgia, 6 from South Carol n 1, 4
from Masni-huacll, 3 fiom Louisiana, 2 from
New York. 2 fiom Maine, 2 from Mississippi, 3
nol sprc'fieil and one each from Alabama, Con
necticut, Indiana, Penii) Ivxni a England, Ire
land, Scotland, Auktiia anil Trtaa.
From the Richmond Enquirer. I tlie ceoorrapliical work of Don Anto-
tiik nio nnMOK tiijr wcarEni niode Alcedo. a Snanish Peoffranrier
TI.e violence with which the Whig of '"S'' eminence. This
press and the opponents generally ork .Mr' Adtat,,nS' .h-'V,I,Rr
It the Administration denounce the been published after the cession oi
Mexican war, can only be attributed Louisiana to Spam, in 1762, affords
. . r ' .,,. T.lor.t decisive evidence of what bpain
to a party feeling, the most relent- ... . , , .. '
1 ' 1 A-.txlL ti, ,;: f herself considered as the western
less and vindictive. Hie origin ol , , . . , 111
the war has been ascribed to Exec- boundary of Louisiana, when she had
utiva usurpation. The President no ereat in contesting it aga.nst
has been charged with the most out- anU,e.r .Stf.te' f . . . f .
- !, r-,r.Am nf Such is the strong and mcontesti-
raceous ag!ression on tne rights ol , . . , , n. n ,
t a ,u ii r?,,,;kl.. ble evidence that the Rio Grande,
Mexico: with wantonly anulorcibly . . . . .,'
. . . -. J A ,i- ' or Rio Bravo as it is sometimes cull-
K L;T. r.Uin7T.hl J. w.. the western boundary of
u . r . .1, .fi i,moo Texas as part of Louisiana when
bayonet from their peaceltil homes , , r .f
ic 11. i.. k i .i owned by France. In 1803, Mr.
with gross violation of the Constitu- J,ffe"on' b tr.eaty wlthwF"n;
, 1 !. .11 j purchased Louisiana. Whatever
lion in unueriamng, as n i aneireu, r .1..
to decide the. question of boundary, .l,!en France Previoufly h 1
which the constitution vests alone L Louisiana, were vested in tlie U.
the treaty-making power. He has Mates by the treaty of 1S03. That
been charged with taking upon him- temX Sates ft" cl:;,,n-
self the responsibility of declaring d th ,e Ro Grande as the western
war without the authority of Con- boundary of Louisiana territory, and
. . 1 . 0. ' m e of course as the western boundary
cress. Anu wnai is me eviuence 01 ., , . ,. . "
0 n i.r. I nl ev tin In ihp iimp thn letter
nothing more nor less than the ft' T w", c.eueu 10 ,am ca""
that General Tajlor was orrkredo., not be d, spitted.
the 13th of January hst to advance M.v-VVal.xer, in lus Texas letter,
and occupy a position on tlie east says : " Texas, as Mr. Jefferson de
bank of the Rio Onimle, villi in- flared, was as clearly embraced in
sanctions to rep. i the Mexicans, the purchase by m of Louisiana as
force by force, sho -11 they attempt Ncw Orleans itself; and that it was
to cross that rivi -n . This is the a part of that region isleinonstrated
" head and front" -T Trident V' 's by the. discovery by the great La
' offenilin"." Ai csi'u,'u" to . Sallej of the source and mouth of the
who condemn him, h" s, ,niu 'not 1 Mississippi, and hit octyancy for
l.avn nrdrpd fii it T .. ': RI., France west of the Colorado. Our
Grande, becTh .ncy a-stri, ril,t to Texas as a part of Louisiana,
Texas doe'ShiTi'jv ef t. : I . river
and it is under ''.cover of this as-
I'. U. F niton,.
i". i; Mr. Cw..fl., 11. tne Ufi:k Llo.lt,! Uiivu lluumnan, i.icik,
met l-nc l). llauuoi. siurc. Levi Jackson, ! inner, V oofter. OIiio.
".' j W. S. Smith, Fu'rmi 'ai!jl', IVnnslvania.
S. P1T2LU. A- t'. Lawrence, Carpenter, Tioy, Ohio.
D. L.Thoinpanu, Tailor, Newark, Ohio.
Jo! n Wilnour, Labo'er, fierr.iany.
A. Wooh-olt, Cooper, Alihima, Ohio.
.1. S. Taylor, S.inta Fe Trjiler, Lowell, Ma-i.
I.Tnylor, t.uliorcr, Ireland.
C. R. Rouse, do ' tftiauaa, New, Yoik.
J. P.Nicknl, Farmer, da do.
C. M. Prntt, do t Greonnich, do.
I)iiIil Napier, Cabiucl-makrr, Atlilahula, O.
E. Oidwny, Farmer, Tun 'oridge, Vermont.
Peru, July 1UIS43.
niv M. CKOTHEU. Jli-
citoTliait3 & ittzc::,
Attorneys at Law,
Osu-ego, Kendall County, lllmis.
Will practice Law in (he counties if Ivendj'I,
I.a Halle, Kane, Do Kalli, Will and Dupe.
Land Agency , w rolU'cung buaine enif iud
to them in eillicr of tin: ii'e- tountii.7, v iA rt--ccive
prompt alicntion. Q.'-!;o, Apm 1, iitjti
" oTU .DAY,
Attorney an J Counsellor al Law, Aurora.
O.Tica on the east siJo of tho river over
Al'on s store.
W AC N lilt &, FAUIvliU,,
Attorneys Si Councilor at Lnv, Juroru
Office on tho eat side of the river, over
Wager' new .t ire.
Dlt. P. SClltlt.UrJU.lOUX,
Oiler hia Profession il service tu ill : ciliiona
of Ottawa itd vicinity. 0:lic on Oolambu
treat, between Canal and Clinton.
Txi S-ill.Th l!oulon Telegraph says
that Hie ' i'iion "I e oi iiry lying vel nl the Neu
ei, li . -r.lt ri" mi ilie k-i, e-oifcl. a iiier.-ele l ly
1 miieroi -I.. 1 1 v iiiI. i .1 il ldi., iolo w)iieli
the ..ill wat'-r I tne (ioll lli ia ilurliu (.iiner.
lint in u 11 oer, niiig lo ioti ime volar evapora.
ll.ui lli. v In c nne dry, ami are covered iih a
i rnl f s ill Hirer or f mr inches thick, eijoul in
nery re.jieci to t'uik's LI mil. winch ia the best sumed fact that they aim their pigmy
for piett-rvitig meat and fih. The dry cliiimte straws at OUT Chief Magistrate.
nf wrstern Texan rain seldii'n filling in the p,y object ill this communication
nimoier on. n'ln makes the process of evapora- J, 0 sl10w, not Only that tllC RlO
Hon einrdii gly rapid, and millions of bjahela Grande now is, but that it has ever
may be procured for the mere trouble of collect-pp,. from tl(J j-pst settlement of
'"i il- Texas down to thfjjpesent time, tlie
A lii.aMer.m... rnflh Tennessee Volunteers WCStem boundary of that COlintrj'.
.hi...,.nfihe Lie.itenints.wliila Ihev mere on ' It is knOWIl to all, who are 8C-
Iheir wav 10 New Oilcans, on the al. amhoal I q llaintetl with tile tally history of
Brownsville. The remains of the Lieutenant 1 1 CXaS, that La ailllc, a frenchman,
were I1uri.1l ai Naichri, and the quartermaster : with a commission and authority
taken to New ci -ans. ' from Louis the 1 Uli, discovered the
! bay of St. Bernard, between the riv-
c,nfr7Vur.-TheLou'..viiie Journal .nys: :ers Trinity an(i Colorado, and form-
" hen lieneral a) lor was a young man, lie : ft gcUlemt.nt therein the year
1G33; and t!ie itossession of the
' country thus taken by La Salle was
clTtti"(l L'. Vynr-e o,.lhe lio
Grande, and was generally under-
Chill. It greatly eurparj the f.-,u . en. of , ',"7" '
Kimmina the HclleHptnt, bieh i about a mi'e ! Jcduced her claim from the. npphca-
acros. and of del.ghtfnl temperature. The Ta) - tlOll of certain principles lo.inded
or were nut accompanied by a boat, aa Uyren
was vihen he snam the llelli ;.onl, which nntkes
all the diffi-rence in the world. O110 winter,
when General Taylor was stationed at Prairie ilu
Chien, he utrcd to walk every morning from his
lodgings to the barracks, without a great coal,
when the thermometer was lolly degree be
1)11. JOSEPH STOUT, i
Oder bia Profeaainal services to the ciuzenasG W Matthew
t Ottawa and vicinity. Office on La s.fllo .1
oftharoo n occupied rrynh Ule Dr. Murium.
Ottawa, June 17, 1813. " 47 6 n
j?Nji. Hawu. . . J. PEARSON,
"u J UOWLAND 61 I'EAKSO.V,
ysician and Surgeons, Ottawa, Ill's.
f '- Office oiflho east aide of tho public square,
i Residence of Dr. Howland, on the hill, south
aide of the street, a few door west of the Fox
' River House. Residence of Dr. Pearson at
the City Hotel. April 30, 1810,
R.U. Martin, Klack.inilti, Willinmsporl, Perm.
John Reddiik, Carpenter, Zanesville, Ohio.
Jos'ph Reddick, llutchrr, Ireland.
J. 1'. Pilz-r, Tarin,'' Licking, Ohio.
John Morrill, do . Concord, N. II.
Ur i.l I'd C. M ilehell, ('arpenier, I erry JI jute.In.i
Peter Maelin, Lib irer, Scotland.
1 CIithIjs Kyde, Farmer, Oliii. ' A ' '
Williim Stroll. IjiJorcr, CamdcrT, New York.
Ezra Mullkins, Carpenter, Roiksbury, Ohio.
William M. McCoy.Laburer, W Alexandria, Pa.
Joseph Miller, do Morgan Co. Ills,
Nichnla Mateae, Blacksmith, France.
Timothy McCarty, Laborer, Ireland.
William Williams, Mason, Brooklyn, Conn.
Nathan Springer, Laborer, Ohio.
A W Hancock, Clerk, late of Nan.
Emanuel Shope, Laborer, Floyd, New Yor!t,
B F Woodbury, Coper, Ohio. ' ( '
S Philburl, Tailor, France. ,: J . '' '
James Welib, Laborer, Indiana... ' J f )
nnJ bis older brother William, long inee deao.
swain from tho Kentucky sh.ira nc tha Ohio
river to the Indiana shore, and b-.r! egain, with
out reiiins. 'Tlie feat waa prri 1.1 the
iiinuth of March, when the river wi,.- and
vas asserted and dt
they have resolved, under the bles
sing of God, to be free 1"
' As soon as the treaty was ratified,
Spain undertook to coerce the Iree
born'citizens of Texas to submit to
"the fetters of colonial vassalage."
Hostile operations were begun. Al
ready had the momentous drama
commenced. But an over-ruling
Providence rescued Republican
Texas from the dangers that threat
ened her. The fire of liberty which
iHfl hurst fott'i in Texas, had swept
over tlie t ast plains of Mexico, to
the very 44 palaces ol the Montezu-
rnas." Goaded on by repeated
wronirs and injuries, Mexico had
again taken up arms in defence of
her inalienable rights. I ho lorces
which were intended to subjugate
Texas, were diverted from their pur
pose to subdue Mexico. The con
test was a proiracieu anu sanguinary
one; but it at last resulted in tri
umph to tlie arms of Mexico, and
old Spain was driven from the last
of her possessions in North America.'
No subsequent effort was cvermade
by Spain to subjugate Texas, and
she became consequently, an inde
pendent nation. The United States
had abandoned her to Spain : Texas
had declared herself independent of
Spain : and Spain having failed to
subdue her, she owed allegiance to
no other nation under heaven. Now
let us pause for a moment, and ask
where was the western boundary of
this Independent Texas ? Most un
questionably the Rio Grande. When
leinoiistrated by 1 Texas belonged to France, the Rio
Presidents Jefferson, Madison, Mon- Grande was the boundary; and in
roe and John Q. Adams. No one absence of all proof to the contrary,
of our Presidents lias ever doubted j is not the conclusion irresistible, that
our title; and Mr. Clay has ever when Texas belonged to herself, the
A Mixicim RmsI. A New Orleans paper
says, that a passenger in the Louisiana, fiom
Vera Cruz, slalea that on llie 25 h nil , he.. I.
w.i about embarking, he uinlerMond lli.it 1. H 1.
uerc received from 1 lie capital, which sl.ritl Urn
Gi n.'lul Paredes said that he needed no v. Ion
leers lo fight the Americana, as he waa confident
that with tho whole of the Mexican f.ieej nl
regular troops, be bad sufficient lo resist and re
pel ail tho American Ibal came forward, even il
tho United Stale lent all their citizen lo the
DR. J. PHAUSON,
Oil; is lii Professional service to l lie citizen of
Ottawa and vicinity.
, TEETH inserted upon gold or s'rNer plate
unon nivot. etc.. ao.asto aivrwer ail purpose of
lllillic.lirni. LreeuTi'ii itrni iiii.m v,iu , ' ... . . r'.
ail.er or tin foil. I'oolh-aohe cu.id wilhit occupation ol .Hitalttor. by the U. M.t s.
cauiing pain, which enables him to save many 1 and ill pmbable nvWemcyt upon M.'tiierey. Il
tntt'i mat -vouli mlierivise have to be extract-, , ihe lUiiiiAalrriii of Government to
-.1 II ....... ..... ... ... ... .u ... ........... .il ... ; .
proceed wiilKsTrgnr igainst the Mexicans until
they arc brought 16 Impi'r lerois, and the iliilieul
liea which Kavs'exiled be ijli.factorily set I d.
The l.'ninn etwakink lif tin. mailer, says it has
ascertained iiiltie itiiircsting lacla touching the
slate nf the army, anl (he plnlia nf the campaign,
"Sam of '76." This is the name of corps
raised in New York, and have effired their aer.
vice to the President. Every man of them i a
eon or grandson af revolutionary soldier. Won
ikr what tbe Tribune has to aay to ill
L ' , 'V l sfw, Jr., mm Mr.
"My hUnds and fellow country
men awake' arise ! for the Philis
tines are npern you! strike ihe tun-
11.... il. 7. 1 .1 .1 At
Jame, Stewart. Uai-keeper. M.yao, Obfe. ' J"'W jng tlgag, w USUe llie Hie,
John shillinher, I.iborcr. Ttwif 7 i and chastise the drum ! ourltves,
1 1 .....
Jame Story, do fjjinin ut b('o., N. J. ! Jour "aves auu your liocrues are 111
DTeeles, Carpmier, Waype'tnOiit, Ohio
Nicholas StaufTer, (Jooiier, Fairto. . 4
rroKrulion nf th H'ru'i7i Mexico Further
accounts from the tar confirm the Recounts of
ed. ifT Ml oiieralious lo iirove .uccessiul, i
no pay. Citurtt motlcrule. Olli.c on La
S1II0 sire.o, e,l of the Court house.
-Ji 27. 1S43.
Ci. L. THOMPSON,
Dealer in Drugs Mntlieines, Dyc-StttlT,
a ' Paints, Oils, Varnish, Ac. Sir., liu, , ,,s,icul.irly what ihey arriVr
Canal lreel, one door east, uf the Mauiyj J Cepi the b'rliel that lie yxecutive is doing ev.-tj
. H..ue.'Qiw') . . . .iiljinjiicaii.-Jbingillv'ilhcvery degree of energy'
' JAllfclX t'iTvi1l, L.f l-n.l and by sea, it -A" lo e induct the pres.
Justice of the VewtOllawallliiiu'a,
Offidl ionFront street. 1
SliTfi C. EAUI.,; ? :. .
Painter and Glazier, Ottawa,' Ill's.
Car.iages, igni, house, etc. pit'iilid to order
on reasonable teruit,
Bhop on Cnliimliii" t.,nnr Dr. Sclicrmerhorn'e
CITY IIOTLL, '
V BY JOEL JOHNSON,
'' TUB travelling oommunity are resprclfnlly
invited to call. Th accoinrr.ndaliona cannot be
' ifuruisstJ, Private room for stage passenger.
' vrrVor rn.
One day, 75 -l Single meal, 23 els.
: Just one-half in usuilclurgn.it singe houses.
Pasnitrs etn secure seals in all the singi a
jhiough th Proprietor. 24v4 2y
1 nt vn'iiipait.n to it llgitimnie riM.l.s, la bring
Um eixiuy to terms, aid toconquei an honorable
and permanent peaej Uenern Taylor, say ihe
l.'ninn, haa ahnut 8,0ti) troopi under hi 1 tries.
Hundred and thouslnd nf volunteers were
pouring into hi caml, He will soon be in ad
vance into the enemy '1 country ( a-od ' we shall
not be surptiard lo lie of hia reselling Monte.
rcy, about 130 mile frkm Matamor. , about the
cuinmrncenienl nf the ihlo land, in a healthy
region, at no dinttnl day.
danger. Now, while vour glorious
lamp of liberty" is 'sputtering with
the impotent spit of the foe, is the
time for you to girdle on your armor
march to the battle field then
vindicate the national honor, suck
the sweets of revenge, and settle all
difficulties and return home so cov
ered with glory that common eyes
wont he able to beholil you without
the assistance of smoked glass. You
are spicalized into a war, and must
go'Vlirhugh it like a dose of castor
oil-Mho quicker the better.
r"Up, the.n, and at. them strike,
l-4 e- rf 1 r ....
1101 uuiy lor your own uoincs, wives
and babies, butfor,tiVu halls of the
Montezumns! In 'trTosS', halls, my
frienus, ure .flendors' liuimagined ;
and in tbir miillitiifieVt.f ities.-flKit
surround thetii.nre f icIisHtpatfd'1
uiitellable. -PiiSli ohpafrfS
you ore inj, iMiTlreSe AlexicmT
Ravages must b'oyhipmjd into tiviK
ization ; .and ifjjero not nocessa
bler' calculation of thiri
A Mlilutfe. Mr. v
amount of 1'ie daily expenditure of th GoVertf
ment lo wit t half a
1.. ...:.o. l. Ti.. .,1....'..' r.. -A-'
terma-lir ttenrrala ollee
but nr.e millinn per m
kraiice. . ' ,.
not only in justice, but recognized
by tlie general practice of European
nations who held possessions in A
meiica. These principles, as laid
down in the note of Messrs. Pinck
ncy and Monroe, to Mr. Cevallos, in
1805, were: 1st. "that when any
European nation takes possession of
any extent ol sea-coast, that posses
sion is understood as extending into
the interior country, to the smir''"!
of the rivers eittit in.; wit in lii.it
coast, to nil their itraiu:li- -.iil tl.e
country tliey cover, am! t-i ivi- it u
right in exclusion of all other nations
to the same." - 2d., 44 That, .when
ever one European nation makes a
discovery, and takes possession ol
any portion of this continent, and
another afterwards does the same at
some distance from it, where the
boundary is not determined by the
principle above mentioned, that the
middle distance becomes such of
course." Now, when we apply these
principles, to the undisputed facts,
that the Mississipprwas discovered
in its whole length tff the ocean, by
French subjects from Canada, in
1633; that La dalle, as alreaiTy sta
ted, settled the country west of the
Colorado with a commission and au
thority from Louis 14th, the right ef
France formerly to the Rio Grande
is manifest : especially is it so by the
application of the second principle;
for the Rio Grande was the middle
distance between the bay of Si. Ber
nard und the nearest Spanish settle
ment, which was in the province of
That Ue Rid Grande was tlie wes
tern boundary", of. Louisiana when
ownd by,, Frytttte,''.is -supported by
the testVrkiiiy ofiilost'writers of any
note wtiw lmvo written on the subject.-'
The. authorities, as collected
by Mr. -Adams,' in his note to D.o'nj
Onis, in 1818, are as follows : The
historical authority of Dtt Prntz and
Champigny, and of the Count de
Vergennes ; the geographical au
thority of De Lisle'i rnap, and espe
' -.'I,. r i, r iv., 'pi,.
ciaiiy 1 1 v H.uij ui Ly1.11 x in..'.
uujii, geograpner.'io mo JVu,3 ...
Spain, published )n 1702; a map
published by Hornlann, at Nurem
berg, 111 1712; a geographical work
entertained it as clear and unques
tionable. Louisiana was acquired
by a treaty with France in 1S03 by
Mr. Jefferson ; and in the letter of
Mr. Madison, the Secretary of State,
dated March 31, 1804, he says, ex
pressing his own views and those of
Ah. Jefferson, that Louisiana exten
ded westwardly to the Rio BraVo,'
otherwise called Rio Del Norte.
Orders were accordingly obtained
of the Spanish authorities for the de
livery of all the posts on the west
side 01 tne Mississippi. Arm in ins
letter of the 31st January, ISO 1, Mr.
Madison declares that Mr. Lausat,
the French commissioner who dcin
ered the poss'ssiun f Louisiana to
us, announced the Del Norte as the
true boundary. Here, then, in the
delivery of the possession of Louisi
ana by Spain to France and by
France to us, Texas is included.
In the letter of Mr. Madison, of the
8th of July, 1S04, he declares the
opposition of Mr. Jefferson to the re
linquishment of any territory what
ever eastward of the Rio Bravo. In
the letter of Mr Monron nf the 8th of
November, 1803, l r fi d
I '.i tils v.'' iclr .' ', ;
li !:. .!,!(.
mil. ..1; 1 11 tvi"- ..1. 1 '.vim !iit;i j
iii a siu.ilnr ileel..r;iii. n. In Mi.
Monroe's litters as S rrtii.iy oi
State, dated January .'Jin, iMt, atid
June 10th, 1816, he sa)s none couM
question 'our title to Texas,' and
expresses his concurrence in opin
ion with Jefferson and Madison,
44 Ihat our title to the Del Norte was
as dear as the island of N. Ovlf .iiS."
In his letter as Secretary of State lo
same river was the boundary?
Such was Texas, free and inde
pendent, with the Rio Grande as her
western boundary, at the tormation
of the Federal Government of the
United States of Mexico, in 1824.
A Constitution was formed, resem
bling in most respects our Federal
Constitution, to which Texas volun
tarily became a party. And this is
the only political connection that
Texas has ever had with Mexico
a connection that owed its existence
to, and was only co-existent with,
the constitution of 1824. When, then
Santa Anna, in open .violation of
that constitution, by laith in the ob-i
servancc of which Texas had alone
consented to become a member of
the Mexican Union, boldly declared
herself soireign and independent,
as she was before she adopted the
Constitution of 1824. But Santa
Anna was determined to abolish the
State government of Texas, and to
compel her to recognize no other
government but his grand Central
Despotism at Mexico. For this pur
pose, tlie usurper invaded Texas.
The r"-!i!t is well known. Santa
' j una iviis taken prisoner, and Texas
1 ... hi.; j di'iiiotHtrntcd, by the 4 fire and
ti:e wi'sl,ir,o,w" of the battle-field, the nron-
1 . . . .. : . '
osition site had undertaken to prove,
namely tltnt she was free and inde
pendent. Hern the struggle ended.
N-t r ,1 her ntteinpt whs made to sub-
juyatr Texas. Her independence
wits arhii ved. And are we not to
cone dude that the old and acknowl
edged boundary of Texas on the
west, the Rio Grande, remained?
Let us take nn analagons case here
at home. When Virginia adopted
Don Onisofthe 12th of March, 1818; our Federal Constitution, the Ohio
John Quincy Adams sivs 44 the claim
of France always did extend west
ward to the Rio Bravo," and in his
letter of the 31st of October, 1818,
ho avq nnr tit t til Tpvua u-ith lli.
?TRio Bravo as tlie western boundary,
44 is established beyond the power
of further controversy."
We will take it then, as admitted,
what was beyond 44 the power of con
troversy," that Texas belonged to
the United states by the Louisiana
purchase, and trrot tlie Rio Grande
ai 1 r .1
-sff "i.ritthf'tO'flie) .blessinrre of hard a
VhSlMk'They ore reptiles
million nf dullari LJLmlitt progressive deinocra
I . ... oS.l.-...:l. 1.:. v 1 i. 1 1
- ii vy.iu 111a uig uguii is uotiuil
lotravllrom Portland to Patagonia
and they must either crawl or bo
f a ilif.
'o m.ajl bliW ,
nver was her western boundary,
and is now. Suppose that some bold
and . ambitious military chieftain
should succeed (which heaven a
vert!) iu abolishing our Federal
Constitution, and should attempt to
establish in its place a military des
potism : Virginia would, of course,
owe no allegiance whatever to such
abominable usurpation. She puts
forth her Declaration of Independ
ence this Military Dictator at
tempts, but lutls to subdue her she
all the benefits of the treaty Y Did
she not receive, in compliance with
I. -4 1.. lfe . el .
eue ireaiy, tne me ana itoeriy 01 tier
rresiuetit, the restoration el many
officers and prisoner, and the whole
army of Filisola?. Filisula," in his
despatch of May JUst, Y.,..k
:nr 1 - c . . .
nig vi me iiccessuy 01 this treaty,
says : " I do not me ntion otheSr rea
sons perhaps more convincing , in
fine, I think I have saved tie whole,
army from disaster, and the national
decorum from a positive disgrace."
Although Mexico, thendid not for- ,
mally ratify the treaty, .yet' as sho
received all the benefits of if,'"it'was
equivalent to a ratification, accus
ing to every rule of law, and every
principle of justice. Whether Santa
Anna had the authoiity or not to
negotiate the treaty, Mexico is
estopped from denvinfr its validity.
Mr. Wallace, in his Texas speech,
ably enforces these views : he says,
" It is a rule of morals, founded in
honor and conscience, and a princi
ple of municipal as well as interna
tional law, applying as well to the
compacts of States as individuals;
that if an agent without authority,
makes a contract, and the principal
receives and retains the benefit pro
vided by it, it is an affirmance ol the
compact, however loudly he may
protest against it. Thus it is a con
ceded principle of law, that if A.;
without authority, sells the property,
of B. to C, the contract is invalid jf?
yet if B. receives and retains the
purchase money,' it is as complete
an affirmance of the contract as if it
were subscribed by the principal
himself. So, also under what is
called the statute of frauds, a verbal
sale of a tract of land tho law de
clares to be null and void j. yet,"if it
is partly executed by the reception
of the benefit on one part, it allirms
and ratines the transter. lheseare
nothing more than the eternal prin
ciples of honor, truth and justice,
recognized by every writer on the
law of nations, and universally appli
cable and binding as well upon na
tions as individuals."
It is clear, then, that Mexico has
acknowledged the right of Texas to
the Rio Grande. But if any doubt
can possibly rest upon the mind of
any one, it must be removed when
he is informed that 'as Me as 1843,
Mexic? rcc'gn;7"dt'; H;? Gr?.nde
as tlie western boundary of .exas
in an armistice that was entered into
between Texas and Mexico for t
cessation of hostilities; Mid the Pr
ident of Mexico: 111 cnrounciiag i
ordered the Mexicen forces to retire
to the west banlcof tho Rio del Norte.
But Texas has not merely an ab
stract right to the country west of
the Nueces. She lias actual pos
session, and exercises legal jurisdic-t
tion over a consiuerable portion of
that countiy. It was represented in
the Convention that adopted thft
constitution of the Republic in 1 ''.:(';
and has also been represented in the1
Texan Congress. Counties hr.vatf
been organized there, courts estab
lished and Texan laws enforced.
I have thus, I think, conclusively
demonstrated, that the Rio Grande
always was the western boundary of
Texas. Texas is now one of the U.
States. '1 he soil of Texas is, there
fore, the soil of the United States.
Texas declares in her Constitution,
that the Rio Grande is her western
boundary, and Mexico has acknowl
edged it. 'Ihe soil of the United
States, therefore, extends to the Rfo
Grande, and il is just as much tho
duty of the Uniten Statesto 'defend
every inch of that soil as that of the
District of Columbia. .
GILES OF AMELIA.
1 'and if TJyi
rily cxemhUtfyTaw, I VotiTiTbt Jrtrv published in 1717. at London, enti
le assist ii, ,,the pleasurable task, tied Hlan Oeogrdnh&iix. or n coin-
Tie? httfo nTiusuigVs to be brutes plctoflystein of Geography, Ancient
and Modern, in ,Whiei the map of
Louisiana marks Us extent from the
Rio Bravo to the jperd'ido ; and offi
cial British' man published in 1755.
by Bow'en,' intepded to n'ojnt out the
boundHHcs'qf Ihd British, Spanisli
und Frtncft. colonics in America:
was the western boundary. By the I achieves he r independence, and it is
treaty oflrtlOTexas'.w'as surrender-J acknowledged by other nations. I
cd to Spain ; but no sooner elid the .now triumphantly ask, even though
brave arid -gtilla.n't Texans hear of the there should bo no inhabitant west
violation' of fuitir'and treaty obliga-lof the Alleghany mountainswould
tions by the United States towards not the Ohio river be the western
them, and that they weie abandoned boundary of Virginia ? But the case
to an odious tyranny, than they nj- of Texas is stronger even than the
sembled in conve ntion, framed a plan j one here supposed. We are not left
of government, and like our own pa- j to conjecture as to the western botin
triot fathers of '76, declared tliem-' Jary of Texas, for Santa Anna nc
selvcs free and independent. In 'gotiatcd a treaty of peace with Tex
tile 17th vol. Nile's Register, page us, in which he not only acknowl
31, the whole Declaration canbejedged her Independence, but re
found. I make here, only a small ' cognized the Rio Grande as the wes
cxtract, to show the spirit that nni-ltern boundary. But it was objected
mated them how 44 freedom fired , that Santa Anna was in duress al
r, . , . ....
oi tne ago in which they live tin- j Mexican Generals. Should the fact.
worthy ot their ancestry ortho km-, then, that Santa Anna was a priso
dred Republics of the American c-n-'ner, make the treaty void ab iniio,
tinent could they have hesitated in ' although it was signed by five other
this emergency what course to pur-'Mexican Generals who ..were not
sue. Spuming the fitters of rt.lo. prisoners? I think not. t is fur
niul.vussalage, disdaining to .submit tlier objected, that the treaty was
si?;y.l'd in their tlie time tho treav was signed.!".. A-1'
i v-v .mvxu-vak.u.!-j. ..r,,ri, j,, 1 " ..vfuAjy. NobolO.
1.1 1 11. banta. Anna wn imi ti.r. niiivi'iionnita
1111..1.S 01 iexas wouiu i person who signed it on the pait of ; hies ut church
veil themselves unworthy Mexico ; it was signed by live other baby yet, how
Babies in Church. The editor of
the Pittsburgh Chronicle for ougl.fr
we know, a bachelor thus philo
sophically discourses on the impro
priety of taking babies to church;- ,
"Babies are fine things, in their
places. We like them at home in
their nursery, the only proper place
for that class of juveniles- coming
under the denomination of babies. ;,
But in church babies are nuisance?. ;
Now crowing, now crying, constant-. '
ly keeping up some fuss or other.
they distract the attention of th "
dience, and distnrK'.H'JJI""
times keep tiiem'nick More,
ten. Babies iiA'iil'ce, sugar,
notlliey. 'i'e i,uiiiieg,
as wease"'8:,ltld and common
Some fo'haeeo, pepper Bailee,' '
to the ia, i!la 1',i'l,d, 'Perm and
showir'','ra,," "''ihibli, niarkrj.
.Vi M. PAUL & CO.
to the most atrocious despotism that! never lorinnlly ratified by Mexico
ever disgraced t';e annah cfKurorfc'Truc. But did net Mexico receive
that did credit to itself in -nn
assembly. It would be sure, to do-' "
somethiiTg to make every body liata -:
it, oeioro meeting was half over. ,
Mother, hereafter, who would pre- t
serve thorhv-ctfrs of their bobterS T.l
for being, wt.ll behaved ntl quirt ,f
bubies, should never take thtiu tori 4
church, or, Into a t igc-crjacb' v . i ..'
. . , '
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