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SCIENCE AND PROGRESS.
ILLUSTRATING HOW A 54-TON CAN NON IS CAST. What Will Happen to the Earth Some Timet Hut After We Are Dead, We ' HopeoWkat Deat the Calatea Boston Cannon Foundry. Boston In tlio place where the large cannon used in the UnitM States are cast A late number of The Scientific American contains on interesting illustrated sketch of some of the processus of building great gun. They axe cant within deep pits dug into tho earth and walled with brick. Melted iron is run into a mold or flask to make the gun, Through the itntor of, the mold runs a "core," which leaves the hollow through the center of the gun. Fig. I luan interior view of the largo ord nance foundry where the 54-ton guns are cast, the ground being broken away so as to show a section of the pit, which is placed in the cen ter of the foundry. On the right are two 40- ton reverberatory furnaces for melting the iron for thecasting.and another 40-ton furnace is on the left of the pit. The combined capac ity of these monster furnaces in Vm tons. mm m M mm m WM V ".. ." ' ' .' s . . ' . -V . . ' " CANNON PIT. The pit is 40 fi-et deep by K! fisct in diame ter, and its brick walls are 1 foot thick. In tho center of the pit stands the gun flask, which rests on dry sand supported uion a firm foundation of masonry and concrete. Every precaution is taken to prevent the entrance of water within the pit, since even an extremely small quantity would ruin the work. Tho flasks aro flanged sections of iron, which, when placed in position in the pit, form a shell for supporting the mold. The flasks aro rammed, washed and dried liefore leiig lowered into the pit, and aro not touched after being placed in position. eold illmate. Barley it ealtira?ed in Iceland, and oatmeal feeds the best brain and muscle of the world hi the high latitudes of Europe. It is probably truo that all life, vegetable and animal, bad its origin in the boreal cir cumpolar regions. life has already been pushed half way to the equator, and, slowly but surely, the armies of ico advance their lines. The march of the human race equator ward is a forced march, even if it bo no more than a millimeter in a millenium. Some time in the remote future the last man w-ill reach the equator. There, with the mm-king disc of the sun in the zenith denying him warmth, Hat-headed and pinched as to every feature, he will gulp hu last mite of albuminoids in his oatmeal, and close his struggle with an in durate inhospitality. Professor Wiley. ''" P BORIJfO 54-TON GUN. Fig. 2 is an interior view of the ordnance machine shop, showing one of the 54 ton rifles in tho process of being bored in one of the 100-ton lathes. This gun is to have a short steel tule, four inches thick, inserted from tho breech and extending a little for ward of tho trunnions. The tube is shrunk into the bore of the gun, the hitter tx-ing heated. The gun in the picture will carry an MJO-pound shot ten miles. It is a portion of the heavy ordnance recently ordered by congress. What Beat the Oulaten. The English appear to have learned more from tku defeat of their yacht Galatea by the Yankee Mayflower than the Americans did. SSir Thomas lirossey, the distinguished British yachtsman, writes a letter to Tho Ixuidon Times explaining the failure. It was due, lie says, to the form of tho fialatea's hull. Ho writes: "Tho American sloop spreads 0,000 feet of canvas; the Galatea has a sail area of 7,140 feet, while tho ability of tho Galatea to carry sail is conspicuously inferior. Tho dis placement is l.r)T.ti! tens, against the 1 H tons of the Mayflower. The weight of ballast is 1.50 tons in the Galatea, and 4. 00 tons in the Mayflower. "The reasons which have led to the introduc tion of the present type of English racing cutter are not far to seek. Our mixlcls have been designed under tho baneful influence of an elaborate system of time allowance based upon tonnage, tho measurement being deter mined by the length and breadth without reference to depth. Tonnage lias been kept down by minimizing breadth, and the stabil ity formerly derived from a wholesome pro portion of breadth to lengt h has been supplied by the less satisfactory expedient of a heavy weight of ballast carried at an increased depth below the center of buoyancy." In every aspect of shape he regards the Mayflower as superior to the Galatea, but in the matter of staunch seaworthiness and en durance he believes the Galatea letter than the Mayflower. Then he declares frankly: "Avoiding exaggerations on both sides, we may build up on the solid keel of an English utter a hull not widely differing in form from that of the typical American sloop. It 'an be done, and pride and prejudice should not be suffered to liar the way to improve ment. The yachtsmen of a past generation, led by Mr. Weld, tho owner of tho famous Alarm, were not slow to learn a lesson from their contest with the America. We may improve our cutters ns w formerly improved our schooners, by adaptations, which need jiot be servile imitations of the flue s!oops our champion vessels have encountered on the further shores of the Atlantic. Diit Not In Our Time. In regarding the agricultnral economies of the future, it must not be forgotten that a certain degvre of warmth is as necessary to plant development as potash, Aosphoric acid, and nitrogen. If it be true, therefore, that the earth is gradually fooling, there may -ome a time when a rosmic otbertnaey may anse the famine which rjenfifi agriculture will have pre eaUC roitunattl.v, however, for toe human ia?e, tbe cereal, the be t firc ( article cf fvod, are peiuliaily suited ut a What We Eat. Here is a list of what people put into their insides along with their food. It is the tax which thieving grocers, confectioners and milkmen put on the public's life blood, in or der that they may get rich. The Massachusetts state board of health re ports that their chemist has found tbe follow ing adulterations: Milk, adulterated by the addition of water and coloring matter, and by the abstraction of the cream; spices, addi tion of starch and other foreign powders; cream of tartar, sulwtitution of starch, gyp sum, and other cheaper substances; baking ixjwders, alum; honey, substitution of cane sugar and glucose; molasses, addition of glu cose and presence of tin; maple sugar and syrup, presence of glucose; confectionery, terra alba, jxiisonous coloring matter, fusel oil and arsenical wrappers; canned fruits, vegetables and meats, presence of metallio poisons. Opium, cinchona and other drugs have also been found adulterated. What There Is in a Ton of Coal. From ono ton of ordinary gas coal may be produced 1,500 pounds of coke, 20 gallons of ammonia water and 140 pounds of coal tar. Hy destructive distillation tho coal tar will yield li'.i.O pounds of pitch, ITihjiiikIs of creo sote, 14 pounds heavy oils, ',1.5 pounds of naphtha yellow, !.." (munils naphthaline, 4. 75 pounds naphthol, 2. '.'5 pounds nluzarin, 2.4 pounds solvent naphtha, 1.5xmiils phenol, 1.2 pounds nurtne, l.l imuihls lienzino, 1.1 pounds aniline, 0.77 of a ouud toluidine, 0.40 of a pound unthrucine and 0.',) of a jmhiiiiI toluene. I mm the latter is obtained the new substance known us saccharine, which is S0 times as sweet as the best cane sugar, ono part of it giving a very sweet taste to a thousand parts of water. Science. Facts of Interest. Bats migrate southward for tho winter. A new metal, very similar to antimony, has been discovered. It is named germanium. An improved met hod of tanning namely, with soap and oil, together with carbolic acid has leon brought to notice by an Australia!! inventor. Tho highest chimney yet built in tho world has recently lieen completed nt tho Mechanic Lead works in Germany. It is 440 feet high, 11 feet being underground. If you aro tall, light of weight and narrow of chest, your chances of dying of cousum- tum are favorable. Live out doors all you can and tako care of your health. Black pepper has lieen grown in Florida. Millers should kick against it. They will be unablo to sell buckwheat hulls to tho spice mills any more should black iieiiiier grains become cheap. If tho air of the cellar is damp, it may be thoroughly dried by placing in it a peck of fresh lime in an open box. A peck of lime will absorb aliout seven pounds, or more than three quarts of water, and in this way a cellar or milk room may soon be dried, even in the hottest weather. WHAT SHALL WE WEAR ? Jet. A correspondent from Paris writes that there is ono accessory among the many de tails of the toilet that forms a remarkable ex ception to the proverbial fickleness of fashion, and that is jet, as it is seen on every hand, embellishing and brightening all sorts of gowns and wraps, from the simplest to tho richest. At Paris jet has become a national ornament just as in Kpain, and, like in Spain, it has risen beyond the caprices of fashion. Young Lady's Jacket. This jacket is made of checked homespun, with a high collar and cuffs of dark brown plush, and with a fold of plush bordering the lower edge It is a tight jacket, fitted by a dart and two side forms, and is buttoned toward the left side. JACKET. Two postilion pieces are set into the short skirt of the biis j ; at tlie back, to be plaited in and give it fulness. Pockets are setj ia slits upon the u-.i!er side, put back of the dart. Wor'- th'f buttonholes at the edge of the ivht f.o.i!, 1 button it over towurd the left shoulder at the top. In T:i tits' Wardrobe. Mrs. L. II. C..L- iL.ikes tbo following sug gestions regarding infants' clothing: Of late tbe biii.,u worn during the first months of in fancy aro t:s-i-.i: v mado of flannel a real im provement on t'ao old fashioned double linen bands. Ordinarily these bands are worse than uwlsn rfVr tha first month; but la cases of weak tea, when they seem to be neo essary on oU-r hifants, great care is needed to have tiieiu fit easily, yet be as securely fastened as to retain their proper position. These bands never fit the body unless there are two mall gore from two to three inches apart at the lower edge of each where it cornea down below the bowel If worn after the babe ia ix week old, when it begun U move about ome, a bit of tape should be sewed between these gores to reach down and be held firmly in place by the safety pin. This prevents slipping up. Shoulder straps of inch wide tape will prevent slipping down; made thus and pinned very carefully, that there may be no suffering from sticking pins, the band may be fastened so loosely as not to hinder respiration or freedom of motion, and yot form a safe protection from injury by severe crying and straining. Instead of the short sleeved linen shirt and tho flannel skirt with its straight waist of cotton or linen, make a long flannel sack with gores under tho arms and in tbo buck, fitting tho waist loosely and sloping out nt the bottom wide enough for skirt This sack, mude of soft flannel and long, straight sleeves, and fastened hi front, with small, thin buttons, is a much more comfortable a garment for the helpless baby than the close waists and folds and gathers of its ordinary underclothes. Every invalid knows tbo luxury of loose wrappers for lying down and this littlo mite of humanity is fit for nothing else during the first six weeks of its life. Over this a long slip or dress may be worn long sleeved, of course, and tolerably high in tho neck. A soft thin blanket is use ful, especially to protect tho Imby hands and bead when the littie one is carried about Ilrorailed Velvet Mantle. The mantle illustrated is made of colored frise velvet brocade with a browu ground. It has a narrow vest of seal brown plush in the front, and is edged witu chenille fringe that is headed by a dark brown feather baud. The lining is red satin surah. ia MANTLE. To the right is shown the back of the mantle. Set an uiiderhipping fly fourteen inches long along the edge of the left front, and provide the fronts with luxiks and eyes for fastening. Set a IHt tape into the back at the waist. This mantle is handsome when made of black brocaded velvet, trimmed with black plush and fur or feather baud of black. The feather trimming will be extremely fashionable this season. Ctrl' Mantle. This short mantle with sling sleeves ts made of rrossharrod ecru homespun. The sleeves are faced with brown satin surah, and the collar is edged with rosary beads. OIHL'a MANTLE. It is a pretty, graceful littlo cloak. Set a plaited postilion into the Ixittom of the back, made of a piece six inches deep and twenty six inches wide. Faco tho front edges four inches deep with surah. Turn up tho under part, which forms tho sling, and sew it to tho mantle. Baste on the upiier part, and finish tho neck with the collar. Provide tbe front with but tons and button holes, and set a belt ribbon into tho back at the waist lino. Tuck the cajx3 to the back at tho waist line, as shown in the illustration. Weddings. When a bride is married in her traveling dress, at homo or nt church, she uses either a gray or browu cloth suit. Her gloves ure gray or tan-color, as liest harmonizes with her dress, and tho glo of tho groom may match hers, or if it is a day wed ding ho may omit tho gloves altogether, or he may merely carry them in his hand, as is sometimes done at tho elaborate wedding where the bride goes to church in full dress. At evening weddings gloves are du rigueur for tho groom, but instead of the pure white gloves that make the hands look larger, tho preference is for the groom to wear the palest earl-tmted gloves, broadly stitched with tho same shade, while tho ushers w ar similar gloves stitched with black. White neck scarfs are now fashionably worn by all men at all weddings, even at the most quiet morn ing ceremonies at home or in church. At day weddings the men guests wear tan colored gloves. Long lteillriKiliM. Long redingotes covering tho entire dress are Ijeing revived; one in black Allicrt cloth is lined with crimson satin. It is cut with large full plaits at the back, and is 1ou1iIh breasted, being fastentxl with plaid cloth cov ered buttons. Another, in dark blue rough cloth, also double breasted, is trimmed with blue fox, which, starting from the left side, crosses the bust and is continued to the lxt tom of tho coat; high collar and deep cuffs are of tho fur, and the blue cloth toque trimmed to match. Blue fox will bo the most fashionable form of fur trimming this year; it hannonizi's well with the shades of blues and greens, browns nnd grays now (hirfly worn, though why it should be called blue is somewhat of a puzzle. It certainly has a blue tinge, but is an unmUtakablo gray for all that The Ouen Watch Chain. Thequeen continues to 1 the leading style in wateh chains for ladies' wear, and it ap pears this season in inoreornnt" patterns, with decorative effects ond enrichments of gems. The principal change, however, from tho originul chain, lies in tbe jx'iidaiit, which U now a locket, a tiny jiencil, vinaigrette or charm of unique form and liiii.-,li, rather tha.i a cube or ball. FASHIONLETS. Shoulder seams are as thort or shorter than er. Bhirred corsages and full plastrons are all tbe rage. Birds are seen to some extent on bati again this fall, but ladies, don't wear them. It is barbaric. Cloth bonnets appear in all color, ready to trim. They are rot so heavy as felt and better for tbe bair, admitting more air. Tbe pnwent fashions require a ninwalmud anra of fichus, vsts, plastron anj tisrurvs la ba wora at every possible time an J occasion. Though painful and wearing almost beyond I " Had a cm of Inflammatory Rhenmetiam of endurance, is not au incurable disease if treat- Prl' u u ' inu. (... Tonoauji, sod ea in nut. remaps no otner disease nas so i "" - - - battled the ettoru of science and medicine an this, but at hut a reiuedyhaiibecndiscovered in V7vArfm wnu n tUKts KMtuasA--iVWWVWVt-risM, and is heartily en dorsed by many of the Leading Phyaiciaas. WHAT THEY SAYs " TOMOaUXI is diilnf all t hat i claimed it will d." ii. OTSurcsT, M. I)., Can trail, Bl W. W. BaxTia, M. D Hennua, DL "In my opinion TotfaaLnra rQMrotdaa all othar uu ruvumauo remoauM." , ao-caljo 8. 0. Wuauuu, M. D., aUanae, DL ' HaT fifffl ToHOALm a fair Mai aiu tSUW It to bwtt rauiodj 1 ban aw found fur UbaumaUam." I B. F, Dans, Btoigwo, Mo. FOR BALK BY ALL DRUGGISTS. PRICK ONE DOLLAR PER BOTTLE. A.A.MELLIER, Soto Proprietor. 709 and 7t WASHINGTON AVENUE. H". LOCUL 1V1 is WHO IS UNACQUAINTED WITH THE GEOGRAPHY OF THI8 COUNTRY, WILL 8EE BY EXAMINING THIS MAP, THAT THE r,'sOaAl':J."v,,7 '' n.,.lV.,T r t NEUSSL'S DRUG STOREI MAIN STREET. West of La Salle Street, dontb side, OTTAWA, ILLINOIS. iri d keep romuntly on hand lane and well selected hock 0) DRUGS AND CHEMICALS All the new and popular Paten Medicines. Eitiaeat nd Splcei for onllnar? Perfumery, Brushes, and Fancy Ai tides tor the Toilet Paints, Oils, Varnishes, V'indow Cass, &i Particular Attention given to the Componndln ot PhysiclanB l'i wriptions CHICAGO, ROCK ISLAND & PACIFIC R'Y By reason of its central position, close relation to principal lines East of Chicago and continuous lines at terminal pointa Went, Northwest and Southwest- is tha only true middle-link In that transcontinental system which invites and facil itates travel and trafllc in either direction between the Atlantic and Pacific. The Bock Island main line and branches include Chicago, Joliet, Ottawa, La Salle, Peoria, Oeneseo, Moline and Rock Island, in Illinois; Davenport, Musca tine, Washington, Fairfield. Ottumwa, Oskaloosa, West Liberty, Iowa City, Des Moines, Indianola, Winterset. Atlantic, Knoxville, Audubon, Harlan, Guthrie Centre and Council Bluffs, in Iowa; OaUatin, Trenton, St. Joseph, Cameron and Kansas City, in Missouri; Leavenworth and Atchison, in Kansas; Albert Lea, Minneapolis and St. Paul, In Minnesota; Watertown in Dakota, and huudreda of intermediate cities, towns and villa es. THE GREAT ROCK ISLAND ROUTE Guarantees Speed, Comfort and Safety to thoaej who travel over it Its roadbed ia thoroughly ballasted. Its track ia of heavy steel. Its bridges are solid structurea of atone and iron. Its rolling; stock is perfect as human skill can make it. It haa all the safety appliances that mechanical irenius has invented ana experience proved valuable. Its practical operation is conservative and methodical-its discipline strict and exacting. The luxury of its passenger accommoda tions is nneoualed in the West unsurpassed in the world. ALL EXPRESS TRAINS between Chicago and the Missouri River onslst of comfortable DAY COACHES, magnificent PULLMAN PALACE PARLOR and SLEEPING CARS, eleg-ant DINING CARS providing excellent njeaK and -between Chicago, St Joseph, Atchison and Kauaaa Oity-restful RECLINING CHAIR CABS. THE FAMOUS ALBERT LEA ROUTE fa tha direct favorite Una between Chicago and Minneapolis and St Paul. Over a v.n. 4.j-Vi-- a. rnkikH attmrm suoerior inducements to travelers between Cincinnati, Indianapolis, Lafayette and Council Blaflfc. Bt Joseph. Atchison, Leavenworth, Xafisaa City, KuxneapoUs, St Paul and inter- mAUelS2iSsfof patrons, especially families, ladies and children, receive from officials and employes of Rock Island trains protection, respectful courtesy and Vor TtEksts.nkaDS. Folders - obtainable at all principal Ticket Offices ia the Toiled States and Canada r sat dealreu laformaUoa, addrees,. R. R. CABLE, t. ST. 10HM. t. A. MOLBROOa, Prt t 4 Gts'l U'fT, Chicaja. Au'l 6m'I 'r, tcg: 6a ' Tat. t fan. sjt. ts.caj -A A W sbsjbj sbw a m aeex aassai RHEUMATISM. Tlila remedv haa a aoeclflc artlnn nnnn the flnlila of the hoily, aiipplrlnK ni out tire to the tlasue snd liihrlratltuf the Jnnti altecttxl by tbe dleaoe. Ni nun vr ifiiuinrg a.iaana remain alter a cure or this neL'iltc. A trial of a amain Ixmlo will minvinr the moKt m-eptii al that we huve nut told half It Tip toes. 1'rlce Hl.OO iter bottle. Kor sale br ail ilrutixlsta. Manufactured only br LENNEY MEDICINE CO., CHENOA, ILLINOIS. Curoiuu, Nervous aud bkin 1)1 hiir.hu nunm a,th- 011 1 tlruKH. Tbe dubiliutcd Nervous, Muscular and (teuernttve HyHtein 6ieedily restored. Klee tno KHtterieH and appliances (or sale or rent, with instructions to trout and cure yourself at borne at u Htiiii.ll I'Mxnue. houil stamp for circulars with (nil particulars to the Dr. Valentine Kleetropatbto IiiMtitutH. The liiruest, o!cl8t anl uioet com lftt KliH'trical IuHtitute in the world, VI and V$ WatibiutitoutitruKt, C'hicaoo, 11 L ADVERTISERS can learn the exact cost of any proposed line of advertising in American papers by addressing Geo. P. Rowell & Co., Newspaper Advertising Bureau, lO Spruce St., New York. Send lOcts. toe lOO-Pago Pamphlet The Line selected by the U.S. Gov't to carry the Fast Mall. Eoimo The Only Through Lma, with itiown track, batwaan CHICAGO. .nFMiirn PEURIA or anw II t 1.1 II K II ST. LOUIS sH Either by way of Omaha, Pacific Junction, Atchiton or Kaniat City, it tiavsrtM all of the Great States, ILLINOIS, IOWA. MISSOURI, NEBRASKA. KAN8AS. COLORADO. With branch lines to then impottent cities and tewna. It lune every day in the year rom one to three elegsntls equ pped through twine over itt own trackt, between Chicago and Denver, Chicago and Omaha, Chicago and Council Clirr, Chicago and St. Joseph, Chicaso and Atnhlson. Chicago and Kansas City, vmcago ana lopeKa, Chicago and St. Paul, Chicago and Sioux City. Peoria and Council BlufTs, Peoria and Kansas city, St. Louis and Omaha, St. Louis and St. Paul. St. Louis and Rock Island, Kansas City and Denver, Kansas City and St. Paul. Kansas City and Omaha, Kansas city ana ues moines. At etch ol itt teveral Extern and W.itun termini it corinecti in Grand Union Depot! with Through Traina to and Irom ill point! m the United btatei end Canada. It il the Principal Line to and I'om Sin Francisco, Portland and City of Mexico Tor Ticket!. Ri'ei. General Information, etc., regarding the Burlington Route, call on any Ticket Agent in the United Stitel or Canada, oi addreii HENRY B. STONE, PIRCEVAL LOWELL, lien I Manegef, urn I mi. ngenj, CHICAGO. ADVERTISERS or otf.rs .vho y.ish to .limine th.i paper, or obtain .stirr.jtee on nl.crtning tpice when In Chicago, will find it on Me at tl.AlJl.,irgAgcyni LORD THOltfASl THREE GREAT CITIES m WEST -j:crlit.sa v --- ii i i -,,iui LINKED T0til.Tlli:n BT THE (iUKAT HlCAGO & ALTON R. R. Thciiort Lino and the Knit Route to KANSAS CITY 1ST. LOUIS And nil point KANSAS CITY. And ail point a Tla ST. LOUIS. CHICAGO EAST and NORTH. The 1'opulnr l.lai to Calirornla. PALACE RECLINING CHAIR CARS Fme of Extra Charge. PALACE DINING CARS, Pullman Talacc Sleepinc Cltsi, As equlpnirnt not equaled hy any o:hT '.It t Kntlre tratni run through wlth':it ohang. an ' . on nfrtloni am uritn with other Uuce at aavouaule Ii'iiira in 1 nlon lr. ir.. lua liUKAT l.H'RION noi'lt: tn sum mr-r. to ail Uairrlng Pl -i In tlm Kant, Writ and NnrtlK V!M'ilN. MINKXTA, IM III t'AMAHA, K.4MTF.KN HTATKf. KIM KV MIM NTUNN I UI.OItADU. NKV IKI . r l.lr OKNl A. Inwluirr, to all the Wlr' r H-.'rr In the boutu. NV.W MfcXlt'O aad I AI.IKO.tl A. r . urirn. i:.iuml Trip and Single Trlj Th kets te .41,1. I.AM) liHAST I'OINTM IB th Vleat ir South, and Through Tickets to all potuie fir Weit. North and south, ere on aale at a'.l tin. el, : aa low rami ai hv Inf. rlor it nr. i'ot further loforniatios a ad lovest rstrs, apply to Atr Ticket Afest CUICAQO A 11T0I B. JL or to JAMES CHARLTOM, Oeneml Prtaaenger and Tie ket gnt, 2IU Daarbvra Street, CUICAOO, ILL. I. M. OA"rt8, OeoeraiTraTtlliig Agvat Ch..' Alto. RallroesV J. C. "IL. N 'ke-Prertdevt Ma I HIS pAfERf1' WJgf m eukeuflerU aeenr