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j%ationnl Intelligencer— Extra.
MESSAGK Of the Piesiilont of the United States to both HuiAs H the opening of the 23d Congress. Fello* citizens of the Senate ahd House of Representatives: On vour assembling to perform the high trusts which the people of the United States have con fided to vou, oflegislatingfor their common welfare, it gives me pleasure to congratulate you upon the happy condition of our beloved country. Bv the favor of Divine Providence, health is again re stored to us: peace reigns within our borders: abundance crowns the labors of our fields: commerce and domestic industry flourish and increase: and individual happiness rewards the private virtue and enterprise of our citizens. Our condition abroad is no less honorable than it is prosperous at home. Seeking nothing that is not right, and determined to submit to nothing that is wrong, but desiring honest friendships and liberal intercourse with all nations, the United States have gained throughout the world the confidence and respect which are due to the character of the American people, and to a policy so just, and so congenial to the spirit of their institutions. In bringing to your notice the particular state of our Foreign Affairs, 'it nH'onls me high gratification to inform you that thev are in a condition which promises the con tinuance of friendship with all nations. With Great Britain the interesting question of our Northeastern boundary remains still undecided. A ne gotiation, however, upon that subject, has been renewed since the close of the last Congress, and a proposition has been submitted to the British Government with the view of establishing, in conformity with the resolution of the Senate, the line designated by the treaty of 11 83. I hough no definitive answer has been received, it may he daily looked for, and 1 entertain a hope that the overture may ultimately lead to a satisfactory adjustment of this import ant matter. . . 1 have the satisfaction to inform you that a negotiation which, by desire of the House of Representatives, was opened, some years ago, with the British Government, for the erection of hglit-liouses on the Bahamas, has been successful. Those works, when completed, toge ther with those which the United States have constructed on the western side of the Gulf of Florida, will contri bute essentially to the safety of navigation in that sea. This joint participation in establishments interesting to humanity and beneficial to commerce, is worthy of two enlightened nations, and indicates feelings which cannot fail to have a happy influence upon their political rela tions. It is gratifying to the friends of both to perceive that the intercourse between the two people is becoming dailv more extensive, and that sentiments of mutual good will have grown up, befitting their common origin, justi tying the hope that, by wise counsels on each side, not onlv unsettled questions may be satisfactorily terminated, but new causes of misunderstanding prevented. Notwithstanding that I continue to receive the most , amicable assurances from the Government ol F ranee, and j that in all other respects the most friendly relations exist j between the United States and that Government, it is to j be regretted that the stipulations of the Convention con- j eluded on the 4th July, 1831, remain, in some important j parts, unfulfilled. By the second article of that Convention, it was stipu lated that the sum payable to the United States should be ! paid at Paris, in six annual instalments, into the iiands of ; auch person or persons as should be authorized by the . Government of the United States to receive it; and by the same article the first instalment was payable on the j second day of F'chniary, 1833. By the act ot Congress , of the 13th July, 1832, it was made the duty of the Sc- ; cretary of the Treasury to cause the several instalments, with tiie interest thereon, to be received from the F rench Government, and transferred to the United States, in such manner as he may deem best; and by the same act of Congress, the stipulations on the part ot the b rated States, in the Convention, were, in all respects, fulfilled. Not <\i>ubt\ng that a treaty tints made, and ratified by the two Governments and faithfully executed by the United States would be promptly complied with by the other party, and desiring to avoid the risk and expense of in- j termediate agencies, the Secretary of the I reasury deemed it advisable to receive and transfer the first in stalment by means of a draft upon the French Minister of Finance. ’ A draft for this purpose was accordingly drawn in favor of the Cashier of the Bank of the United States for the amount accruing to the United States out , of the first instalment and the interest payable with it. | This bill was not drawn at Washington until five days at ter the instalment, was payable at Paris, and was accom- ; punit'd by a special authority from the President, autho rizing the Cashier, or lus assigns, to receive the amount. The mode thus adopted of receiving the instalment, was . officially made known to the French Government, by the j American Charge d’Afi'aires at Paris pursuant to instruc tions from the Department of State, The bill, however, though not presented lor payment until the twenty-third dav of March, was not paid', and for the reason assigned by the French Minister of Finance, that no appropriation had been made by the French Chambers. It is not known to me that, up to that period, any appropriation liad been required of the Clumbers; and although a communication was subsequently made to the Chambers, by direction of the King, recommending that the neces sary provision should be made for carrying the Conven tion into effect, it was at an advanced period of the ses sion, and the subject was finally postponed until the next meeting of the Chambers. Notwithstanding it has been supposed by the French ministry that the financial stipulations ol the treaty can not be "carried into effect without an appropriation by the Chambers, it appears to me to be not only consistent with the charter of F’ranee, but due to the character of both Governments, as well as to the rights ot our citizens, to treat the Convention made and ratified, in proper form, as pledging the good faith of the French Government for its execution, and as imposing upon eacli department an ob ligation to fulfil it; and l have received assurances through our Charge d’Afi'aires at Paris, and the French Minister plenipotentiary at Washington, and more recently through the Minister of the Unite® States at Pans, that the delay has not proceeded from any indisposition on the pai t of the King and his Ministers to fulfil the treaty, and that measures will be presented at the next meeting of the _1._ .„.i -Mt!. . tvss-mahle hone ot success, to ob VU«lillvvi«| —- -- tain the necessary appropriation. It is necessary to state, however, that the documents except certain "lists of vessels captured, condemned, or burnt at aca, proper to facilitate the examination and h auidation of the reclamations comprised in the stipulations of the Convention, and which, by the 6th article, France engaged to communicate to the United States by the in termediary of the Legation, though repeatedly applied for by the" American Charge d’Affaires, under instructions from this Government, have not yet been communicated; and this delav, it is apprehended, w ill necessarily prevent the completion of the duties assigned to the Commission ers. within the time at pi eseni prescribed by law. The reasons for delaying to communicate these docu ments have not been explicitly stated, and this is the more to be regretted, as it is not understood that the interposi tion 0f the Chambers is in any manner required lor the delivery of those papers. , , Under these circumstances, in a case so important to the interests of our citizens and to the character ol our country, and under disappointments so unexpected, deemed it my duty, however I might respect the general trances to which l have adverted, no longer to delay the appointment of a Minister Plenipotentiary to Pans, but to despatch him in season to communicate the result Ifhb Sication to the French Government at an early period of your session. ! accordingly appointed a di tin guished citizen for this purpose, who proceededI on .hj mission in August last, and was presented to the King ”T?n the month of October. He is particular y m structed as to all matters connected with the pr^'jU5 lure of affair*; ami, 1 indulge the hope iliat, with the .indentations he is instructed to make, and from the dis ssrs-fak b,.i,c «w wi'wafSISifcK<l”~lkliActoril, deposed ol tffu subject 'involves important interests, and has at tracked a considerable share of the public attention, I have deemed it proper to make tins explicit statemcn > tual condition; and should 1 he disap,jointed in > P entertained, the subject will be again brought to the .notice of Congress in auch manner as the occasion may 'rhe friendly relations which have always been mam tained between the United States and Russia, have been further extended and strengthened by the treaty of na vigation and commerce, concluded on the sixth of De cember last, and sanctioned by the Senate before the close of its last session. The ratifications having been since exchanged, the liberal provisions of the treaty are now in full force; and, under the encouragement which they have received, a flourishing and increasing com merce, yielding its benefits to the enterprise of botli na tions, affords to each just recompense of wise measures, and adds new motives for that mutual friendship which the two countries have hitherto cherished towards each other. It affords me peculiar satisfaction to state that the Go vernment of Spain has at length yielded to the justice of the claims which have been so long- urged in behalf of our citizens, and has expressed a willingness to provide an indemnification, as soon as the proper amount can be agreed upon. Upon this latter point, it is probable an understanding had taken place between the Minister of the United States and the Spanish Government before the decease of the late King of Spain; and, unless that event may ha\ c delayed its completion, there is reason to hope that it may be in my power to announce to you, early in your present session, the conclusion of a Convention upon terms not less favorable titan those entered into for similar objects with other nalious. That act of justice would well accord with the character of Spain, and is due to the United States from their ancient friend. It could not fail to strengthen the sentiments of amity and good will between the two nations w hich it is so much the wish of the United States to cherish, and so truly the in terest of both to maintain. By the first section of the act of Congress passed on the 13th July, 1832, the tonnage duty on Spanish ships arriving front the ports of Spain, was limited to the duty payable on American vessels in tlte ports of Spain, pre vious to the 20th October, 1817, being five cents per ton. '1'lie act was intended to give effect, on our side, to anarrangement made with the Spanish Government, by which discriminating duties of tonnage were to be abo lished in the ports of the United States and Spain, on the j vessels of the two nations. Pursuant to that arrange ment, which was carried into eff ect on the part of Spain, on the 23th of May, 1832, ty a roval order dated the 29th Apnl, 1832, American vessels in the ports of Spain have paid five cents per ton, which rate of duty is also paid in those ports by Spanish ships; but, as American vessels pay no tonnage duty in the ports of the United States, the duty of five cents payable in our ports by Spanish vessels, under the act above mentioned, is really a discriminating duty, operating to the disadvantage of Spain. Though no complaint has yet been made on the part of Spain, we are not the less bound by the obliga tions of good faith to remove the discrimination; and 1 recommend that the act be amended accordingly. As the royal order, above alluded to, includes the ports of the Balearic and Canary Islands, as well as those of Spain, it would seem that the provisions of the act of Cnnpress slinnbl bo ennallv extensive: and that for the l'C payment of such duties as may have been improperly re ceived, an addition should be made to the sum appropri ated at the last session of Congress for refunding discri minating duties. 1 As the arrangement referred to, however, did not em brace the Islands of Cuba and Porto Kico, discriminating duties, to the prejudice of American shipping, continue to he levied there. From the extent of the commerce car ried on between the United States and those Islands, par ticularly the former, this discrimination causes serious in jury to one of those great national interests which it has been considered an essential part of our policy to cherish, and has gi\cn rise to complaints on the part of our mer chants. U nder instructions given to our Minister at Madrid, earnest representations have been made by him to the Spanish Government upon this subject, and there is rea son to expect, from the friendly disposition which is en tertained towards this country, that a beneficial change will be produced. The disadvantage, however, to which our shipping is subjected by the operation of these discrim inating duties, requires that they be met by suitable coun tervailing duties during your present session—pow er be ing at the same time vested in the President to modify or discontinue them as the discriminating duties on American vessels or their cargoes may be modified or discontinued at those Islands. Intimations have been given to the Span ish Government, that the United States may be obliged to resort to such measures as are of necessary sell defence; and there is no reason to apprehend that it would be un favorably received. The proposed proceeding, if adopt ed, would not be permitted, however, in any degree to . induce a relaxation in the efforts of ut.: Minister to effect a repeal of this irregularity, by friendly negotiations; and it might serve to give force to his representations, by showing the dangers to which that valuable trade is exposed by the obstructions and burthens which a system of'discriminating and countervailing duties necessarily produces. - The selection and preparation of the Florida archives, | for the purpose of being delivered over to the U. Slates, in conformity with the royal order, as mentioned in my last annual message, though in progress, has not yet been’ completed. This delay has been produced partly by causes which were unavoidable, particularly the preva-1 k nee of cholera at Havana; but measures have been taken which it is believed will expedite the delivery of those i important records. Congress were informed, at the opening of the last ses-' sion, that, “owing, as was alleged, to embarrassments in , the finances of Portugal, consequent upon the civil war : in which that nation was engaged,” payment bad been made of only one instalment of the amount which the Portuguese Government had stipulated to pay for indem nifying our citizens for property illegally captured in the blockade of Terceira. Since that tunc, a postponement for two years, with interest of the two remaining instal ments, was requested by the Portuguese Government; and, as a consideration, it offered to stipulate that rice of the United States should be admitted into Portugal at the same duties as Brazilian rice. Being satisfied that no better arrangement could be made, my consent was given; and a royal order of the King ol Portugal was ac cordingly issued on the 4th of February last for the re duction of the duty on rice of the United States. It would give me great pleasure if, in speaking of that countiy, in whose prosperity the United States are so much interest ed, and with whom a long subsisting, extensive, and mu tually advantageous commercial intercourse has strength ened" the relations of friendship, I could announce to you the restoration of its internal tranquillity. Subsequently to the commencement of the last session of Congress the tinal instalment payable by uenmark, un der the Convention of the 28th day of March, 1830, was received. The Commissioners for examining the claims have since terminated their labors, and their awards have been paid at tbc Treasury as they have been called for. The justice rendered to our citizens by that Government is thus completed, and a pledge is thereby afforded for. the maintenance of that friendly intercourse becoming tbc relations that the two nations mutually bear to each other. It is satisfactory to inform you that the Danish Govern ment have recently issued an ordinance by which the commerce with the Island of St. Croix is placed on a more liberal looting than heretofore. This change cannot fail to prove beneficial to the trade between the United States j and that colony ; and the advantages likely to flow from it may lead to greater relaxations in the colonial systems of other nations. The ratifications of the Convention with the King of the Two Sicilies have been duly exchanged, and the Com missioners appointed for examining the claims under it have entered upon the duties assigned to them by law. The friendship that the interests of the two nations re quire of them, being now established, it may be hoped that each will enjoy the benefits which a liberal commerce should yield to both. A treaty of amity and commerce between the United States and Belgium was concluded during the last win ter, and received the sanction of the Senate ; but the ex change of the ratifications has been hitherto delayed, in consequence, in the first instance, ot some delay in the reception of the treaty at Brussels, and, subsequently', of the absence of tlie Belgian Minister of Foreign Aff airs, at the important conferences in which his Government is engaged at London. . That treaty docs but embody those enlarged principles «r friendly policy, which, it is sincerely hoped, will al ways regulate the conduct of the two nations, having such strong motives to maintain amicable relations towards each other, and so sincerely desirous to cherish them. With all the other European Powers with whom the United States have formed diplomatic relations, and with the Sublime Poit , the best understanding prevails.— From all, I continue to receive assurances of good will to wards the United Slates—assurances which it gives me ihj less pleasure to reciprocate than to receive. " ith all, the engagements which have been entered into, are ful filled with good faith on both sides. Measures have also been taken to enlarge our friendly relations and extent! our commercial intercourse with other States. The sys tem we have pursued of aiming at no exclusive advanta ges, of dealing with all on terms of fair and equal recipro city, and of adhering scrupulously to all our engagements, is well calculated to give success to efforts intended to be mutually beneficial. The wars, of which the Southern part of this continent was so long the theatre, and which were carried on either by the mother country against the Slates which had for merly been her colonies, or by the Stales against each other, having terminated, and their civil dissensions hav i ing so far subsided, as, with few exceptions, no longer to disturb the public tranquillity, it is earnestly hoped those , States will be able to employ themselves without iiiterrup : tioit in perfecting their institutions, cultivating the arts of peace, and promoting, by wise counsels and able exer tions, the public and private prosperity which their pa . triotic struggles so well entitle them to enjoy. With those States our relations have undergone but little change during the present vear. No re-union hav ;>ng yet taken place between the States which composed the Republic of Colombia, our Charge d’Affaircs at Bo gota lias been accredited to the Government of New Granada, and we have therefore no diplomatic relations with Venezuela and l'quator, except as they may be in cluded in those heretofore formed with the Colombian Republic. It is understood that Representatives from the three Stafbs were about to assemble at Bogota to con fer on the subject of their mutual interests, particularly that of their union; and if the result should render it ne-, cessary, measures will he taken on our part to preserve with each that friendship and those liberal commercial connexions which it has been the constant desire of the United States to cultivate with their sister republics of this hemisphere. Until the important question of re-uni on shall he settled, however, the different matters which have hcen under discussion between the United States and the Republic of Colombia, or cither of the States which composed it, are not likely to be brought to a sa-1 tisfactory issue. In consequence of the illness of the Charge d’Affaircs appointed to Central America at the last Session of Con gress, lie was prevented from proceeding on his mission until the month of October. It is hoped, however, that he is by this time at his post, and that the official inter course, unfortunately so long interrupted, has been thus renewed on the part of the two nations so amicably and j advantageously connected by engagements founded on the most enlarged principles of commercial reciprocity, j It is gratif\ing to state that since my last annual mes- j sage, some of the most important claims of our fellow- i citizens upon the Government of Brazil have been satis- j, factorily adjusted, and a reliance is placed on the friendly 1 dispositions manifested by it that justice will also be done < in others. No new causes of complaint have arisen ; and the trade between the two countries flourishes under the ( encouragement secured to it by the liberal provisions of i the treaty. i It is cause of regret, that, owing probably to the civil dissensions which have occupied the attention of the ! Mexican Government, the time fixed by the treaty of i limits with the United States for the meeting of the Com- i missioners to define the boundaries between the two na- | tions, has been suffered to expire without the appoint- i ment of any Commissioners on tlie part of that Govern- i ment. While the true boundary remains in doubt by eittier party, it is difficult to give effect to those measures - w hich are necessary to the protection and quiet of our numerous citizens residing near that frontier. The sub- ! ject is one of grrat solicitude to the United States, and i w ill not fail to receive my earnest attention. The treaty concluded with Chili, and approved by the Senate at its last cession, was also ratified hv the Chilian Government, but with certain additional and explanatory articles of a natire to have required it to be again sub mitted to the Seitite. The time limited for the exchange of the ratificatiois, however, having since expired, the action of both Governments on the treaty will again be come necessary. The negotiation commenced with the Argentine Re public, relative teilie outrages committed on our vessels engaged in the liberies at the Falkland-Islands, by per sons acting tindd the color of its authority, as well us j the‘other mattery in controversy between the two Oo- I vernments, have een suspended by the departure of the i Chargl d’Affairs of the United States from Buenos Ayres. It is umirstood, however, that a Minister was subsequently apjiinted by that Government to renew the negotiation in tie United States, hut, though daily ex pected, he has n< vet arrived in this country. ... With Peru lu treaty has yet been formed, and with Bolivia nodiplonatic intercourse has yet been establish ed. It will he my endeavor to encourage those senti ments of amity aid that liberal commerce which belong to the relations 'll which all the independent States of this continent stand towards each other. I deem it projer to recommend to your notice the re vision of our consular system. This has become an im portant branch of the public service, inasmuch as it is intimately connected with the preservation ol our na tional character abroad, with the interest of our citizens in foreign counties, with the regulation and care of our commerce, and With the protection of our seamen. At the close of the last session of Congress i communicated a report from the Secretary nf State upon the subject, to which 1 now refer, as containing information winch j may be useful it any inquiries that Congress may sec lit; to institute witl^a view to a salutary reform of the sjstem. It gives me great pleasure to congratulate you upon tlie prosperous condition of the finances ol the country,. as will appear from the report which the Secretary of tiie Treasury will, in due time, lay before you. I lie re ceipts into the Treasury during the present year will amount to more than thirty-tw o millions of dollars. I lie revenue derived from customs will, it is believed, be more than twenty-eight millions, and the public lands will yield about three millions. The expenditures within the year for all objects, including #2,572,240 99 on account of the public debt, will not amount to twenty-five mil lions: and a large balance will remain in the Treasury after satisfying all the appropriations chargeable on the revenue for the present year. The measures taken by the Secretary of the 1 reasury will probably enable him to pay off, in the course of tlie present tear, the residue of the exchanged four and a half per cent, stock, redeemable on tlie first of January , next. It has, therefore, been included in tlie estimated ; j-._ .1 • __ _i r_ .. n.ct nf tli* mini I above stated to have been paid on account of the public debt. The payment of this stock will reduce the whole debt of the United States, funded and unfunded, to the sum of $4,760,1)82 08. And as provision has already been made for the four and a half per cent, abovemcn tioned, and charged in the expenses of the present year, the sum last stated is ail that now remains of the national dehti and the revenue of the coming year, together with the balance now in the Treasury, will be sufficient to discharge it, after meeting the current expenses of the Government. Under the power given to the Commis sioners of the Sinking Fund, it will, I have no doubt, be i purchased on favorable terms within the year. From this view of the state of the finances, and the public engagements yet to be fulfilled, you will perceive that, if Providence permits me to meet you at another session, 1 shall have the high gratification of announcing ’ to you that die national debt is extinguished. I cannot refrain from expressing the pleasure I feel at the near approach of that desirable event. The short period of time within which the public debt will have been dis charged, is strong evidence of the abundant resources of j the country, and of the prudence and economy with ! which the Government has heretofore been administered. 1 We have waged two wars since we became a nation, with [ one of the most powerful kingdoms in thv world—-both 1 of them undertaken in defence of our dearest rights [ both successfully prosecuted and honorably terminated ! and many of those who partook in the fin»t struggle, as i well as the second, will have lived to see the last item of | the debt incurred in these necessary but expensive con flicts, faithfully and honestly discharged—and we snail | have the proud satisfaction of bequeathing to the public i servants who follow us in the administration of the Go i vernment, the rare blessing of a revenue sufficiently abundant—raised without injustice or oppression to our citizens, and unincumbered with any burthens but what they themselves shall think proper to impose upon it. The flourishing state of the finances ought not, how ever, to encourage us to indulge in a lavish expenditure of the public treasure. 'I’hc receipts of the present year do not furnish the lest by which we are to estimate the income of the next. The changes made in our revenue system by the acts of Congress of 1832 and 18oo, and more especially by the former, have swelled the receipts of the present year far beyond the amount to be expected in future years upon the reduced tariff of duties. **1C / * _ shortened credits on rev enue bonds, am] the cash dutie on woollens which were introduced bv the act of 1832 am! took effect on the 4lh „f March last, have branch* large sums into the Treasury in 1833, which, according to the credits formerly given, would not have been pat able until 1834, and would have formed a pan of tht i,ncomc °f ftiat year. These causes would of themselves i * ^reat <^,rnjnution of the receipts in the veat 11834, as compared with the present one, and they will | ,. , diminished by the reduced rates of duties , which take place on the first of January next, on some < f the most important and productive articles. Upon the best estimates that can be made, the receipts of the next year, With the aid of the unappropriated amount now in the I reasury, will not be much more than sufficient t< meet the expenses of the year and pay the small rem* nant of the national debt which yet remains unsatis fied. 1 cannot, therefore, recommend to you any altera tion in the present tariff of duties. The rate as now fixed by law on the various articles was adopted at the last ses sion of Congress as a matter of compromise with unusual unanimity, and unless it is found to produce more than the necessities of the Government call for, there would seem to be no reason at this time to justify a change. But, while 1 forbear to recommend any further reduc tion of the duties, beyond that already provided for bv tlie existing laws, 1 .siust earnestly and respectfully press upon Congress the importance of abstaining from all appropriations which are not absolutely required for the public interests, and authorized by the powers clear ly delegated to the United States. We are beginning a new era in our Government. The national debt, which lias so long been a burthen on the Treasury, will be final ly discharged in the course of the ensuing year. No more money will afterwards be needed than what may be necessary to meet the ordinary expenses of the Gov* ernment. Now then is the proper moment to fix our system of expenditure on firm and durable principles: and I cannot too strongly urge the necessity of a rigid economy, and an inflexible determination not to enlarge the income beyond the real necessities of the Government, and not to increase the wants of the Government by un necessary and profuse expenditures. If a contrary course should be pursued, it may happen that the revenue of 18o4 will fall short of the demands upon it: and after re ilucing the tanfl in order to lighten the burthens of the people, and providing for a still further reduction to take effect hereafter, it would he much to be deplored f, at the end ol another year, we should find ourselves obliged to retrace our steps and impose additional taxes to meet unnecessary expenditures. It is my duty, on this occasion, to call your attention :o the destruction of the public building occupied by the Treasury Department, which happened since the last ad ournmentof Congress. A thorough inquiry into the causes )f this loss whs directed and made at the time, the result if which will he duly communicated to you. I take ileasure. however, in statincr here. th«t. bv tl><» hiiulnhlr rxertions of the officers of the Department, and many of lie citizens of the District, but few papers were lost, ukI none that will materially affect the public interest. The public convenience requires that another building hould he erected as soon as practicable; and providing for t, it will he advisable to enlarge, in some manner, the iccommodations for the public officers of the several De partments, and to authorize the erection of suitable depo litories for the safe keeping of the public documents and •ecords. Since the last adjournment of Uongrcss, the Secretary >f the Treasury has directed the money of the United Hates to be deposited in certain State hanks, designated jy him, and he will immediately lay before you his reu lons for this direction. I concur with him entirely in lie view he has taken of the subject; and, some months jefore the removal, I urged upon the Department the iropricty of taking that step. The near approach of the lay on which the charter will expire, as well as the con Juct of the hank, appeared to me to call for this mca iurc, upon the high considerations of public interest and rmblic duty. ’I’lic extent of its misconduct, however, dthougli known to be great, was not at that time fully leveloped by proof. It was notuntil late in the month )f August, that I received from the Government Direc ors an official report, establishing beyond question that his great and powerful institution had been actively en gaged in attempting to influence the elections af'L'uv.vbJ >f the express provisions of its charter, it had, by a for nal resolution, placed its funds at the disposition of its [’resident to be employed in sustaining the political pow L.r t)f the bank. A copy of this resolution is contained in the report of the Government Directors, before re ferred to; and, however the objects may be disguised by cautious language, no one can doubt that this money was m ti utli intended for electioneering purposes, and the particular uses to which it was proved to have been ap plied, abundantly slmw that it was so understood. Not I only was the evidence complete, as to the past applica tion of the money and power of the bank, to clectioneer injr purposes, but that the resolution of the Hoard of Di rectors authorized the same course to be pursued in future. . It being thus established by unquestionable proof that the Hank of the United States was converted into a per manent electioneering engine, it appeared to me that the patli of duty which the Executive !)• partment of the Go vernment ought to pursue, was not doubtful. A®, by the terms of the bank charter, no officer hut the Secretary of the Treasury could remove the deposites, it seemed to me that this authority ought to be at once exerted to deprive that great corporation of the support and coun tenance of the Government in such a use oi its funds and such an exertion of its power. In this point of the case, the question is distinctly presented, whether the people of the United Slates arc to govern through representa tives chosen by their unbiassed suffrages, nr whether the power and money of a great corporation are to be secret ly exerted to influence their judgment, and control their decisions. It must now be determined whether the bank is to have its candidates for all offices in the count! y, from the highest to the lowest, or whether candidates on both sides of political questions shall he brought for ward as heretofore, and supported by the usual means. At this time the efforts of the Hank to control public opinion through the distresses of some and the fears of others, are equally apparent, and, if possible, more ob jectionable. Hy a curtailment of its accommodations more rapid than any emergency requires, and even w.ule it retains specie to an almost unprecedented amount m its vaults, it is attempting to produce great embarrassment in one portion of the community, while, through presses known to have been sustained by its money, u aiu.in|iw» by unfounded alarms, to create a panic in all. These are the means by which it seems to expect that it can force a restoration of the deposites, and as a neces sary consequence, extort from Congress a renewal ot its charter. I am happy to know that, through the good sense of our people, the effort to get up a panic lias hitherto failed, and that, through the increased accom modations which the State Hanks have been enabled to afford, no public distress lias followed the exertions of the Hank; and it cannot be doubted that the exercise of its power, and the expenditure of its money, as well as its efforts to spread groundless alarm, will he met and re buked as they deserve. In my own sphere of fluty, 1 should feel myself called on by the facts disclosed to or der a scire facias against the Hank, with a view to put an end to the chartered rights it has so palpably violated, were it not that the charter itself will expire xs soon as a decision would probably he obtained from the court of last resort. I called the attention of CongTcss to this subject in my l ist annual message, and informed them that such mea sures as were within the reach of the Secretary of the Treasury, had been taken to enable him to judge whe» tlier the public deposites in the Bank of the United States were entirely safe; but that as his single powers might be inadequate to the object, I recommended the subject to Congress, as worthy of their serious investiga tion: declaring it as my opinion that an inquiry into tile transactions of that institution, embracing the Branches as well as the principal Hank, was called for by the cre dit which was given throughout the country to many seri ous charges impcaching their character, and which, if true, might justly excite the apprehension that they were no longer a safe depository for the public money. The extent to which the examination, thus recommended, was gone into, is spread upon your journals, and is too well known to require to he stated. Such as was made re sulted in a report from a majority of the Committee ol Wavs and Means, touching certain specified points only, concluding with a resolution that the Government depo sites might safely be continued in the Bank of the United States. This resolution was adopted at the close of the session, by the vote of a majority of the House of Hepre sentatives. . Although I may not always be able to concur in the Views of the public interest, or the duties of iU agents, w hich may be taken by the other departments of the Go vernment, or either of its branches, I am, not withstand - mg, wholly incapable of receiving otherwise than with the most sincere respect, all opinions or suggestions pro ceeding from such a source; ami in respect to none am I more inclined to do so, than to the House of Representa tives. Hut it will be seen, from the brief views at this time taken of the subject by myself, as well as the more ample ones presented by the Secretary of the Treasury, that the change in the deposites which has been ordered has been deemed to be called for by considerations which are not affected by the proceedings referred to, and which, 11 correctly viewed by that department, rendered its act a matter of imperious duty. Coming as you do, for the most part, immediately from the people and the States, by election, and possessing the fullest opportunity to know their sentiments, the present Congress will be sincerely solicitous to carry into full and fair effect the will of their constituents in regard to this institution.. It will he for those in whose behalf we all act, to decide whether the Kxecutivc Department of the Government, in the steps which it lias taken on this sub ject, has been found in the line of its duty. The accompanying report of the Secretary of War, with the documents annexed to it, exhibit the operations of the Vi ar Department for the past year, and the condition of the.variou* subjects entrusted to its administration. It will be seen from them that the army maintains the - character it has heretofore acquired for efficiency and military knowledge. Nothing has occurred since your l.isx session to require its services bevond the ordinary routine of duties, which upon the seaboard and the inland frontier devolve upon it in a time of peace. The system, so w isely adopted and so long pursued, of constructing fortifications at exposed points, and of preparing and col lecting the supplies necessary for the military defence of the country, and thus providently furnishing in peace the means of defence in war, has been continued with the usual results. I recommend to your consideration the various subjects suggested in the report of the Secretary of \\ ar. Their adoption would promote the public ser vice and meliorate the condition of the army. Our relations with the various Indian tribes have been undisturbed since the termination of the difficulties growing out of the hostile aggressions of the Sacs and fox Indians. Several treaties have been formed for the relinquishment of territory to the United States, and for the. migration of the occupants to the region assigned for their residence west of the Mississippi, Should these treaties be ratified by the Senate, provision will have been, made for the removal of almost all the tribes now remaining cast of that river, and for the termination of many difficult and embarrassing questions arising out of their anomalous political condition. It is to be hoped that those portions of two of the southern tribes which in that event will present the only remaining difficulties, will realize the necessity of emigration, and will speedily resort to it. My original convictions upon this subject have been confirmed by the course of events for several years, and experience is every day adding to their strength. That those tribes cannot exist, surrounded by our settlements and in continual contact with our citizens, is certain. They have neither the intelligence, the indus try, the moral habits, nor the desire of improvement, which arc essential to any favorable change in their con dition. Established in the midst of another and • supe rior race, and without appreciating the causes of their inferiority, or seeking to control them, they must neces sarily yield to the force of circumstances, and ere long disappear. Such lias been their fate heretofore, ami if it is to be averted, and it is, it can only be done by a gene ral removal beyond our boundary and by the re-organiza tion of their political system upon principles adapted to the new relations in which they will he placed. The ex periment which has been recently made, basso far proved successful. The emigrants generally are represented to be prosperous and contented, the country suitable to their wants nnd habits, and the essential articles of sub sistence easily procured. When the report of the com missioners now engaged in investigating the condition and prospects of these Indians, and in devising a plan for their intercourse and government is received, ! trust ample means of information will be in possession of the Government for adjusting all the unsettled questions con nected with this interesting subject. Navy during the vear, and its from the Navy tVe part men*. Suggestions are made by the Secretary of various im provements, which deserve careful consideration, and most of which, if adopted, bid fair to promote the effl cicncy of this important branch of the public service. Among these arc the new organization of the Navy Board, the revision of the pay to officers, and a change in the period of time, or in the manner of making the annual appropriations, to which 1 beg leave to call your parti cular attention. The views which arc presented on almost every por tion of our Naval concerns, and especially on the amount of force and the number of officers, and the general course of policy appropriate in the present state of our country, for securing the great and useful purpose* of naval protection, in peace, and due preparation for the contingencies of war, meet with my entire approbation. It will be perceived from the report referred to, that the fiscal concerns of the establishment are in an excel lent condition; and it is hoped that Congress may feel dis posed to make promptly every suitable provision desired, either for preserving or improving the system. The General l»ost Office Department hasjcnntmucd, upon the strength of its own resources, to facilitate the means of communication between the various portions of the Union with (increased ^activity. The |mcthod, how ever, in which the accounts of the transportation of the mail have always been kept,appears to have presented an imperfect view of its expenses. It has recently been discovered that, from the earliest records of the Depart ment, the anniiiil statements have been calculated to ex hibit an amount considerably short of the actual expense incurred for that service. These illusory statements, to gether with the expense of earning into effect the law or the last session of Congress, establishing new mail routes, and a disposition on the part of the Head of the Depart ment to gratify the wishes of the public in the extension of the.mail facilities, have induced him to incur responsi bilitics for their improvement, beyond what the current resources of the Department would sustain. As soon as lie had discovered the imperfection of the method, he caused an investigation to he made of its results, and applied the proper remedy to correct the evil. It became necessary for him to withdraw some of the improvements which he 1.0,1 marie, to hrinfr the exncnses of the Department within its own resources. These expenses were incur red for the public good, and the public have enjoyed their benefit. They arc now but partially suspended, and that where they may be discontinued with the least in convenience to the country. The progressive increase in tliejncome from postages has equalled the highest expectations, and it affords de monstrative evidence of the growing importance and great utility of ibis department. I be details are exhibited in the accompanying' report from the Postmaster Genera*# The many distressing accidents w hich have of late oc curred in that portion of our nav igation carried on by the use of steam power, deserve the immediate and unremit ting attention of the constituted authorities of the country. The fact that the number of those fatal disaster is con stantly increasing, notwithstanding the great improve ments which are every where made in the machinery em ployed, and in the rapid advances which have been made in tuat branch of science, show very clearly that they are in a great degree the result of criminal negligence on the part of those by whom the vessels are nav igated, and to whose cafe and attention the lives and property of our citizens are so extensively entrusted. . That these evils mav be greatly lessened, if not substan tially remov ed, by means of precautionary and penal le gislation, seems to be highly probable; so far therefore as the subject can be regarded as within the constitutional purview of Congress, 1 earnestly recommend it to your irompt and serious consideration. . 1 would also call your attention to the views I have heretofore expressed of the propriety ot amending thp Constitution in relation to the mode of electing the rrc. sident and the Vice President of the United States. Re garding it as all-important to.tiie future quiet and harmo ny of the people, that every intermediate agency in the election of these officers should be removed, and that their eligibility should he limited to one term of either four or six years, I cannot too earnestly invite your con sideration of the subject. . Trusting that your deliberations ou all the topics of gene ral interest to which I have adverted, and such others a# your more extensive knowledge of the wants of our be loved country may suggest, may be crowned with suc cess, l lender you, in conclusion, the co-operation which it mav be in niy power to afford them. ANDREW JACKSON. Washixotox, 3d December, 1833.