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Alexandria gazette. [volume] (Alexandria, D.C.) 1834-1974, December 08, 1834, Image 2

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gazette!
By EDGAR SNOWPgfo. _
Terms.
Daily paper - - - - f8 per annum.
Country paper - - - 5 per annum.
The ALEXANDRI A GAZETTE for the coun
try is printed on Tuesday, Thursday, and
Saturday.
All advertisements appear in both papers, and
are inserted at the usual rates^_
report
of Die Secretary of the Treasury on the state of
the Finances.?
Treasury Departmert, ?
December 2nd, 1834. %
The Secretary of the Treasury respectfully
presents the following report, in obedience to
the “ Act supplementary to the act to establish
the Treasury Department.”
He would invite the attention of Congress—
1st To the Public Revenue and BxpendUures.
The balance in the Treasury, on the lsTof Jan
uary, A. D. 1832, was $4,502,914 40
The actual receipts into the I rea
aury during the year 1832, from
all sources, were 31,865,o61 16
Makim? the whole amount in the
Treasury in that year, $36,368,475 61
The actual expenditures during the
same year, including the public
debt, were 34,3ob,698 06
The balance In the Treasury on
the 1st of January, A. D. 1833, _
was, therefore, 2,011,777 55
In addition to this balance, the re
ceiptsduring the year 1833, were
from all sources, 33,948,426 25
V 1L. IIUUJ
Customs, §29,032.508 91
Lands 3,967,682 55
Dividends on Bank
Stock, 474,985, 00
Sales of Bank Stock, 135,300 00
' Incidental items 337,949, 79
These made, with the above ba
lance, an aggregate of 3o,960,203 80
Theexpenciiu.res during A. D. 1833’2M5,298 49
Viz. on the
Civil List, Foreign in
tercourse, and Mis
cellaneous subjects 5,716,245 93
Military Service
including Fortifica
tions Ordnance,In
dian Affairs Pen
sions Arming Mili
tia,and Internal Im
ports, * 13,096,152 43
Naval Service, in
cluding Gradual
Improvement, 3,901,356 75
Public Debt, 1,543,544 38
Thus a balance was left in the
Treasury, on the first of January,
1834, amounting to 11,702,905 31
The receipts into the Treasury, as
certained and estimated, during
A. D. 1834, are computed to be 20,624,717 94
Of these, the receipts during the
first three quarters are ascer
tained to .iave been 16,324,717 94
Viz. from
Customs, $12,740,872 25
Lands 3,076,475 50
Dividends on Bank 1
stock} 507'370 19
Incidendal Items J
$16,324,717 94
And those during the fourth quar
ter, it is expected, will be 4,300,000,00
Thus with the balance on the 1st
of January, 1334, they form an
aggregate of 32,327,633 £0
The expenditures of the whole
vearare ascertained and estima
ted to be 25,591,390 91
Of these the expenditures during
the first three quarters are ascer
tained to have been 16,54o,34~ 92
Viz. on
Civil List. Foreign
Intercourse, and
Miscellaneous, $3,475,527 08
Military Service, in
cluding, fortifica
tions. Ac. 8,349,400 06
Naval service, inclu
ding, &c. 2,913,183 1z
Duties refunded, 108.546 19
Public Debt, 1,698,686 47
The expenditures for the 4th quar
ter, including $4,462,330 99, on <
account of the public debt, it is
supposed, will b£ about 9,046,047 99
Thus leaving on the 1st of January,
1835, an estimated balance of 6,736,232 34
This balance includes what has
before been reported by this De
partment as not valuable, the sum
of about $1,400,000, but winch is
now ascertained to be reduced to
about the sum of $1,150,000; mak
ing the computed available balance
ong he iTof January, 1835, to be 5,586,232 34
II is estimated, that of fwmer appropr.attons,
there will remain unexpended at the close of this
year, the sum of $8,002,925 13.
Of this amount, it is supposed that only $5,141,
964 27 will be required to accomplish the objects
intended by the current appropriations—leav
ing the sum of $999,742 93, applicable after
* wards under the permanent appropriation* and
that of $1,523,308 79, to be applied in aid of the
appropriations for the ensuing year, without
re-appropriation—as will be seen in the esti
mates when submitted, and the balance of $337,
909 14, which has not been required at all, or
seasonably, for the objects contemplated in its
appropriation, and will therefore, be carried to
the surplus fund. In the examination of this re
sult, as to outstanding appropriation* it should
be noticed that one small amount of unclaimed
Interest on the public debt, and another of un
funded debt, though chargeable on the Treasu
ry are not included. Embracing those and the
amount applicable afterwards to permanent
aDDropriation* there would not be money
enough in the Treasury to pay, at once, every
claim outstanding. But, excluding them, it will
s* 4««n that the effective, unexpected fund on
STe W jinuiry, 1935, will b« 85.586,231 34,
meet what will be required for the remaining
Tnd unexpended appropriation* being $5,141 -
964 27; or/in other word* that our available
means then on hand to discharge all the old and
existing claims on the Treasury, with the excep
tions before named, will be about $444,268 07
more than their actual amount.
The next subject deserving consideration is—
9. The Public Debt. 1
All the four and a half percents, outstanding
at the commencement of the present year, have
been redeemed, except the sum of $443 25.
Money sufficient to meet the whole balance was
placea in the United States Bank and its branch
es, as commissioners of loans, in May last, and
that portion not yet paid to the holders ol the
debt still remains in these depositories. A part
of the five per cent stock, created in March, A.
D. 1821, amounting to $4,712,060 29, was all of
the 123 millions of debt existing in A. D. 1816,
and of the subsequent additions to it which was
left to be redeemed. It did not become payable
till the 1st of January, 1835; but as there was
sufficient money in the Treasury for the pur*
pose, and it having been considered beneficia
to the public to save, as far as practicable, all
the accruing interest, early in July last, agents
were employed by this Department to purchase,
at par, if possible, the whole of the remaining
debt. Between that time and the 30th ult. the
Department had succeeded in redeeming about
$491 258 35 of it, and additional purchases are
constantly making. In October last the under
signed gave notice that the whole of this debt
unredeemed after the first of January next,
would cease to bear interest, and would be
promptly paid, after that date, on application to
the commissioners of loans in the several States.
Under authority from the commissioners of the
sinking fund, this Department has since placed
and made arrangements to place, seasonably,
in those offices ample funds, for the above pur
pose. . , ,
Thus, before the close of the year, the whole
will either be paid, or money provided to pay it
—and the United States will present that happy,
and, probably, in modern times unprecedented
spectacle, of a People substantially free from the
smallest portion ofa publietdebt.
Considering these facts, it was deemed proper
to charge the whole amount of the remaining
debt to the expenditures of the present year.—
Interest on all not paid before the 30th ult., has
been computed to the 1st of January next, the
time being so short; and the account for the
payment of the public debt, during the year,
will then stand as follows:
All the disbursements on account of the public
debt, during the year 1834, will be, as before
shown, $6,161,017 46
Of which there will have been ap
plied to principal, 5,964,774 93
And to interest, 196,242 52
The stocks, which will nave oeen reucemeu
by the application of this sum during the year,
are
Of the residue of the exchanged 4$ per cent,
stock, issued under the act of the 26th of May,
1824, 81,252,625 90
The residue of the 5 per cent, stock,
issued under the act of the 3d
March, 1821, 4,712,060 29
Certain portions of unfunded debt, 38 74
Treasury notes, 00
Making in all the principal before named.
There is an unfunded debt of about $37,733 05
Consisting of claims registered pri
or to 1798, for services and sup
plies during the revolutionary
war, of about 27,437 96
Treasury notes issued du
ring the last war, 5,975 00
And Mississippi stock 4,320 09
Nothing has been paid on any of these during
the present year, except $88, 74. But should
the certificates be ever presented, which is not
very probable as to many of them, the means
undoubtedly will alwaysexist for their payment
at this Department.
3. The estimates of the Public Revenue and Ex
penditures for the year 1835, next require at
tention, and are as follows:
The receipts into the Treasury from all sources
during the year 1835, are estitnat- ^ ^ ^
Vi*. From
Customs, 16,000,000
Public Lands, i . 3,500,000
Bank dividends and mis
cellaneous receipts, 500,000
To which add the balance of avail
able funds in the Treasury on the
1st of January, 1835, estimated
atj 5.586,232 34
And they make together the sum
of, 825,596,232 34
The’ necessary appropriations for
the year 1835, including those
under new and permanent acts,
are estimated at 815,660,232 73.
But the whole expenditures for
the service of that year, are esti
mated to require the additional
sum of 81,523,308 79, which has
before been appropriated and
mentioned as applicable to the
wants of 1835, without a re-appro
priation, making together, $17,183,541 52
Viz. on
Civil, Foreign Inter
course,and Miscel
laneous items, 2,788,225 85
Military service, &c.,
Pensions, and the
appropriations un
der the act of 7th
June, 1832, 9,672,654 50
Naval service, and
gradual improve
ment, 4,672,661 17
Unclaimed interest
Public Debt, 50.000
To this add, as a contingent expen
diture, about half the amount of
the average excess of appropria
tions beyond the estimates dur
ing the last three years, 2,500,000 00
And they make the sum of. $19,683,541 50
Leaving an available balance in the
Treasury, at the close of the year
1835, or on the 1st of January,
1836, estimated at, $5,902,690 82
But should the whole amount of former appro
priations current and permanent, that will be
outstanding on the 1st of January, 1835, and be
needed to complete the services of for mer years,
amounting in all, as before shown, to the sum of
$6,141,707 20 be actually called for during the
year 1835, there would be an apparent deficien
cy in the Treasury on the 1st of January, 1836.
It usually happens, however, that of the new
and the old appropriations, a sum of five or six
millions remains uncalled for at the commence
ment of each year; and hence no real deficit is
then anticipated,jnor much, if any, excess, after
defraying all the expenditure then chargeable
to the Treasury.
This estimate of receipts is formed on the
supposition, that the value of imports during the
ensuing year, and especially of those paying du
j ties, will not differ essentially from the average
during the last three years. Though our popu
lation has, within that period, probably increas
ed over a million, yet our manufactures and in
ternal trade have probably increased nearly in
an equal proportion and this circumstance, cou
pled with the greater caution and frugality prac-1
tised during the. past year, and still continuing,
will, it is berelvea, tend to prevent any consider
able augmentation in the consumption or impor
tation of foreign articles.
The imports during the year ending Sept. 30,
1834, are estimated in value at $ 123,093,301, Do
ing, compared with the preceeding ye®*’ ,n'
crease of^ $14,101,541. Those during the three
past years have on an average been about $111,
039 142
The Exports, during the same year, are esti
mated at $96,318,724; of which 37M^429 were
in domestic, and $22,874,295 in foreign products
being compared with the preceeding y®ar>an *P*
crease of $6,655,321; of which $3,802,922 were in
foreign products. The average exports du
ring the last 3 years have been about 891,719,690,
of which $69,107 976 are the’
of domestic products, and $22,311,714 in tnose
0fIt0wniethus be seen, that the imports of the last
year varied in amount $12,055,209, from the
average of the 3 past years, and those paymg
duties are believed to have varied much les>s- It
is, therefore, in connexion with the reasons be
fore named, considered safe to infer, that th
imports of the ensuing year may not differ ma
terially from that average. Should they not
so differ, the revenue from customs will proba
bly correspond in substance w’lth that of the pas
year, except so far as it may be changed y ie
whole amount of all the importations w hen com
pared with the above average. -
Because the classes and value of articles pay
ing duty, for aught which is known, will probably
be similar, and the rate of duties on them will
not, by existing laws, be essentiully altered till
the 31st of Dec., A. D. io-io.
The revenue from the sale of Public Lanas,
has been estimated at half a nullion more
than the amount it was estimated for the cui
rent year, and one million more than the amount
for 1833. . .
This estimate would have been made still lar
ger, had not the sales of the Chichasaw lands,
which will probably exceed half a million ol
dollars, been pledged by treaty to other purpo
ses, and not to the general revenue of the Gov
ernment. , . , , ..
This large computation is founded on the
facts of the progressive increase for some time
evinced; the sum actually received during the
past year; the great quantity of new and salea
ble lands coming into market, the enlarged de
mand for them to satisfy the necessary wants of
our growing population, and of the emigrants
from Europe, and the high prices which their
produce fortunately obtains both at home and
abroad. #
The revenue from Bank Dividends has been es
timated at somewhat less than heretofore, in
consequence of the sales of our Bank stock un
der the act of July 10th 1832, for the investment
of the accruing income of the Navy Pension
and Hospital Funds- having already amounted
to $656,600, and on which the Treasury can
now’ receive no dividends applicable to general
purposes. It might perhaps be advisable to de
duct a still further sum to meet any contingency,
like that of the present year, in which the U. S.
Bank, without the consent of this Department,
or the sanction of Congress, and without any
forewarning of its intention, seized on about
$170,041 of the estimated revenue from this
source, and has since withheld it from the public
Treasury.
Copies of the opinions of the Attorney Gene
ral, and the whole correspondence on this sub
ject between the department and the Bank,occur
ring previously to the request for these opin
ions, are annexed, for the consideration and ac
tion of Congress. It may be proper to add, that
within a few days a new communication in re
lation to this transaction, has been received
from the Bank, and when a reply is finished,
both will be submitted, if desired.
No foundation appears to nave exisi**a in tair
or equity for the great claim of damages made
by the Bank on account of the protest of what
has been called, in common parlance, the bill of
exchange, drawn on the French Government by
this Department It is believed that the bill,
when protested, ought, by our agents abroad,
had they acted with due regard towards
their principal, to have been taken up for the
credit of that principal, which was the United
States, rather than for the credit of the Bank;
or, at the farthest, if similar and conflicting re
lations existed between them and the Bank, they
should have pursued the equitable course of ta
king it up for the credit of both the United
States and the Bank, or the more liberal one of
giving the preference to the Government, which
was the drawer; and in eitheirof these events,
no room for difficulty, by this extraordinary
claim, would probably have been left. But as
these agents preferred a different course, there
by justly impairing the further confidence of the
Government in their discretion, it would seem
that the Bank in the next place, having long
been the general fiscal agent of the Government,
and the primary one in importance, should have
returned the bill, and made no charge against
its principal, the United States, except for the
actual advances, and the actual costs and ex
penses it had incurred in the transaction The
actual advances, by the Bank, when the bill was
originally received, had only been a matter of
form, and were nothing. The money, in fact,
never belonged to this Department, except in ■
trust for the merchants, or their widows and or
phans, who had suffered by French spoliations;
and a sum exceeding the whole amount of it ha
ving been left in the Bank and its branches, and
no part of the money having ever been brought
into the Treasury by warrant, it was immediate
ly, on notice of the protest restored in form, and
a willingness was expressed to make remunera
tion to the Bank for all reasonable costs and
expenses. But the temptation of an opportu
nity to obtain more from its principal, by a no
vel species of litigation, through a virtual judi
cial prosecution for damages, against the Go
vernment of the Union, seems to have been too
strong for resistance; and the Bank concluded
to depart from the above equitable rule, and by
some technical regulation of strict law between
individuals, to attempt to procure a large sum,
as mere constructive damages, and by the ex
traordinary mode of seizing on the dividends
which had been declared by the Bank itself to
belong to the United States, and of withholding
them to abide the ordinary contingencies of a
lawsuit
It se^jns to have preferred this unprecedented
course, rather than to pursue the usual mode of
a petition addressed to the justice of Congress,
though Congress is well known to -De the cus
tomary and only tribunal for adjusting contro
verted claims against the Government, when no
suit is pending by the United States, and the on
ly tribunal which, under the constitution, is em
powered to appropriate money to discharge any
claim whatever. After applying to this depart
ment, and being, so long as a year ago last June,
informed ofits inability to admit or authority to
discharge the damages demanded, it is remark
able that the Bank should have continued to pay
over the accruing dividends, and not till after
the last session closed, and when any deficiency
in the current revenue could not be provided
for, should, without any prior application to
Congress, have resorted to this unusual pro
ceeding and sought to have its claim against the
United States, adjudicated by the Judiciary,
when the United States are not amenable to any
ci'izen or corporation, high or low, beloie the
Judiciary, for tho decision of any claim, unless
they have, of their own accord, been pleased to
resort to that tribunal by a previous action
against a debtor; and, in which event only, is
a set off, under certain limitations, authorized
to be pleaded, as either equitable or legal. But,
here the United States had instituted no such
action against the Bank and had no intention or
foundation to institute one; and yet, the Bank,
not in the case provided in the charter where
dividends might be withheld, but by an unfaith
ful act, as an agent, and as a public corporation,
towards its principal and the community, pro
ceeded to seize their dividends in a case entire
ly different and most questionable in equity as
well as law and refused to fulfil the duty impo
sed by its charter, and by civil and moral obli
gations of paying over those dividends prompt
ly to the Treasury. In the adoption of this re
prehensible course an attempt is made to force
the Government either to lose their dividends
entirely, or to pay a controverted claim for da
mages, which, so tar as any of its Departments
or officers have examined it, was found and
pronounced to be groundless: Or consent to let
the United States be arraigned as a debtor and
compelled to submit the claim to decision be
fore a branch of their own government, to
which such claims are not ordinarily submitted.
and to whose decision it coiiju iioi oe roierreu
in this instance, but by the previous commission
on the part of the Bank of a deliberate viola
tion ot its obligation. The further attempt ap
pears to be made in this way to take from Con
gress and the Executive, the constitutional po
wer, on their high official responsibilities and
deep sense of duty, to make or withhold appro
priations to discharge all controverted demands
against the United States, and to enable the Ju
dicary instead of them, indirectly and uncon
stitutionally to make these appropriations, in all
cases of citizens or corporations, who possess
doubtful claims, and are unscrupulous enough
to commit, in order to prevent their adjudication
by Congress, a deliberate attack on the proper
ty of the United States or a deliberate seques
tration of their acknowledged dues.
For further and more detailed views on this
extraordinary case, a reference is made to the
whole correspondence and opinions annexed,
without the discussion of any course, which the
power and the wisdom of Congress are able to
select for evincing its opinions on this outrage,
whether, by withdrawing indulgences from the
Bank as to the receipt of its notes for public
dues, or by adopting some ether measure on i he
subject, which the nature of the transaction, the
rights of the United States, and the constitution
al authority of Congress, may be thought to
justify and demand.
Believing that a similar seizure was not likely
to be repeated by the Bank in 1335, under the
other pretence of satisfying claims for dama
ges, in consequence of the removal of the depo
sites, as set up in its second letter, this Depart
ment has estimated the probable revenue the
ensuing year from this source, at the usual rate
of dividends lately made on all our stock in the
Bank, remaining after the sales which have ta
ken p!a e for the investment of the Navy Pen
sion and Hospital funds. But should Congress,
on a full examination of the subject, think
otherwise, it may be provident to supply some
other equivalent for this portion of the estimated
receipts.
The estimate of revenue from miscellaneous
sources, has been computed a little below the
actual receipts of the current year; because the
dividends applicable to general purposes will be
on a less amount of Bank stock, and the antici
pated sales of such stock to meet the further
wants of the before-mentioned funds, will be
much reduced.
In this explanation of the estimate of the re
ceipts during the coming year, it is hoped that
satisfactory reasons have been assigned to show
its general accuracy. This estimate being one
and a half millions larger than that of last year,
it is more likely to exceed, than, like that, to fall
short of the actual result. That estimate prov
ed to be less than the actual receipts, probably
about 82,000,000, or from customs, about 81.
200,000, from lands nearly 8S00.000; and the re
sidue chiefly from larger sales of Bank stock as
before named, than was anticipated. As the
first deduction of 10 per cent, from the excess
of duties on goods imported, and paying over
20 per cent, ad valorem, took effect on the 31st
of December last, it was not practicable to fix
beforehand with much certainty the amount of
the diminution on account of it from the reve
nue oftneyear, .as the same value of merchan
dise might not be imported as in any previous
year, which should be selected for a guide in
forming the estimate; and the particular kinds
of merchandise thus imported, whether free or
paying a duty, might greatly fluctuate. To
these uncertainties in the whole value, and in
the kinds of goods imported, w ere to tie added
the circumstances that the system of reduction,
going Into operation, was almost entirely new
in practice; and that the ca*h duties substitut
ed for credit on some articles, tended to render
former means of calculation still more inappli
cable and doubtful.
It is hoped that, as the ensuing year is exposed
chiefly to only one of these sources of uncer
tainty, which is the whole value of dutiable
goods imported, the estimate made for the in
come from cust ms. will n<>t vary essentially
from the amount of receipts w hich time ntay
prove to be correct.
In relation to the excess of revenue received
from lands over the estimate made for the year
1834. the amount from that source happened to
be unprecedented; and, as full returns of the
very large sales in December, 1833, had not then
been received, it was entirely unexpected. But
the actual excess, this year, though not so large
as in the previous one, couple^] w ith circum
stances before named, has induced the depart
ment to s limit a larger estimate, under this
head, than has heretofore been made.
The estimates for the expenditures of ihe en
suing year have been graduated and modified
by the following circumstances;—the actual ex
penditures for the year 1833 did not differ much
from the expectations expressed concerning
them in the last annual report, except that the
residue of the 4$ percent, stock, although charg
ed to 1833, was not, in fact, all reimbursed, or
the money paid to the Commissioners of Loans
for that purpose, within that year, but only 813,
198 of them were redeemed in the residue of
1833. Between the 1st of January and May,
1835, about 8497,697 more was redeemed, and ;
afterwards the sum of 8759,271 was advanced {
to the Commissioners of Loans to meet the ba
lance which was then outstanding. Partly from
this cause, therefore, reducing the actual expen- j
diture in the fourth quarter of 1833 about a mil- j
lion below the estimate, and partly from an in- |
crease in the revenue of nearly two millions be
yond the estimate of that quarter, from causes
before enumerated, the actual available amount I
in the Treasury on ihc first of January tc,
was greater than the estimate; having !■
$10,302,905, instead of the estimated 1, “
$7,933,790. The expenditures in iS2i nnm of
count of the public debt, thus became incre 3Cj
beyond the estimate about 81,256,969 Anoth
source of expenditure, increased durin*
past year, beyond the estimates, was the JL »
$75,407 for interest on the public debt uh, ?
had before been unclaimed, but which has «i Ch
been demanded and discharged, and to rn
which, probably from adhering to the usae#*2
former years, or from an impression it wo,m
remain uncalled for, no money had been *
cifically set aside, nor any charge made tofh
expected expenditures of the year. Berid
these unexpected calls during the present Vm
the appropriations in money, by newactsnf
Congress, and by former permanent acts J\\
in force, have been computed to be about’jo
000,000. These constituted a new burthen i
addition to a balance of public debt which re*
mained to be paid, amounting tc about six mil
lions, and a balance of old appropriations liabl
to be called for, amounting to about five mil W
more. The whole appropriations thus charw
able for expenditures to the year, did not vary
much from thirty-one millions of dollars in mo
ney, besides a number of grants of land ofcor
siderable extent and value, that were voted hr
Congress. Having presented this explanation
of the principal expenditures which have been
charged to the present year, and defrayed to the
extent required, a basis has been laid for *ho».
ing the reasons upon which this department ha>
proceeded to reduce its estimates for new ann™
prtalions tor expeuuiiure me ensuing year, t0
the extent of about six and a third millions of
dollars below those of last year. This is about
one and a third of a million less, independent
of the amount then estimated to be needed to.
waids the discharge of the public debt. In that
sum of new appropriations, amounting to about
21.000,000 of dollars, there was no permanent
charge that has been deemed likely to bemuih
lessened for the ensuing year, such as the arm
ing of the militia and the gradual improvement
of the Navy. Nor, in the opinion of this de
partment, will the great objects for expenditure
of a character general and somewhat fixed’
such as those usually connected with civil and fd
reign purposes, the Navy and Army, including
works classed as internal improvements, Indian-,
and pensions, admit, immediately, of so great
diminution, in number or amount, as might be
desired and is hereafter expected: but as large
a reduction as practicable, without injury to the
public interests and a neglect of important du
ties, has been made in the estimated expendi
tures tor each of them, being in all, after allow
ing a small increase in some, about one and a
third millions of dollars.
It is anticipated that, with the valuableitn
provements of late years in steam, and thegreit
advantages in using these improvements fur
harbor and maritime defence, some of the for
tifications originally contemplated may hereaf
ter be wholly dispensed with, or be built on a
different and reduced scale; and though it ii
thought that only about two millions can the fol
lowing year be prudently retrenched from the
expenditures connected with fortifications and
harbors, Indians nnd pensions; yet it is manifest
that very soon the amount required for those
public purposes must, by the completion of the
most necessary defences—by the extinguish
ment of most of the titles of the Indians, and
the removal of that unfortunate race beyond
the Mississippi, and by the rapid march of death
among pensioners, and the detection o( nume
rous frauds among their professed agents, be
come still more diminished; and as our impost
duties will be further reduced by the operations
of the act of March. 1833, the reduction both in
revenue and in expenditure, for these great ob
jects, will, therefore, happily and conveniently,
for a time, be likely very near to correspond. A
more fixed amount for the ordinary peace esta
blishment of the Army, and some other expen
ditures connected with the Executive. Legisla
tive, and Judicial Departments, would, like what
now exists, with greater precision and uniformi
ty in the expenses of the Navy, he a great desi
sideratum in the permanent adjustment of our
revenue system, and would tend, in many im
portant respects, to useful retrenchment. The
gradual increase required in some classes ol
expenditure, by the gradual increase of our po
pulation and wealth, ana ot mow puum.«»
blishments which fluctuate with them, such a»
some parts ot the Judiciary, the Legislative amt
Executive, could then be accuracy foreseen
and provided for; while any extraordinary ana
Unexpected enlargement in expenses would
then excite inquiry, and unless resting on ciea
and extraordinary causes, would justify °PP
sition. When so resting, they would be met
the public cheerfully by means of inciea
taxes and revenue.
Another important circumstance desmesc ■
siderntion in explanation of the n' w..ar! Ih(
tingent item of $2,500.000, now first addei
estimates for the ensuing year. It,iasl**
certained by a careful scrutiny and comp .
that much of the great expenditures of h
four years, besides the payment of the < *“1 •
arisen from appropriations by C°n?ress .if
ger amount, under particular heads, .
general estimates for the year, submit > .
Treasury, and from large appropriate
jects not specifically included m an> -
To illustrate this, an abstract..! a
general estimates, appropriations am l
Hires, .luring .He gas. two years.
but the expenditures during the pa 1
has been prepared and is submdtc - ^
difference between the estimates an ‘i 0f
tions, independent of tlie public de > , nearly
between five and six millions, to *J„ millions,
five millions, and in 1334 of about t m■ '
The largest portion of this grea’ ...equal
mounting in the two first years,,rt'' (l0ns it
ter to one third of the w hole appror* . ne0BI
will be seen is under the civil an ,'hp military
beads, and under items classed w'lili 1
estnblisliment, such as harbors imp nUVjiic o*
sions, &.c. For the information of tn P jjj,
a comparison deemed so very !?ffrom whirl
proposed to publish the detailed ta > ,Jef ,p.
this is compiled, and a similar 'receipts i
pended to the annual exhibit of the r
expenditures. Should this Practl .|,e f»o
appropriations so greatly extec .. *ji| notf®
mates be continued by Congress, , , u(MJrf
|y prevent much reduction, Par !chu‘'/ces«if!
the miscellaneous head, but it WI*J. af) a0f
to provide for the consequence of u . ^
mented revenue, proportionate ° . i0*
mands, or by a larger regular si P
treasury to meet such unexpected
appropriations. It must be manner .
not in the power of this departnjen ^
and compute these increases with j ^
of accuracy, as with the exception <> ^
sequent estimates, submitted a,t?r .V'ir jncef
ones, they depend almost w holly, in lf . nggji
tion, on the pleasure and discretion ot
and as they consist chiefly of mi^cellan ^
iic objects, and private grants, for aim »
berless causes, they may vary greati>„„ inCf
ent years. But it might be unfaithfuin

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