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t.!||0ni8HBD DAILY AND TRI-WEEKLY BY ] &■: _ 'the ALBXANbKf A^O AZETTE, for thEcountry, is printEd on Tuesday, Thurs^ V day. end Saturday. <???**. *-— terms? **tmp<t<m.^-The Pailv fjpcc.is furnished for * per annum —payable half yearly. The Country Paper (tn-weeMrii.^rni.hed for *N jSrpcr annum—payable in advanca. Ifo subscription is received from fbe country, un Toss accompanied by the caah, or by, a respon. *’» aiblaname. • M*rt,nnt _*dverti.«m.nt»Inserted»t thernte qf • | per square for three insertions, and -5 cents every subsequent insertion. Yearly ad vertisers are charged in proportion to the num ber of their advertisements. Persons, advertising,bv the rear, not to advertise articles not included in the’r resrular business, nor to insert in their advertisement! any other ‘ names than the;r own. ‘' MONDAY MORNING Jct.T n, 13 to. SPEECH .• or • The Hon. HENRY CLAY, of Kentucky, Delivered Jcfie 27, 1910, . On the occasion of a Public Dinner, in compliment to him, at Taylorsville, in Ai# native county of Hanover% in the State of Virginia. The sentiment in compliment to Mr. Clay was received with long continued applause.— That gentleman rose and addressed the com pany substantially as follows: I think, friends and fellow citizens, that a vailing myself of the privilege of my long ser vice in the public councils, just adverted to, the resolution, which I have adopted, is not unreasonable ol leaving to younger men, ge nerally, the performance of the duty, and the enjoyment of the pleasure, of addressing the People in their primary assemblies. After the event which occurred last winter at the Capital of Pennsylvania, I believed it due to myself tothe Whig cause, an ! to the country, to announce to the Public, with perfect truth and sincerity, an l without any reserve, my fixed determination heartily to support the nomination of Wm. H. Harrison there made. To put down all misrepresentations, l have, on suitable occasions, repeated this annunci ation; and now declare mv solemn conviction that the purity and security of our free institu tions and the prosperity of the country. »m p^rativelv demand the election ol that citizen to the office of Chief Magistrate of the United States. r Qat this occasion forms an exception from the rule which I have prescribed to mvself.— 1 have come here to the county of my nativity in the spirit Of a pilgrim, to meet perhaps l*r the last time, the companions and the descen dant* of the companions of my youth. W her ever we roam, in whatever climate or lanu we are cast by the accidents of human hie, beyond the mountains or beyond the ocean, in the legislative halls ofthe Capitol, or in the retreats and shades of private life, our hearts turn, with an irresistible instinct to the cher ished spot which ushered in into existence.— And we dw*n with delightful associations on the recollection of the stream in which, dur ing our boyish days, we bathed, the fountains at which we drunk, the piney fields, the hills and the valleys where we sported, and the friends who shared these enjoyments with us. Alaw! too many of these friends of mine have cone whither we must all shortly go, and the presence here ot the small remnant left be kin I, attests noth our loss and our ennv at tachment. I would preatlv prefer, mv friends to emnlov th- time which this visit affords in frien tlv and familiar conversation on the vir tue* of our departed companions, and on the scenes and adventures of our younger dav*; hut the 'expectations which prevail, the aw ful state of our beloved country, and the op portunities which » have enjoyed in its public councils, impose on me the obligation of tou ching on topics less congenial with the feel ingVofitiy heart, hut possessing higher public inter©*!. I assure you, lellow citizens, how ever, that! present mv.se11 before you for no purpose ot excitng prejudices, or inflaming passions, but to speak to you in all soberness and truth, and to testify to the things which 1 Know, or the convictions which I entertain, as an anejent friend, who has lived long, and whose career is rapidly drawing to a close.— Throughout an arduous life, t have endeavor ed to make truth and the good of our country the guides of in ? pohbc conduct; hut in Han over county, f >r which I cherish sentiments of respect, gratitude, and veneration, above all other places; would I avoid saying any thing that (.did not sincere? and truly believe Why is the plough deserted, the tools of the mechanic hid a*ide,and all are seen rush ing to gatherings orthe People* What occa sions those vast and unusual assemblage* which we behold in ever? State.and in almost every neighborhood? Why those conventions ot the People, at a common centre, from all the extremities of this vast Union, to consult together upon the sufferings ot the communi ty, and to deliberate on the means of deliver ance? Wh? this rabid appetire for public dis cussion? What is the solution of the pheno mer.on, which we observe, of a great nation agitated upon its whole surface, and at its lowest depths, like the ocean when con vulsed b? some terrible storm? There must. be a cause, and no ordinary cause. It has been truly said, in the most mentor-1 able document that ever issued from the pen of man,, that “all experience hath shown that mankind are more disposed to suffer, white evils are sufferable, than to right themselves by abolistenilheforms to which they are ac customed? 'Die recent history ofour People fur nishes confirmation of that truth. They are ac tive, entenprjsing, and intelligent, hut are not prone to make groundless complaints against public servant*. If %ve now every where behold them in option, it is because they feel that the grievance* under which the? are writh ing can be no longer tolerated, They feel the •baoluteefccessto °f * change, that no change canrendeiftHei* condition worse, and that any chang^must better it. This is the judg ment to whiefj they hare come: thivthe brief and compendious dogic which we daily hear. They know tint, in all the dispensa tions ofPibYtdehVe, they have reason to, be thankful; fna if they had not, they- would be* borne with* ihrjiinde* anil resignation. But there is a -prtrauihg conviction ao4-perstyr^, fiion that,1 tn The autiunist^aiion of Govern ment, thete has been something wrong, radi« call? wrtippllfd Uiat^ .the vessel dfstate has t *en in the h»«dsi4kelffsh, faithless, and mi* skilful pilam,^b#4«Te:c.or.(hi»rtFiniraiii*tasr the breakers. •*- '': * ' ■'J‘ ■ In my dehberite Opinion, the present dis tressed and distracted state of the country may be traCWNo tt# single cause of the ac tion, theenertoChm&ufs, and the usurpations ot the ExCtmtfvrbranch of the Government. } have not time here to exhibit and to dwell upon all th« instances of these, as the? have occurred ki succession, during the last twelve years. They have been again and again ex posed on other more fit occasions. But I ha ve thought tht**i* proper opportunity to point out the enormity ofthe pretentions, principles* nd practice of that Departments they have been from time tol\me, disclosed,in these and to show the rapid progress which nas been made'ifsthe fulfilment of the remark*' bfe* language of our illustrious countryman, fttt the F«feraL Executive had .an.«w,uj squinting towards monarchy^- Here, in 1 county ot hia-birth, surrounded by*on*,» • • _ - ! of whoaeefres with him werethe their anti* in defence of Amencan hneri • gainst a foreign monarch, is an appropna place to expose tlie impending danger of c ea ting a domestic monarch. And may-I n«t with out presuiviptior., indulge the hope tha he warning voice of a not her, although far u in* bier, son of Hanover, mav not pass uuhte* ded^ The late President ofthe United States ad vanced certain new and alarming pretensions f©r the Executive Department of the Govern ment, the effect of which, if established and recognised by the People,must inevitably con vert it into a monarchy. The first of these,, and it was a favorite principle with him, was, that the Executive Department should be re garded as a unit. By this principle of unity, the meant and intended that all the Executive officers ot Government should be bound to obey the commands and execute the orders of the President of the United States, and that they should be amenable to him and he be re sposible for them. Prior to this Administra* tion, it had been considered that they were bound to observe and obey the Constitution and laws, subject oniy to the general superin tendence of the President, and responsible by impeachment and to the tribunals of justice for injuries inflicted on private citizens. Bui the annunciation of this new and ex traordinary principle,was not of itself sufficient the purposes of President Jackson; it was essential that the subjection to his will, which was its object, should be secured by some adequate sanction. That he sought to effect by an extension of another principle, that of dismission from office, beyond all precedent and to cases and under circumstances which would would have furnished just grounds ol hi* impeachment, According to the solemn opinion of Mr. Madison and other members of the first Congiess under the present Constitu tion. Now, if the whole official crops, subo'rdi date to the President of United States, are made to know and to feel that they hold their respective offices by the tenure of conlbr.T.ity and obedience to his will, it is manifest that they must look to that will, anti not to the Constitution and law*, as the guide of their of ficial conduct. The weakness of human na ture, the love and emoluments of otfice, per haps the bread necessary to the support ol their families, would make this result abso lutely certain. The development of this new character to the power of dismission would have fallen short of the aims in view, without the exer cise of it were held to be a prerogative, for which the President was to be wholly irre sponsible. If he were compelled to expose the grounds and reasons upon which he act ed, in dismissals from office, the apprehensions of public censure would ternjier the arbitrary nature of the power and throw some protec tion around the subordinate officer. Hence the new and monstrous pretension has been advanced, that although the concurrence of the Senate is necessary by the Constitution to the confirmation of an appointment, the Pre sident may subsequently dismiss the person appointed, not only without communicating the grounds on which he has acted to the .Se nate, but without any such communication to the People themselves, fir whose benefit all offices are created! And so bold and daring has the Executive branch of the Government become, that one or its Cabinet Ministers, himselfa subordinate officer, has contemptu ously refused to members of the House of Re presentatives to disclose the grounds on which he has undertaken to dismiss from office per sons acting asdeputv postmasters in his De partnient. i , As to the gratuitous assumption, by Presi dent Jackson, of responsibility for all the sub ordinate Executive officers, it is the merest mockery that \Vas ever put forth. They will escape punishment by pleading his orders, and lie by alleging the hardship of being punished, not for his own acts, but for theirs. We have a practical exposition of* this principle in thr case of the 200,000 militia. The Secretary ol War comes out lo screen the President, by testifring that he never saw what he strongly recommended; and the President reciprocates j that favor by retaining the Secretary in place, notwithstanding he has proposed a plan for organizing the militia which is acknowledged to be unconstitutional. If the President is not to be held responsible for a cabinet minister, in daily intercourse with him, how is he to be rendered so for a receiver in Wiskonsin or Iowa? To concentrate all responsibility in the President, is to annihilate all responsibility. For who ever expects to see the day arrive when a President of the U. S. will he impeach ed, when he cannot command more than one third of the Senate to defeat the impeach ment? . But to construct the scheme of practical despotism, whilst til the forms ofl e: govern ment remaineif it was necessary to take one turtherstep. By the Constitution, the Presi dent is enjoined to take care that the laws be executed. This injunction was merely inten ded to impose on him the duty of a general su perintendence; to see that otficesR were filled, officers at their respective posts in the dis cnarge of their official functions, and all ob structions to the enforcement of the laws were removed, and, when necessary for that purpose, to call out the militia. No one ever imagined, prior tojthe Administration of Pre sident Jackson, that a President of the Uni tedStates was to occupy himself wi h super vising and attending to the execution of all the minute details of every one of the host of offices in the U. S. Under the constitutional injunction just mentioned, the late President put forward that most extraordinary pretension that the Constitution and laws of the United States were to be executed,as he understood them;and this pretension was attempted to be simain by an argument equally extraordinary, that the President, being a sworn officer, mint car ry them into effect according to his sense of their meaning. The Constitution and laws were to be executed,not according to their im port as handed down to us by our ancestors, as interpreted by contemporaneous exposi tions, expounded by concurrent judicial deci sions, as fixed by an uninterrupted course of Congressional legislation, but in that sense which a President of the U. S. happened to understand them. To complete this Executive usurpation, one further object remained. By the Constitution, the command of the Army and the Navy U conferred on the President. If he could unite the purse to the Sword, nothing would he left to gratify the insatiable thirst for power. In 1833 the President seized the Treasury of the United States', and Irnm that day to this it has continued substantially under his control. The seizure was effected oy the removal of one Secretary of the Treasury, understood to he opposed to the measure, and by the dismissal of another, who-.refused -to violate the law of thedand ppon the order* of-Uie President. • ft is; indeed, said that' nut. a do-lar hi. the Treasury can be touched without a previous appropriation by law, nor dra vii out bf4he PiWStiry without tlie concurrence and signa tures of the Secretary, the Treasurer, lhc ftegister and the Comptroller.;~liul are not ail these pretended security* idICjaiiff.wnavailing Ihrjns? We have seen th 1% by toperation or the irresponsible power of dismission, all those officers &rt reduced to (Wre automata, absolutely subjected to the will of the Presi dent. What resistance would any of them make, with the penalty ofdismiasion suspend* j ed over their heads.to anyortlers of the Presi dent to pour, out the treasure of the United States, whether »n act of appropriation exist ed or not? Do not mock us with the vain as surance of the honor and probity ofa pFeaidgnt, nor remind ns of the confidence which we ought to repose in his imagined virtues. The pervadmg^nociple of our system of govern* merit—of all free government—is not merely the possibility, but the absolute certainty of in fidelity ami treachery, with even the highest functionary of the state: and hence all the re *tricti»»rw.sectisitie8, and guaranties, which the wisdom .of our ancestor* or the. sad experi ence of history had ineulcated, hay^ heeij de vised and thrown around the Chid* Magis trate* ‘ .n .. !* ; Here* fftebda and felfow.cbtzcn*, let?)* .pause, and contemplate this atupendnu* *tntc tpre'Of .Executive machinery and despotism which .has been reared in -our young Republic.. The Executive'branch of the Government is j a unit: throughout all its arteries and wins there is to be but one heart, one head, one will. The number of the subordinate Execu tive .offices have been estimated i» an official a Senator, (Mr. CaJhoun,) at report,, founded, on. public . document** made -by hundred thousands Whatever if may.be,.ali of thein; ‘ wherever?lbey are fcjtuated, are bound knpHcitty Wobey the orders of ilie* Pres ident. And absolute obedience to his will is secured and enforced hy the power of dismiss ing them at his pleasure, fi-om their respective places. To make this terrible power of dis mission more certain and efficacious its exer cise is covered up in mysterious secrecy, with out exposure, without the smallest responsj bilitv. The Constitution and laws of the U nited states are to be executed in the sense in which the President understands them. al-i though thatsen*e may be at variance with the understanding of every other man in the Unit ed Stales. It follows, ns a necessary conse quence from the principle deduced hy ttie President from the constitutional mmnetinn, as to the execution ofthe laws, that, it an act of Congress be passed, in his opinion, contrary to the Constitution, or it a decision be pro nounced by thccourts.in his opinion, contrary to the Constitution or the laws, that act or that decision the President Is not obliged to enforce, arid he could not cause it to be enforced, with out a violation, at is pretended, ol his official oath. Candor requires the admission that the principle has not yet been pushed in practice to these cases, hut it manifestly comprehends them; and who doubts that, if the spirit of usir pationisnot arrested and rebuked, thev will be finally reached. The march of power is ever onward. As times and seasons admon ish, it openly and boldly,in broad day, makes its progress; or, if alarm be excited by the enormity of its pretensions, it silently, in the darkness of the night, steals its devious way. It now «rr*rm«and mount* the ramparts ol the fortress ofl berty; it now saps and undermines its foundations. Finally, the command of the army and navy being already in the Presi dent, and hiving acquired a perfect control ov er theTreasury of the U.States, he has consum mated that frightful union of purse and sword, so long, *50 much, so earnestly deprecated hv all true lover* of civil lihert v. And our present Thief Magistrate stands solemnly and volun tarily pledged, in the face of the whole world, to follow in the footsteps and carry out the measures and the principles of his illustrious predecessor! The sum of the whole is, that there is but one power, one control, one will in the State. All is concentrated in the President Tie di rects, orders, commands the whole machinery of the State. Through the olfirial agencies, scattered throughout the land; and absolutely subjected to his will, he executes, according to his pleasure or enprire, ’he whole power o! the Commonwealth, which has been absorbed and engrossed by him. And one sole will predominates in, and animates the whole of. tnit vast community, ft this he not prac’. 'al despotism, l am incapable of conceiving or de fining it. Names are nothing. The existence or non existence of arbitrary government does not depend upon the title or denomination be stowed on the chief of the State, but upon the quantum of power which he possesses and wields. Autocrat, sultan, emperor, dictator, king, doge, presider.t, are all mere names, in which the power re* pec lively possessed by them is not to be found, but is to be looked for in the Constitution, or the established usages and practices or the several Slate* | which they govern and control It the Auto- j ernt of Russia were called President, ol all the Russia*, the actual power remaining un changed, his authority, under his new deno mination, would continue undiminisheC; and if the President of the United States were to receive the title of Autocrat of the Unit ed States, the amount of his authority would not be increased without an alteration of the Constitution. General Jack<on was a bol l and fearless reaper, carrying a wide row, hut he di I not gather the whole harvest; he left some glean ings to his faithful successor, ami he resolved to sweep clean the field of power. The duty of inculcating on the official corps the active exertion of their personal and official influ ence was left by him to he enforced by Mr Van Buren, in all popular elections. It was not sufficient that the official corps was hound implicitly to obey the will ofthe President. It was not sufficient that this obedience was coerced by the tremendous power of dismis sion. It soon became apparent that this corps might he beneficially employed to promote, in other matters than the business of their offices, the views and interests of the Presi dent and his party. They are far more effi cient thin anv standing armv ol\eqnal'mim hers. ’ A standing army would he separated, and stand out from the People; would he an object of jealousy anl suspicion; an I, being always in corps or in detachments, could ex ert no influence on popular elections. But ti e official corps i* dispersed throughout the coun try. in every town, village, and city, mixing with the People, attending their meetings and conventions, becoming chairmen and mem bers of committees. and urging and stimulat ing partisans to active and vigorous exertion. Acting in concert, and throughout the whole Union, obeying orders issued from the centre, their influence, aided by Executive patronage, by the Post Olfice Department, and all the vast other means of Me Executive, is almost irresistible. To correct this procedure, and to restrain the subordinates of the Executive from all interference with popular elections, my col league, (Mr. Crittenden,) now present, intro duced a bill in the Senate. He had the weight of Mr. Jefferson’s opinion, who issued a cir cular to restrain Federal officers from inter meddling in popular elections. lie had be fore him the British example,"according to which place,men and pensioners were not only forbidden toiuterfere, but were not,some of rhem, even allowed to vote at popular elections. But this bill lefl'them free to exer* cige the elective franchise, prohibiting only, the use of their olficiai influence. * A-nd h*nv was this bill received in the Senate* Passed,” by those who profess to ndmi-e the character and to pursue the principles of .Mr. Jefferson? No such thing. It was denounced a*. a sedi tion hill. And the just o,hum of that sedition bill, which was intended to* protect ojljce hohlers against the People, was succesif^ty used to defeat a measure of protection of tlje Peopje against the -olSce-holders! Not only; were they left unrestrained, hut they , wer^ urged and stimulated by nn official report to. employ their influence m behalf of the Admin istration a t the ejections of the -jPcopk. j Hitherto, the Army and the Navy iinve.cc.-_ mained unaffected-by*.the power oOffsmissjon and they have notjheene.alled mtfl 4lje-polrtie:ff seryice of the‘Executive. Burt iroai><mYmV ohserver of ifig principles, and procee<Iuvgs-uf the men in^over could fail to see trjft tbedny was not distatit when they, tow, .\whihr he re-’ quired to perlorm the partisan Of^ces of* the, Ike si deni. AccoWljjigj i,.t,hs_*proces^' f>f oou - verting them into Kxecutive-tustrun■ • ffaT* commenced in a Court Mattel assembled nt i Baltimore, Two officers of rlie Armv H the ‘ United States have been there put upon their solemn trial, on the charge of prejudicing the Democratic party, by makingpurenases for the supply t f the Army from members of the Whig party! It is not pretended that the United state* were prejudiced by those purchases; on the contrary,it was, l believe.established that they were cheaper Own could b* ve Wn mane from the supp*»r»**!^ ot the Vlmmktntinn." But therh»»ree wss, thst to from the opj-orteuts, instead of the friends of ' the Administration, was nn injury to the De mocratic parly, which required that the offen ders should he put upon their trial before a Court .Martial! And this trial was commenc ed at the instance of a committee of a Demo cratic Convention, and conducted and prose cuted by them! The scandalous spectacle is presented to an enlightened world of the Chief j Magistrate of a great People executing the or- | ders of a self created power, organized with- j in the bosom of the State, and, upon such an accusation, arraigning, before a military tribu nal, gallant men, who are charged with the defet ce of the honor and the interest of their country, and with bearing its eagles in the presence of an enemy! But the Army and Navy are too small, and in composition are too patriotic, losuhserve the purposes of tins Administration. Hence the recent proposition oftlie Secretary of War strongly recommended by the President, un der coUrof a new organization of the militia, to create a standing force of 200,000 men, an amount which no conceivable foreign exigen cy can ever make necessary. It is not my purpose now to enter upon an examination o! that pin n of the Executive of the General Go vernment. It has justly excited a burst ol general indignation; and nowhere has the dis approbation of it been more emphatically ex pressed than in this ancient and venerable Commonwealth. The monstrous project may be described in a few words. It proposes to create the force by breaking down Mason and Dixon’s Line, expunging the boundaries ot States, melting them up info a confluent triads, to be subse quently cut up into ten military parts, alienates the militia from its natural association, with draws it Irom the authority and command ami sympathy of its constitution.*! I officers, appoint hy t!>e States, puts it under the command of the President, authorizes him localise it to he trained in palpable violation of the Constitu tion, an I subjects it to be called out from re mote and distant places, at bis pleasure, and on occasions not warranted by the Constitu tion! Indefensible is this project is, fellow-citi zens, do not hr* deceived by supposing that it has been or will be abandoned. It is a prin ciple of those who are now in power that an election or a re-election of the President im olies th'* sanction of the People to a!I the u'.ea sores which he had proposed, all the opinions which he had expressed, on public affairs, pri or to that event. AVe have seen : his principle applied on various occasions. Let Mr. Var. Btiren he re-elected in November next, and it will he claimed that the People have thereby approved of this plan of the Secretary of War. All entertain the opinion that it is important to train the militia and render it effective; and it will he insisted, in the contingency mention ed, that the People have demonstrated that thev approve of that specific plan. There is more reason to apprehend such a consequence from the fact that a committee of the Senate.^ to which this subject was referred, ins'end of denouncing the scheme as unconstitutional and dangerous to liberty: presented a labored apologetic report, and ttie Administration ma jority in that, hodv ordered twenty thousand eopi s of the apology to be printed for circu lation a iron? the People. I take pleasure in testifying that one Administration Senator had the manly independence to denounce, in Ins place, the project as unconstitutional. That Senator was from your own State. [To be concluded in our next.] THE REV. THEOROLD MATHEW, OF IRELAND. Mr. Mathew was burn in the year 1733, at Thoinastown Mouse, the seat of the Lari of LlamlaIT, in the county of Cork. When n bout twenty years of age, lie en.ered Kilkenny college, where, having completed the usual course of studies, he took orders as a Francis can friar. On leaving the college, he fixed his residence nt Cork, where, in a short time, he earned a high reputation by the zeal with which lie discharged the duties of his sacred office, and particularly by his powers as a pulpit orator. To enumerate the services which lie rendered to bis fellow-citizens, par ticularly the humbler classes of them, is a task 1 agreeable in itself, hut one which would re quire more time am! space that we can a fiord to bestow. Let it be sulficient to say, that hr has spent the last five and twenty years in continual cxeriions to mitigate the suffeiings of the poor of his neighborhood, and to raise them from the state of moral and physical de gradation to which they had been reduced — Never, during that time, was an attempt to effect any ot the great ends of charity, to in struct die ignorant, to feed the hungry, to clothe the faked, that did not either originate with him, or at least receive his most anient suppoi f. lie never stopped to inquire whether such an attempt originated with a Protestant or Catholic: he required hut to be told that its object was? to confer a benefit an his lellow-man. By such a course of life, Mr. Mathew gained, in a sliort time, an unbounded influence over the minds ol the surrounding poor. About two years ago, it was suggested to him, by a few benevolent individuals, who had attempt ed to establish a total abstinence society in Cork, tb it he could not better employ his tal ethsand it,Hence than in reclaiming the hum bler classes of his fellow-citizens Irotn the vice of drunkenness, which prevailed at the time to a frightful extent amongst them. He embraced the proposal without hesitation — About tii'* commencement of »he year 1333, he formed the first total abstinence society.— The temperance movement, like all great rev olutions, has grown from small beginnings.— For Severn I months after the first society was established.the number of its members scarce ly exceeded five hundred. In Or*her last, he commenced his four through the south of Ireland, visiting Limer ick, Waterford, Pingarvon, Clonmel, Killar nev, TallowGah.vay, Loughrea, Dublin, Wex* lord, and several other place?, addressing the people and administering the pledge of total abstinence from all that intoxicates to im mense masses of men and women who flock ed around him. Not less than one million, it is now supposed, have received the pledge from his hand, and among these not more than one hundred have resigned it hack. His ♦oil has been unremitted, and his deportment sue If as became the Christian and the mar. -- fhe .Messing of thousands who were perish m-Vis upon hint. His immediate family consists of four bro thers and a sister. One-of these brothers, dr Thomas Mathew, is a proprietor of a larrc distillery at Castlelake, in the county of '1’ip perary. Two others, Charles and John, have shares in this establishment, and have proper ty embarked mitt*) a considerable amount.— Each of these has suffered more by the present movement than neihapsanv other personsin Ireland. But this is notall. The sister, Oer frti le.'.Mathew, is married to another exten sive . distiller, Mr. Harkett. of Middleton, county of Cork. Mr Charles Mathew is mar-' ried to Mi?s Hackett,-whose fortune is 'em -tmrkr.1 in the Middleton distillery. Thus there is not a single member of his family oh -whogri he has not inflicted a serious in’urv by lus advocacy of temperance. Mr. Mathew is smufewhat under the middle size—we should Vav a bout five feet eight—'‘ome what corpulent, hut not so as to render him in any rtegree iuac five»‘ In his countenance there is a pern’iar 4j*nressnfu or henevoience. We will under take to say that no nnp ever yet sat lor an hour in his company and left it his enemy. His manners are simple and unaffected, his con versation always interesting,often instructive. BtJEXAP’S LECTURES. XECTUIlKS to Young Men, on the cultiva 4 ti«>n ol the mind,.the formation of char acter, on i the conduct of Life: Delivered in Masonic. ! fall, Baltimore, by Geo. W. Bunnn, Pastor of the First Independent Church just re ceived I lor sale bv ,j u BELL h EVTWISLE. PROGRESS OF CRIME. We may disguise it from others but we can not from ourselves, that crime increases to a very frightful degree in our country, and the worst feature is that the criminals nrc not per sons of low birth, and destitute o! education and good examp'e, but rather, on the contrary, priding themselves on their genera! intelli gence and respectability, and occupying a P° nitron in sorietv which should lead tu more honorable results. A short time since a per son came on from Cincinnati, with a requisi tion from the Governor «>I tint State, to ar rest a person who had robbed a Rink ol •SKV, j 000. It Met* ms that he was oneoi a brokers firm here, who had gone to Cincinnati t > pur chase a hank charter. Itreqored a deposit i of $22,000 in specie before the bank could go into operation, which was compelled with, and' the hank was organize ! hy the appointment ol respectable officers, who were not aware of the character and views of trie principal agent, who, when tlie bank was fairly in op eration, carried oil’ in notes the above men tioned sum, and wa> pursued to this city. Rv j good luck one half the a bdirted sum was re : covered from his partner, Wider a tltre.it ot his j being implicated, but the culprit is.still conceal j ed wish tiie remaining tnoict v. The repeutio t of this class of crime, namely hank robbery, assumes a very alarming character, and de mands a prompt and striking example. When a burglary is commuted and the vaults of a bank rilled by a midnight felon, j the alarm is sounded, the police is alive and active, and large rew inN, s >on discover and drag to justice Ine Imld thiel.and lie is con signed to»fie State Prison, amiisl tlmcongrat • illations of society that so big a viliian lias met with his reward. Hut :m agent, trusted with the keys of the vault', one in whom . hectors, stockholders, widows am! orphans mo>t free ly con de, fiils his own pockets with the goln belonging to tin* institution, and walks down Wall street ‘‘calm as a summer morning"’—-he shakes hands with one gentleman, hows to another, talks politics’to a third, and loans a fourth part of the plunder then on hn person. The thief steals under the cover of the night, and crawls slowly where no light burns in avoid the watch on duty —the gentleman thu f filches in open day, carries on the game for months, a ml when discovered he finds liiemL, .sympathy, ample hail, and his crime is imput ed to unsuccessful speculations or loans to a false friend. The worst feature in all this which marks the mn gmlti le of»he crime, is tie magmni.it' ofthe amount abducted, fie who steals hut $301)0 is a a mean, pitiful, petty larcenv ku ive, who ought to dig stone on Clack well's Plan I, without commi<serntioii; hut he who robs to the amount of Si00.000, lie is a yerv c!ev°r fellow, and c m make a compromise with tht sufferers,and escapes the law. This is a me lancholy picture, hut it is a true one, and it sinks the characterot our people dai’v, to see the facility with which great cdines are com mitted with impunity. It is not to he denied that where a Govern ment is badly administered, wiie c I au 1 is winked at and injustice openly (low, the p«o p!‘» will become corrupt from tfie force ol ample; vet that portion ofthe people which will not stoop To dime. Can always pu Mi a criminal, in spite of higher examples. Another great error into which some c isnists fad, is the impression thit an agent eijfnis'ed with public money commits no wrong if lie loans that money to a l ien !, or on doubtful security, and of it is |o>t. This is a mistake. It is an abti-e a public trust, and so far is a crime. There are shades of crime, which can be classifi *d, viz: He who breaks into a hank and tob> tiie vaults. He who has access to the vaults and abducts the nit npy. II* who abuses his trust by loaning money to others not his own. lie 7ho makes purchases without means of payment. lie who induce* others to speculate, know ing that loss must follow. lie who makes a dash and show with mo ney not his own lie who gambles, and lives beyond h;$ means. There »re minor classifications, if is (ru.*, but they all iesoi ve liiemselves into crimes ol lesser or greater magnitude. \Vfrit should he the redress .5 I’ubiic. opinion. Laws may Ire evadoil, jurors tampered with or misguided, hut publicojiin-on should mark the culprit accord ing to the c ime. or vice and immorality gvill be legalized, and the rogue placed on a loot ing with the honest man. Our police reports a re filled wi'h a cnfalouge of petty crimes, committed bv poor an I aban doned creatues, without friends, probably bread, who sleep on tlie cold earth and have no redeeming quality ; but if a ‘ gentleman’ i* so unfortunate .as fo commit a crime, to steal or client, some kind, sympathizing relation calls on the public, press with a respectful re quest. that his name may not he inserted in the police reports, out of regard to the findings of his Irien Is. It is thu* that ci:me progresses, because it is not punished either bv law nr hv the force of public opinion, and ii is really assuming au aspect and a height that is tru ly frightful.—Ne w Vo k Star. TTonnro Mnmr.i —A murdero! the mostatro cious description was corn mined yesterday about fin If past 12, P. M„ on liie body ol Ito-’ hert Dowling, a grocer, residing in Ponce street b'Mween Mott and Elizabeth street*, by a butcher named Thomas Butterling. It appears that thev fnd a d:*pute olsoifie vio lence on Sin lav last, the cause ot which we did not lenrn. Yesterday the quarrel was re newed in tlie Miopof Mr. Dowling, and But terling was ordered out He declared Ik* would not leave the shop until he left Dowling a corpse, and on the in stant, »•. ithn sirig'e blow ol' a larg° bwchf*r’s knife, nearly severed his victim’s h»-id from bis shoulders He was.so neatly decapitated, that his head fell over on his shoulder —The murderer fled, pursued by tii° crowd, an I al ter being knocked down and leaving a portion ol his co:it in trie ha ml* of bis pu suer*, ran iu to the police otfice, and placing both h ind* up on tlie bar, jumped over m'o the midst ol the officials. Ju*tiec Bloodgood demanded of him what was the mea nine of his cm loci. Hi* au*wer was, ‘‘I have just murdered a man. I suppose this is the right place to come to.** He was immediately arrested and placed in Dons.— We understand, that Dowling died in about 10 minutes after he was wounded. He was a hunt -10 years of age, and lias left a large fam ily. Butterlmg Ibrmely h id a stall in Centre Market, hut has latterly kept a private stall in Prince street. He is about 25 years of age. md has hitherto borne a good character. He also ha* a family. 'Thus by a moment, iudul gerce of unrestrained pission’s two families j have been.plunged in the deepest woe. New York Courier. | Mi p teuuaxexnSq\uc.o.v.—About:j month ! since we noticed that five or six lieutenants | and the surgeon of the Mediterranean s'jnid | run. had been sent home by Commodore Hu I i and (hat thev were on their way to Washing | ton to obtain retires? from the p oper depart ! merit. The principal charge against them was I their unwillingness to associate with tlie !s I dies of the Commodore*? latridy. V.e learn I that these n.'ficers have received orders from the proper department to return to the Medi terranean and resume their several com mauds. Thi* decision will have toe effect ol preventing officers m future from taking tueir wives and fam;lies with them in our vessels o! war. The practice we have heard much rep rohated by many of the officer* in the navy, a* tending to relax the rigi i discipline necessary | in our larger vessels.—Ph i. Gaz. _ ________ The Vice President arrived yesterday, and landed at the Battery, under a salute from the IT. S. ship North Carolina, and fbe Fort a? Governor’s Island. The Mayor and Common i Council, a vast concourse of person*, and a large number of the city military received fum at the Battery, and escorted him to bis lodg ings. To-day he is receiving visitors, of botn :cx les,at the City Hall.—N. Y. American. 7yyg'iaTVeg3a-7J3 ODi'3®B2M^ In the Senate, on Friday, the hill Tom the House to regulate and equalize the mileage of tnembersol Congress, w is taken up as in com • nottee of thtj whole; arid after various a mendinents had been adopted, it was ordered to be engrossed for a third reading. The prin cipal amendments were to calculate the dis tance bv the “shorten mail route,” instead oT a “straight line,” anil that the distance charg ed by each member should be published at the end of tine session ; tint members of Con press should be allowed twenty dollars per session, in lieu of stationary ; that a member absent at any time when the yeas and nays were called, shall forfeit his compensation for tint day. The vote on ordering the bill to be engrossed was—yeas 31, rays 0—as fdlows; Yea*—Messrs. All-m, Anlerson, Benton, Brown Bitch «tnn,HaIhooii, (’lav of Alabama, Clay of Keiitiiekv.Crifteu len. Cutfibert, Da vi<, Dixon, Ftfhui. Hubhard. Huntington, King, liinn, lornikin, Merrick, Moumn, Pirrcc. [No ter, Breston. Bonne, S*nirh ol Oon noetic tit, St range, rr,i p;> in. Walker, Williams, Wright, and Young— 31. N' y '—Messrs r;-i vtnn. Henderson, Kni:V, |X.»rvel, Smith of In linn, Sturgeon, Tall j mudge, Wall, and White- 'J. I In flic Ilousg t>f Representatives, on Fridavf I after a great manv proceedings, pro and con, | the House passed a i >iut resolution empower ; in? I lie President to disno e of such of the pre s'cnts, both from tiie Immm of .Muscat rnd | t!ie Emperor of Morocco, as cannct conveni ! entlv he deposed or kept in the Pepirtment | ofSlaJp and to place tlie procei ds in the Trea sury olthe U. S. ! .Mr. Pro!fit move ! to amend the t*tie of the • resolution as lid! >v«: “A joint resolution to repfeni-h ffie exhaust ed Treasury ol t'•Uni nl States hy the stile ol re tai i horse'*, lions, ni to of roses, ro«e-wa• ter, c a Mi inert* sh.nvis, &c„, being a donatio i made to tiie United Slates by I tie Imaum ot \!ii'C it .and ibe Emperor «»t* Morocco’* Mr. P. ma le so n* remarks expressive of hii views of ibis :i: »an an i beggarly mode of re plenishing the Treasury: and inquired where was aii v co i.st:f u’loni! ant ho if v ibr the act? Mr Monroe sii.l lie bad never known a transaction ol so mud. indecency before in Th? (’flair called him to order. Wei! : lie would sav. then, it the like had been lone by ihr Legislanre of New York or of Virginia, he shoul ! consider them as hav ing inflicted ladling disgrace on tnose Stale*. f!Te was again railed to order.) lie said he did. not mean to rdl.et *>n the motives ol’gentle• men, lent ibev c >ul i not Inve seen the mon strous character of the proceeding. They ha 1 ! not accepted these presents, an I yet thev h id ! order** 1 t.hem to be sold and the proceeds p it into flie Treasury! Mr. Smith, of Man*, moved the previous question on tfie amen Iment to the title. Hut »he House refused to second if. On motion of Mr Clifiord, tiie ui!e wa« then amended so :i< to read : “A resolution an hori/inj tiie President of the United Staiesto uhp >>•? ofcertaiu presents from tne Immui of Muscat and the Emperor of Morocco.” And in this form the title was agreed to. mm mmmm TIIE INDEPENDENCE OF THE JUDICIA RY’ ASSAILED. Some time ago, a resolution was introduced ;;i the Senate, by Mr. Tv pc is, proposing to \ amend the Constitution of tfie United States so as to limit the term and tenure of office of the Judges of all the United State* Courts.— Un Thursday, a vote was taken, which, ivc rejoice to learn, is regarded as decisive against j the chance of this resolution being honored !even with a consideration, during the present Ijession. It was postponed to Monday next, on motion of Mr. Cl\y, ol Kentucky, who desired to bring up the bill from the House re gulating attd equalizing the mileage of mem hen of Congress. Tty ’he Constitution of the United Style*, “ tlie .ht Ige*5, both of the Supreme and the In ferior Courts, arc to hold their offices during good behavior.” Ties p inciple prevails in most of on; State Constitutions—in some of thmn. it is true, under modifications more <><* less extensive. It Iris be**n Ihe subject m the high*st eulogy by the most distinguished wri 1 ters ou Government at Home and anroad. As in TTvmarc.hii a I Governments the inde pendence of tfv* Jii'bciary is essential to guard the rights of tiie s*;h;ect from the injustice of ' the Crown, so our Republican lathers thought ! it equiilv salutary in a llcmiblic, to protect ttie i Constitution and the Ians from the encroach ! tnents and tyranny of faction. Mu'S'-s. A mt.n an.lTipriv, Walkf.r, an I Ci ay. of Alah inn. proclaimed themselves in t.a\ or of breaking down ibis stable tenure oft he ! Ju tges, which h is been a lopfed bv every Pee 1 nation ol Europe, and winch the framers of ! on: Constitution thougnt indispensable to se. I cure the free and indepej* lent exercise of their ju I g went by Court; of Justice The last men tioned Senator gave a sort o( challenge to ; Mr. Ct.\r, of Ke.atu. kv, f » express Ins oninion <>’ the rcsohdion lor altering this tenure. The Ken’trkv Senator instantly replied, with hi; c*• :i •acte.i^tic direrliiesi an I energy:—“I am ag.aw-t the change, totadv an I ib-cideiliv, and I will give the A hi ha mi Senator a cert i lie a te to that pfIVc t. if he wi dies on*, to show 111 whomsoever he pleases.” Mr. (bunrs expressed his opposition to i the p-opose I alte ration in t!i° strongest ter*ns. He declared if. would h* '* eminently (Hi 'J* trous,'1 Ib* sni I truly, that th‘»re was no priu ciple on which the frames o! fMe Co astoufin'i h’I expanded more careful delih'T.atmri. or j'i regard to which fli*»y ha l been more un fed, than that the tenure of office of .the Jnlges should be <fnnrn tnr ben? mscriat, Muring good behavior ) HeaR-o rentonsfrated against hur \ iag to the decision ol a question of so much imro'tanrp. at this fife periol, when trie re quisite time c »m;ot be given to the discussion. The resolution was postponed ; and it will not probably, be heard of again during tho present session. i We cannot dismiss the subject without re marking that such movement** ns this, which seem to go hand in hand with tiie levelling an 1 destructive measures of the present Ad ministration. fill us with more serious .a ppre* hensiofs, ,aa to the durability of this Govern* ment, than anything else.—Madisonian. A cirrespot.dent of the New-York Amen* '"in. iijk!» r date <d July I, says: The hill passed Inst evening fur winding up the a (fairs of our Di*'ifiet Banks, fins s?u.ly nnrre*! the joyous proceedings of to-d.iy.— ( here is sea reefy a farmer or storekeeper who i> not dependent, in^orne way. upon the hanks, and (he sudden call tint will necessarily he unde lor repiym°nto| discounts, cannot fail I ?o pro h»ce ih* greatest distress. I understand 11he amount of discounts Iroin the six Banks is i\vo millions of dollars. Many of the Southern members are highly incensed at this arbitrary measure; for they contend that Congress, is* thus as>erting its power to aholi«ft the hanks, has admitted that it has also the pnr.er cl abolishing any thing e(<e—for instan'o*, slavery. They contend that this act has thrown the door wide open to the abolitionists, who now can no longer he repulsed with tnc doctrine that Congress hs* no power to interfere with or ahoiish any <>> the Imtittrions of the District.