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Alexandria gazette. [volume] (Alexandria, D.C.) 1834-1974, June 23, 1841, Image 2

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MHL19HF.D DAILY AND TRI'WAIIllY BY
rq 0) &5nD WMS3*
T’-.e ALJ.XAN'DRIA OAZETT E, (or
the country, Is printed on Tuesday, antirs
•jay,and Saturday. _
WEDNESDAY MORNING, Jess 23. ISM.
7WEHT/SEVENTH CONGRESS
cfw3 -4r <f\ jar .'l*rvl _
, . 2LlkT2» KP 3fc?c ii'wlUlo
l’Rf il''.}'cl»L* BANK OK I IaU U. S TAI E^»
The tallowing is the report of the Select
Committee <»l the Senate on the Currency
of which Mr CUy, of Kentucky, is Chairman,
as read by him in the Senate;
The committee to which was reierre, so
s president's Message as relates to
a uniform currency, ami a suitable tuca age'1
.• .•■it,le ol addins increased fociUies in the
‘rtion and disbursement, and security ot
| ij'mihlie revenue, have had the same cons.d
«ra»u>a,and beg leave to report;
That, after the most attentive and anxious
4-onsitleraliori oi ihe state ot the currency, and
. . ‘iaances of the Government, m all o.e.r m
, ■.a,.d hosx,riant hearings, the com
uitsee have arrived at the same cone iliuiun
witli the Secretary ol the Treasury, that a i
i->n 1 ami lust p.»!icy requires the estahlish
InenVoi a liin:; of ihe United States with as
or'e delay as practicable. .
TRe committee have neither time nor inch
nati m to enter into a discussion of the q. ies
\>n .ftlie power ol Congress under the Uon
M t t.onuf the United Stales, to establish a
'••iV- > i i l- uik. Alter rdl that lias been c*au.
^n i Vr'tten o-i that question during the long
period of hall a oMitury, nothing remains to
bV**d fed t’nit would he likely t»> shed much
.„..v Vdil w >n it. It ought, in the opinion o
the C'MiMiiitee, to he regarded as a settled
-settled by the approbation and jud,,
/“iniVthe People. by the authority ot the
L^idature, !>v the sanction ot the Executive
] \ nnrtaietit of the Government, and by the
^ , adpi-;ica«i'»ri of the ju ucnry. U it
nV)t regarded as a decided question, when,
Vi e colhUmns ;>nd conflicts among men,
Mr.. out of diversity ot opinion ami tndg
i.,.- nV/is a controverted matter to be consnler
♦•d rs terminate l ami quieted?
Vordo the committee deem it necessary
to dn< u<s the question of the expediency ot
r s;„-, an institution asihenank
,,,■-fV.VX'uite-l States. Outbid there is even
<v;»trar»**tv of op.nion than on the iormer
<.>»both.i»Mhcdehberate conviction
of ihe CO nmi;itee that a vast majority of the
!»*, q,. uf the Unocd States concur ; and that
th‘ V are now b> g.vvitli anxious so.icitude,
ii>Vi«* deliberations of Congress muter a con
fi lent, that a iliak ot the United Elates
w:m bg cstao:s:i ,\l at ;.Lq piesguL,CA-Uamdl:,
fkci‘:“*uiInecVssary to be further argued, and,
assu?»’in % what the committee verily believe,
ih it a National think is indispensably neccs
•nrv they will proceed,at once,to the particular
form, powers, and faculties with which it
iniy be expedient to invest such an institu
tion. Ami here the committee have.no hesi
tation in saying that, confiding in the expe
rience of forty years, during which the nation
has enjoved the benetit ot s National bank,
jirvl during the greater part of which it has
realized every reasonable hope and expecta
tion in the operations ot such an institution,
they came to the conclusion that it would be
wisest to dismiss ali experiments, and to
c*i.'i T to experience an l assume the last char
ter “ranted bv Uo*;gress as the basis ol a
ne v bank, engrafting upon it such restrictions,
i*'«nrnnttc*s, amen Imen.s, and conditions, as
have been found necessary by actual expe.i*
ence.
The Secretru? of the FfcaS'iry came to a
similar conclusion; nr»d in Ins report, and the
drau d.t of a bid which accompanies it, he
has taken as his m » let the charter granted
by Congress in HIT < >u that he has sug
gested n’ereat many valuable improvements,
most ol which the committee have incorporat
ed in the draught of a bill which they now re
port to the Senate. On this draught they
wish to oiler to the Senate some brief expla
nations and observations.
The committee have adopted Washington
city, proposed t»y the secretary ol the l reasu
ry, as lb? place of location of the principal
bank. Thev believe the place ol its location
is a subordinate question ; but there are ma
ny advantages Irom the proximity of the Bank
to the <.Jovernm *n(. The distribution ol the
capital ol the Bank among the several com
mercial cuie*5, in proportion to their respective
watts and magnitude, is wliat they naturally
desire, and what who doubtle-s be done. But
to guard against the exercise ol any unwor
thy transactions lh.* committee have thought
it expedient to deprive tlie parent Bank ot a!!
pa ver to trials any discounts or loans what*
ever, except loans to viovernmenl authorised
bv express law. In order to ensure tue corn
man! of the be<l financial aim.lies ol tlie
cou ttrv, the biii provides luat the D.rectors
of tiie i’.’ ent L»>ard, winch is to consist ot
l ine membc'S. > mil be pan! lor their ser\ ices
by the cornoration, and a! compensation to
the I'irectois. in the usual I »rm ol oank ac
commodJiit>vis, i^ ut’.eiiv proii ‘u ed.
T iius, ;!;♦.* Ikrectorsot the Bank at Wash
ington wid become a Board of Control,super
intending the branches, supplying them with
a currency, and banking excluMvely through ,
the agency of their oiliccs of discount and <ie
p )>ite.
Tlie capital ol the Bmk, proposed by the
Secretary, is retained; but i power is re
served to Congress to augment it by the ad
dition of twenty millions making t.he aggre
gate am'miir ultimately titty millions of dol
lars, if that should be found to be necessary.
To guard against, undue expansion of the
currency by the operations of the Bank, vari
ous restrictions and securities are introduced.
1. The dividends are limited to seven per
cent, per annum; and, after accumulating a
reserved fund of two millions ol dollars, to
cover losses ami contingencies the excess
bevon 1 that seven per cent, is to be paid into
the public Fre t'Oit y. Ami, whatever excess
remains at the end of the charter, beyond
the rei u^tuvu *nt to the stockholders <>j tlie
cap tal stock, is also to be paid into the ‘Trea
sury. if the divi lends toil below sevan per •
cent, during anv year »>l the charter, the deli
eiency is to he m uie go,> i owl ol the surpluses '
previously paid into the Treasury. The eflecl I
of th s provision ;s. to make a permanent and
invurutVe per cent. bank stock,
assuming that th-g ad .n s*ru* m of the Bank {
is con ! sete i wild iutegnt an * a! ;!.tv.
•J. I ;»e debts t! to ?’.? i'.mk art* required {
not *■' exceed the a:no*.'nt o|‘ iheen;.;.i! stuck ;
aetttoy paid in. and 7 > per cent. thereon,!
which is a greater restriction than usud.
Foe total amount of debts which ihe Bank I
au horned to contract, over and above the
deposites, b not to exceed t-enty-five^md
ISm'ihan washplaccdS upon the lute Bank
of the United State#. . 0r t},e
3. The publicity which is reo'tiretl m r.e
general condition nl lb® )an „t Con
and conap'ete exposuiai to ®omn. ( e ^
«;rncti*i3 umi»l»esecured, of all the books and
transactions 'of the Bank, i«eludmg pr.yute
“T'-Tbe prohibition of the renewal or any
confining the Bank to fair busings transac
‘“Ami 5. The Bank is prohibited f"*1"
3'to protecf*the community and,the sbjek
S;£Set£nm.crted, winch
it is honed mav he etlectual. .
1. No paitl otlicer of the Bank ft to receive
loans or accommodations in any torm wu.it
tV‘2.rSecurities are provided against abusive
use of proxies, such as that no officer of •
Bank can be a proxy; no proxy cant m
than 300 votes; no proxy to be good w Incli is
longer standing than ninety days, fitc.
3. A prohibition against the Corporations
transacting any other than legitimate bank1
business; excluding all dealing m stocks, an
all commercial operation-. , ,
4 A requisition that a majority of the whole
number of the Board of Directors shall he
necessary to transact the business of the
Cl5**Ampie power to make the most thorough
examination into the condition and proceed
ings of the Bank, down to the accounts of
individuals, by totally removing from the
Secretary of the Treasury and committees of
Congress the veil of secrecy.
And 5. By denouncing and punishing as te -
onv the crime of embezzlement of the u.iy
of the Bank when perpetrated by any oi it*
oiiicers, agents, or seivants.
Concurring entirely in the, sentimenj - -
pressed by the Secretary of the 1 icasury, h at
many wise and patriotic statesmen, whose
opin ons are entitled to consideration »»d res
pect, have questioned the power ol Cong •
establish a National Bank; and that it is de>ir
able, as far as passible, l» obv.ate objections
and reconcile opinions, the committee b.iw
attentively and earnestly examined the pro
vision, incorporated m the draught nl the bill
of the Secretary, in regard to the branching
( >wer of the Bank, and they would ha ve been
haopy if they could have reconcileJKiiI'j. heir
sensecfduty to adopt it. But alter^the fude-1
consideration, they have been una >
rive at trial resuu. . .
It was not without some hesitation trial the
committee agreed to the location ol the bank
in the District of Columbia. 1 his they did
because they believed that the utility ol the
Bank did not so much depend upon the place
of its location as upon the capital, faculties,
und powers which should be given to it. But
10 isolate it in this District, without giving it
anv other Lranching parly than such as it
Hindu derive from the consent ol particular
Slates, would be to create an enormous Dis
trict bank, devoid of effective national char
acter. Such a bank would he a bankoniyol
the District of Columbia, and its othcesol dis
count and deposite would be nothing more
than banks of the States which might al.ow
them to be planted withm their respective
limits. For all national purposes Congress
might as well recharter one ol the existing
District banks, enlarge its capital, and g.te it
authority to establish ollices ol discount and
deposite in any State that would permit it to be
done. , , ..ir
The committee believe that the capital ol a
bank so constituted would never be taken,
and that, if taken, the institu'ion would be
wholly unable to accomplish the great ant.
W'ffTftOTLfr/oT iffStrfBtlslTilife aTTa'nk thus
to t»e restricted and circumscribed involves
higher and graver considerations than those
of me re expediency. The General Govern
ment has or has not the power to establish a
National Bank. If it has the power, it de
rives it from existing grants in the Constitution
of the United States. The committee believe
it has the power and ought to exercise it. But
afera contest during the last tenor twelve
years in respect to the constitutional power of
Congress, winch has been niarked by so much
animation and bitterness, a forbearance to ex
ercise the power would be a virtual surrender
of the power. If a bank were to be created,
whose operations within the limits ol the
States were dependent not upon the will ol
Congress but upon the will of each State,
separately announced, the creation of such
a Bank would add another to the lint.of
disastrous experiments, and would be tan
tamount to a relinquishment of the national
power, and it could never be resumed.
j The power of the Federal Government
is only to he found in the grants ol the Consu
! tutioii. lftiiey were inadequate to the fulfil
meat of the great purposes ol its establishment
they can only be increased in the mode ol
I amendment which the instrument list*11 has
prescribed. They cannot be augmented by
the grants or consent of any Slate or Slates
short, of tne number of two-thirds, whose
concurrence is necessary to give validity to an
amendment. A derivation ot power to the
General Government from the consent ol par
ticular Stages would be unsound in principle,
and the committee apprehend dangerous in prac
t ce. Admit such consent to be a legitimate
source ol power, the Government would not
operate equally in-illthe Xia es, and the Con
stitution, losing its uniform character, would
exhibit an irregular and incongruous action.
Kntertaining these deliberate views, the
committee are decidedly of opinion that the
lull Ibr the establishment of a bank in the
District ol Columbia will be elfectual which
ilutfs not contain a clear recognition ot the
constitutional power ol Congress to establish
branches wherever, in the United States, the
pub.ic wants, in its judgment, require them.—
t hey cannot consent t at a bank, emanating
fotu the nation, an I imperatively demanded
by the necessities of the Government and of
the nation, shall be wholly dependent for its
uselul operation upon tne will of eacn and
even ^'tate, distinctly expressed.
Accordingly, in the draught o( a hi I now re
ported, the ngtit is asserted to exercise the
branching power ot the bank independent of
theasseiiLot the Slates. The committee dare
not allow themselves to believe that the bill i
is free from all defects, hut they do hope that,
these, in a spirit of liberality, will he correct-:
ed by the superior wisdom of the Senate and
ol the House, and that the present session
will be signalized by the establishment ol a
national institution, which has become a de- j
sideraium to the general prosperity.
The advantages which will Mow Irom such
an institution in both our domestic ami lbi
eign relation®, arc manifest and mcontestab e. i
it will give the People a sound currency ol
uniform value throughout the Union, which is;
just ns necessary to the succeesful operation
of a II branches of business us pure air or water
is to the (•reservation of human life or health.;
it will revive and extend commercial inter- •
course, which, for the want ol a common me- ,
dimn.lias been almost suspended between d.f- (
lei cut parts of the Union.
It will reduce domestic exchange from ti e -
enormous premiums and discounts now fre
quently pi id, to the moderate standard grow
ing out ol tbe mere cost and insurance on tne
ri^k of transporting specie from one to another
pad of tl.e Union.
It will, consequently, save hundred1? of thou
sands ot dollars now annually lo>l m transac
tions of exchange.
It will e^eMi»! • v h** tie fit the manufacturing
n?ert‘>t bv enaMn g r to leakze Miles and the !
d*■. of mi U*s.
it will powerfully contribute to ihc resump
lion ol specie payments br the banks, whose \
rxtstiug delinquency U the greatest bourccof :
oil prevailing pecuniary and financial embar
rassment*.
It will greatly lend to prevent and correct
i Jie excesses and abuses o! the local banks.
It will furnish a medium common to nil parts
of the Union lor the payment of debts and
dues to the Government; thus rendering do
ties and taxes uniform in fact as well as in
,W|t indispensable to the convenient and
successful financial operations of the Govern
ment in all the departments of collection, sale
keeping, and disbursements of the public rev
Swfh are Rome of the domestic benefits
which the committee fully believe will he se
cured by a National Bank Those which ap
pertain to our foreign relations are also worthy
oI serious consideration.
If it be true that money is power, its concen
tration under the direction of one will, sole or
collective, must augment the power. A nation
without such a concentration of power, main
taining extensive commercial intercourse wit.i
another nation possessing it, must conduct
that intercourse on a condition of tnequa uy
and disadvantage. National Banks, in Other
countries, beget the necessity, iheretore, ol a
National Bank in this country, in like manner
as National Governments in foreign nation*
must be met by a National Government m
ours.
Accordingly, we have seen the influence ex
erted by the Bank of England upon American
interests, when those interests were exposed
to the action ol that Bank, and were lelt wim
out the protection ol a Bank of the l um\I
States. The committee do not wish to he
understood as intending toexpressany j
nation of the commercial operations in "men
the Pennsylvania Bank, assuming the name ol
the Bank of the United Slates, engaged, when
that state of things arose. .
But they do mean to say that the mtefe*
and dignity of the United States demand mat
they should not he exposed, beyond the ne
cessary and legitimate influence of moneta
ry and commercial operations, to theacnon ol
a foreign hanking institution. They believe
that, without a competent Bank of the U nited
States, foreign National Banks may and pro
bablywil exercise an undue and possibly
pernicious influence upon our interests. .
In ibis view of the case, the question is,
whether it is heller that we should he left li:i
hle to be materially allected by a foreign in
stitution, in which we have no interest, over
which we can exert no control, which is ad
ministered solely in relerence to foreign inter
ests, or we shall have an American Baiiu, toe
creature ol our will, subject to American au
thority, and animated by American interests,
leeling s, and sympathies? .
The committee could not en’ertain a dou.it
in such an alternative. And, in reference to
the foreign aspect <*1 the Bank, the committee
thought it expedient to allow-it to deal in lor
eignlulls of exchange, which are the barom
eter of the state of our foreign trade.
In conclusion, the committee think it proper
to say that thev have given due consideration
to the various memorials referred to them and
to the instructions moved by a Senator from
Mississippi. ,. .
They subjoin that wherever, in th:s report,
the committee is mentioned, a majority ol the
committee is to be understood.
All which is respectfully submitted.
ENGLAND.
The following is part of a London letter in
the N. V. Courier and Enquirer.
Since the departure of the Great Western
steamship, the progress ol the political ques
tions has continued to be slow. Tne adjourn
ment of the House ol Commons liom ihtns*
day to last night, tor the Whitsuntide holi
days, caused a suspension ol the debate on
the motion ol Sir li«»bert Peel, for a vote ol
want ol continence iu Ministers, the.de
hate having been again adjourned last night.
the whole House on the subject ol the Corn
Laws*, is on the books lor to-morrow night.
The opinions on the subject of ths success or
failure of the present motion of Sir Robert
Peel vary, but the parties about the clubs at the
we si end of the town, appear to anticipate a
majority of about G m favor of the Govern
ment—this being founded on the supposition
that numerous members who voted against
the Government on the question ot the sugar
duties, will not so vote on the more general
motion of Sir Robeit Peel, The result of the
motion is* however, the less important, as the
Ministers are not expected to take nonce of
even a defeat of that description, hut procee
ding witli the debate on the Corn Laws, with
the lull expectation of being defeated—the
Parliament will he at once dissolved. This
debate on the Corn duties will probably be a
very prot acted one; but the result of the di
vision, w»th all its important consequences
liny he fully expected to be known before
the departure from England ol the next steam
ship.
The direct probabilities are that a dissolu
tion ol Parliament will occur in the course »>l
toe next three weeks—the new Parliament to
meet in about six weeks afterwards—und that
tne new House ot Commons will contain a
large majority ot members in favor ot tfie
pi iciples of free trade. 1 here are already ap
pearances of very powetful agitation in tne
North of England—such persons as Mr. John
Waller—immediately before the announce
ment of the new political questions—returned j
from the manufacturing town of Nottingham, I
having probably not the shadow of a chance I
P) he again returned, after a vote against the j
present miniMerial plans.
Amidst all discusMuns on the Corn question
in tne House of Lords, your readers may not j
recogm/.e an old friend in the person of Mr.
Alexander Baimg, now converted into Lou! j
Ashburton, a Tory lord of the most antiquated
prejudices, and however contradictory to ail
his funner speeches in the Lower House, and
practice as a mei chant, now amongst the most
violent, and through tiie inliueuce of .jL*‘2,0U0,
000 of money—obtained principally as corn
missions in the American trade, and in the
agency ol the Bank of the United States—un
fortunately also amongst the most powerful
01 the enemies of tne principles ol free trade.
iii the general money market ol Lom.on,
the same stagnation continues—because the
same influences are in operation as at Hie
lime ol your accounts by the last steam-ship.
The weekly court of Directors of the Bank of
England was held on Thursday last, at the
breaking up ol which the notice appeared >1
continuation of the rate ol interest at live per
cent, and yet on the following night appeared
the Gazette, containing the monthly official
returns of the as>e.>ls and liabilities of mis in
stitution, exhibiting an increase in the tmliion
of litany X'3uo,uuu within the month, ami the
total amount of gold was upwards of X’3,dou,
Out)—the foreign exchanges steadily, la vora hie
at the same lime—and the weather and grow
ing crops aii of the most splendid description
—and yet a refusal **i the part of the Direc
tum ol the Bank of England either to extern!
the currency or to reduce the rates of inn-r
est on discounts to less than 5 per cent—which
cannot be paid in consequence of the ex
treme stagnation and unprofitable character
ol aimost every department of general trade.
Monopolists are all in the ranks of the oppo
nents of the system of free trade.
In American securities the business continues
to be much suspended—holders of securities
not pressing them upon the market; but there
is scarcely any speculation, and the enclosed
list is only an approximation to the prices, as o!
transactions several days »)ld, but which pro
bably could be realised al the present time.— j
Tne shares of the Bank of the United States ,
were swld on Tuesday at X3 7s. Gvi. for *200 j
share*; ami yesterday X*3 it's, was obtained
lor a smaller number. No transactions have
taken place this morning, but parties appear
willing again to recede to X‘3 7s. Gd. Except
ing a sale of $JO,OOC New Vork 5 per cent at
31 on Tuesday, there is no other distinct nans
action to report nor is there believed to he any
probability of a movement in the market until
the arrival of intelligence of the proceedings
in the extraordinary session of Congress, or
unless the message of the President should be
important in a financial point of view-tins
document being fully expected by the Cale
donia atearn ship, which Laves Halifax un the
present day. _
FRENCH POLITICS.
From the London Times.
The recent trials, which have brought the
person of the King of the French and the ma
lignant schemes of his enemies before the tri
bunals of France, have excited le^s at'eut.on
in this country thap they deserve to do. i he
'English people are wont to leel as much con
tempt for clumsy calumnies, like those con
| tained in the letters fabricated by an in
famous woman, published by the revolutiona
ry party in France, and imputed to the King,
as they do abhorrence for the jargon and the
atrocity of the hungry regicides, or rather the
miserable assassins, who lurk about Ins pal
ace. But it cannot be a matter of indiffer
ence to Europe to see a brave and sagacious
Prince, inferior to none of his predecessors on
the throne of France in patriotism, humanity,
and political firmness, attacked by the foulest
means which were ever invented by me de
praved leaders of a democracy. It cannot he
a matter of indifference to Europe to know that
I the implacable spirit ol the revolution is still
a.ive and active sn France, prompting expres
sions, avowing principles, and perpetrating
acts unknown to any other age or country,
and to be paralleled onlv by its own terrific,
precedents. As far as the public opinion ol
other countries can have any weight, as far as
the public opinion ofother countries can anti
cipate that of posterity, we feel bound to ex
press the indignation with w hich these pm
ceedings ol the French lactions are viewed m
every country where loyalty to the S».*\t-rt i*rn,
and respect to the Crown are not wholly ex
tinct, where treason is held to f,c as oihoiis .is
it is perilous to the state, and where the reign
ing monarch is guarded by the allection and
gram roe ol his subjects from seciel stauoe.
and from systematic assassination.
’I he triril **1 t he ne \v -.pa pt*r ca i.t*d r ra nc c
lor tiie pubiieali n ol lorged letters, con-i 1 tm
ing sentiments and p.edges which ihe Court
of France disclaims, and w*luch Louis 1 m.
ipp. would scarcely have committed to w.il
11,<r under any circumstances, ended, as
for like is are apt to do, by an equivocation on
the pan of The jury, and the acquittal ol the
defendant. r .
In fact, the question ol menutiicrEicMy ol the
letters and the criminality ol me clot l agents
in the colisp racy could not be brought ht *-n e
the Court, and a iatlute o' justice was toe ine
vitable con equence-a failure whirl) w toe
more h> he regretted, as :t a | "ears to ill i u til
ed an 1 prejudiced minds.to tmord a sort ol le
eognition ofthe authenticity *>t the (.ocuments
and the innocence of the accuseu panics.—
Wlint, however, was completely A1', "
on the trial, proved that contrive! s ol toe most
infamous malignity and dopes ol the most m
11 toil ted lolly had conspired, bj the elmmtery
ol the former,and by the honest credu.ity ol
the latter, to poison the honor ot men' King,
and to destroy the confidence of the country
m his motives and actions, liis curious ihut
t!it*v* shoeM have selected as one ol the topns
most calculated to inf! me the French against
Louis I’iniippevi pretend . promise toaiuiui >n
Algeria as soon as tne Go\ermnent uj t.ie
new dvuasty should lin l itsell stiongenoujti
to encounter the unpepu arily ol that piudcnt
and necessary measure. Whether that pr »
imse exists under the hand and seal of Louis
Philippe or not is a matter of perfect in Iiiier—
ence; it uiviucstionably exists in the d-pioina
. lit. archives of alltFurope, umier me most so
speaking ui the name oi France, com I give it.
The burden and the shame to France are not
that such a prnmi*e should have been made,
but that it ?houid not h ive been kept: and ve
rily she hath her reward! M. Guizot’s disa
vowal ol tlie letters in the Fhamber ol’Depu
ties, and especially ol the part relating to the
abandonment of Algiers, will probably satis
fy no parly. It was doubtless intended to be
peremptory, but it was not exp.icit nor com
plete. Numerous petitions continue tube pre
sented, chiefly cm mating, however, from the
enemies of die existing order of things, to in
duce the Government to direct a prosecution
of the piinctpai agents ofilns plot belore the
courts ol'law of tins country, as the French
secret societies formed in London appear to
be the hotbeds in which tins ami nth *r detes
table sc.hemes of fraud and rapine arc regular
ly connected.
To the same source—namely, to the foreign
democratic conventions sitimg in me slums ol
St. Giles’s, or the garrets of St. Pancras—
many of tlie most impoilant acts of t! e leagu- j
edhinarchists an i assassins have likewise been
traced, whose extraordinary and lemciou, ■
projects iiave just been brought before the
|(Chamberoi Leers ami the public, on the trial j
I of Oarmes, Duclos, and Considere, for the i
! attempt on the King’s hie, made in October j
last. It is didicult to repress a smile at the j
childish inanity of these would he uibu.ies, !
I with tiieu agrarian law, their their rigid* of
[man, their more than heathen impiety, and
[their matchless ignorance of all the laws t»y
| which human societies exist. In tins country ,
[such opinions are not more regarded than a ,
poisonous fungus growing at the lease ol some
istately tree; hut in France the venom of me
parasite injects me s.j;i o{ the nation; and
there are men bid and wild enough to murder
their {sovereign and disoivc society h/r ihe
sake ol an experiment which woti.d noila-g
a day, though in that day it would blot out
France Iroin the rank of civilized nations.
Noth.ng in the woist parts <d tlie icign ol 'it- |
ror, is worse than the language ol tht-e
wretches. They boast tin t they will grill ihe |
King’s heart; and again, that their besom to
sweep ihe cobwebs bom tne i iidvnes >hi:i
he his head upon a pike! Their acts do not ;
belie their menaces.
We would willingly regard these expm s- i
sions as the outbreaks of some horrible tm m
ol insanity, limited to a lew individual ini- ,
macs. But the evidence on ibe trial ol i'ara.cs
proves more lu ly tli.ni on any previous -a i
sion, tmil these comes are combine*. by i.u
merous and active societies of men, by ivn<*:n
tlie extremist piincipies id anarchy me iinif
served ly protested. 1 hese iie>perate as-ail
antsol the King’s life, are goaded on bv the
more cautious and even more mini mcipied
party who assail ids cliaracnr; and ai uo-.i^h
we are persu.ded B at the vast major ty ol tee
French nation recoil with di gu>t from the
raw murderers, whose fatal stroke has h- ea
often averted by the compassion ofiVovulei ce :
j we are led to believe that the cliects « ! ihe j
'slander so industriously circulated have been
liar more deplorable to tlie great mierests of
! the Frencfi monarchy.
Neglecting the Antecedent.—><>!ne ve- i
ry wimtisicul instances of tins occur continu
ally, esjiecially m the answers of witnesses, ,
when tjiven hteraliy as they speak. In a re
cent assault case, for instance, trie prosecutor i
swore, that he (tfie prisoner) struck we wan j
a broom on the head till he broke the to: oj it. ■
in narrating an accident some time since, we
s.nv it stated that, a poor old woman was run
overby a cart n/ed sidy. So in a case of.
supposed poisoning, he nid something in a.
bine paper in ins hand, and I s.i w liiin lean i.,' 1
hen l over the pot and put it in. Another of
circulating base coin, he snatched the half j
dollar from the boy icfti^'t he swadoiccd.— ‘
Here “which’’ seems to mark the boy, not trie
money, but still the sentence re i : • incorrect - •
I v. An old I d otv, who for sev* era years si
co;nhU't:olc matches, ha*’ tire loin;w a** b -
invariable :• *i.I.e : '* v\ ill you buy Mime « aicli
es of an id.l man made uj the bi»t h’.udnj
wood”—N. U. Bulletin.
LUNATIC ASYLUM AT STAUNTON, V.%.
Urorn tlit? Staunton Spectator June •>.
We had the pleasure of witnessing thedis- ,
charge of two more patients, as cured, Irom
this institution, on Saturday. Or.e of them
was a sturdy old firmer, whose case present- ,
ed nothing remarkable, unless it be the simple
circumstance that one whose pursuits are so
healthful and exhiiirating, and whose world
ly condition was to all appearance so comput
able, should have become the victim of spleen
and melancholy. But not so the other case;
in the language of the report ol the humane
and intelligent physician recommending t!;e;r
discharge —“it constitutes one ol the proudest
triumphs of which the institution can boast in
its eilorts to achieve the noble designs for
which it was established.”
The case was that of a lady, who, accord
ing to the testimony of her ac jiiaintances, hud
always possessed a miid and uniform dispoH
lion—was industrious in her habits—social in
her feelings—and had for many years been
remarkable for her Christian virtues and de
portment. She was a member ol the Church,
mid was looked up tons a sliming example ol
(ioillv pietv and Christian cheerfulness. A
hout lil'teen years since, her physical lieu.'.i
became infirm, a ini tor eight years, althougu
not confined to her bed, she continued an in
valid. In the autumn of irTJher health ami
strength declined more rapidlv; and she tv as
suddenly deprived of the use of her upper and
lower extremities, and her back became >o
feeble that she was unable to sit even in bed —
and in this piirate condition, without the
power to use her feel or arms lor any pm pose,
or even to maintain the sitting posture for one
hour at a time, she continued lor seven long
years. Her mind alone seemed not to he impli
cated in the general wreck, hut continued se
rene ami tranquil, until some time during the
P,$t summer. Her spirits also continued
cheerful, and she bore her contineineui and
suilenug u nil the utmost resignation, in May
l'p', however, being worn down by disease,
ami having ahuiidoiieo all expectation or hope
of iw provement. and feeling entirely sanguine
that tl;e »oys and happiness of i leaven .i wad
ed her release, from the sufiermgs winch had
ufllicted her in tins world, sue expressed a
wi-h for tb*:ith, and finally grew unj»;il.ei.t, of
delay. About this tune (July last,) hei bram
began to s y mp iiiii'C wilii ifie gentrul nervous
disorder, and its action became morbul. She
now reflected u| on lier previous anxiety lo
die, and construed it as an act nt rtbt.i.ous
murmuring—ami, instead ol stopping at tins
point, as she would have done at other times
ami turler other circumstances, to supplicate
foti.iver.ess at the tin one of gracershe ga ve
way to despair, and one delusion alter nno i„
took possession ol tier mind. But, we cuimi''.
to.low her, if indeed it would be proper to do
so, through all her fearltil wamieungs. It i>
enough to add, that she attained at length to
that st-.r.e, when she was prepared, to bay, tliat
any change.
“Be it what it may, or Miss or torment,
Annihilation, dark ami endless rest,
Ur sovie thead thing man’s wildest range ol
thought, ....
jp.'/a never yet conceived, that change d
dare
Which makes me any thing but what I am.*
Yet even that poor refuge was denied her
in her delusion. 'She thought ahe could not
In this condition she was brought to the
Asylum dining the month of November last.
Her frame could not have been more emaciat
ed, and except during her maniacal jarox
'\r:is. she was almost void ot muscular power,
i>r. ambling at tiist he>hated as to the pro
pnetv of attempting to allay her excitement,
thinking that in all 'probability when that mi!>
'ided.stie must die. On consultation with her
WaspVtdeVahreto lift T^en VdTuYii.mTa ijd'shd
v is accordingly put under that system ol med
ic;,! ;i j i«{ mot a | treatment winch her ca^e
seemed to ietjuire.
‘•It wouhi he exceedingly interesting, (re
maiks the Physician in Ins report.) could we
follow litr through ihe various stages of her
progress—waidling the happy eilect ol reme
dies—observing the alow but well marked
improvement in her physical and mental con
dition—witnessing the almost irrepressible
struggle wiicii she makes lor seli-control
seeing one delusion alter another unwillingly
release its hold —until we dually hear the ex
clunation bursting forth liotn a heart bg
j with graiPuJe, “ 1 hank God that there is
j such an Institution as this in the World !:—
i But this pieasti e must give place to tlie more
ie.\'|U!?iie one of summoning the individual
I beio.e you,*’ ccc. “You uni he no less as
! loijished than delighted to liud that she lia>
'been transformed into ihe same m:id. iuieih
gnd, l/’hnu.iaa lady, a-, when m former days
•die was the pride of her 1 »uidy, and the or- j
nameni of her sex. ilea son has lolly re- ,
sumed her sway, and dispelled every vestige
ol error and delusion. She i> now i i better
j hy Mcui health I ha u she ha s euj *y ed lor liBeen
v ears. She Is no longer iiclpie>s and prostrate, ,
hut ij comparatively active, industrious and
useful; —in a word, she is Ii< r>if/ asmn.'
'Bins is truly a remarkable instance ol re
covtM y —one winch the interests ol hnuiuiny j
forbid us to pass over in silence-and we a e j
sute that the worthy lady wdl not olrecl to 1
the me we mike of it She I mows how to
sympatiu/.e with the all)irlions «d a muni dts- ;
cased. an 1 now that .she has emerged Irons
Ik i own sore trials -die cannot lw disposed to ;
tvi:hhold ihe hem lit. which a knowledge <-!
her rive nnv aiior*l to < >, 11 * * r ^ simi.arly at- |
II a* led. Weil ma v she exclaim, in view ot
the mysterious dealings <>! Piatvulei.ee to- j
wards her, a - au humtdc Chi i»tian:
Blest Heaven! how a;e thy waysjtK like t!iy
orbs,
luvo veil within each other! N et still we ■
liud
Bii\ judgments are !-ke come*.5, iliat b> !» a/-*,
A it r;g lit, but die wilhiiij w iiU.s t l J mt tty mkk
Cl K S
Are like the stars, winch ofi-tuncs are ob
scured,
But fetid remain *he same hthiud the cion Is ’
| __
: Mon—AYe have received a letter,
savs !h • Moslou I’o.'l, troni a corre-pni lent »n
winch lie speaks in strung' terms of repto*
hat] mol' borrowing in general an I bunk bor
. mwing in particular. He talk> bke a man
who has sullere-i some. He says he l.ved
at one time on the hanks of the .Mississippi^,
ar.d gives the following as a specimen of
the extent to which the practice is carried.
‘•Will yon lend me your axe." you won’t
went to u«»* .t. I reckon.”
*• \\ iiy, Hi »et you take it, seem* you want
it.”
In about two months the owner (lies want
to i;>e his axe, and applies to the borrower
i I ;t, but //? h s not g >l :t; “ihe last he seed
on*t Mr. Fletcher had it to cut some roots
with.”
The poor owner then goes to Mr. Fletcher:
‘Stranger, have vou^een my axe; 1 lent it to
Mr llenl t*'»tner day 1n
“Why ye*. I reckon Mr. Mower’s got it;
he said he wanted it to chop <ome li ewood,
mi l le:it u to hnn. Vou’d best ask him for
it.”
! Je z jl*<: “Mornin’, Mr, M r.ver—how's your i
w i!<*'*’
‘\f„]ve!v, I reck >n—flow’s vonr::.'”
‘*About right. I reckon—have you had a ,
hold o’ my a xe.' !
“I reckon i nave. I hnvp smashed tie* ban - !
die-* -f v;:: S a J *wp;l .a \'*e;ik Of If-hi’ VOUC'M
mend h: a: I wl •* . vui'w doop witfi u i u j
like t»* h<>’ ; •».v iI again, V. i uve 1 ua vi* a :r* 11 l j
eh i;tce *i< v.o > i ;JCUI Jiui want to u.c u ope J
cially.’ ‘
FOURTH OF JULY IN CHARLKSa'uWV
VIRGINIA.
At a meeting ol the citizens of ' Yarh-'t mvm,
at the Court-House on F riday evening li^, i ir.
J. J. H. Struith m the('hair and H. N. t ,3. tl.
her Secretary.) the l'oiiowinj resolutions were
adopted:—
Resolved, That tins meeting is deep'v ::.<j .
red with a settle ol duty to t:.t* great Renelac*
lor of mankind, and liiied with gratitude to
our ancestors h»r the great achievements of
the memorable Revolution winch secured to
u» tlie blessed liberty we now s;» ha;»|i’ 1 y en: v.
Reno Vtdy That the approaching anniver^ry
ofour independence be celebrated in anajpre.
priate manner.
Resolved. That this meeting select and ap.
point a committee of to.da to nuke suitale
1 a 1 range men is !or the cay.
Resolved. 'limitin'. meeting elect a su’a.
b!e pel son as the Orator ol t!,e d.av^a^oa
reader ol’the I >ee!urau< n of Independence,
and invite the ministers of the Oosju ofU,e
Tow n lo assist.
large an:> small farms.
There is no mistake more imnmon i;or
I more injurious, than that of supposing if(at
I the moie lam! a man holds, ihc greater mat
; be ins profits, for the profit dots out ar.be
Grom the land itself, hut from the nuiwtr of
usins it; for the best soil ntay be made un
productive by bad management, while li.e
worst may be rendered profitable by the op
posite course; but ict'hout *u]fici(nt cajitel
no land can be proper hj culticateJ: at the
same lime, there is nothing to wine.: capita!
can be applied with greater ceitamty <: a h r
return tor liberal expenditure, w hen correct.y
employed, than land. In lact, assuming al
ways that the expenditure he imecti with
judgment, it will be found that the j ro/.t u, .
li.e outlay increases in mod* than a propor
tionate degree to its amount; thus. suppOM:;
tuenlv-!ive dollars be tne lowest am liny ti,*
ingi.est sum that can be employed m the com
mon culture of the > mu* acie ol land, j
more than probab’e t bat it twenty -live do..a:>
return at the rate of ten per tent., t!»e fifty
dollars Will pit bi twenty, or m> .avrn te.tc
sum. at the same progressive mm*. Ami a.’
nutting tl i' to he true -aim *1 a pusumed u,
experienced aiiriCUilui a .a; ^* *• * 'at il*.t
ollows, that a capital of live tl ous i doi u
expended m tne ciiiiivali >n t: ! '.vo Lunaicd
acre >, will only y ield a pi ofit of five hun ied
dollars, u hile, il apj lied to i e • w <««
hundred acres, it vvoum pi. 'j e *rr»e ill • m ;
dolla r>: 11 ere to v. it is evidt '■ <' it
would be inert i ed by dun .
of his land. Many a r. ; ii ^ . :. n u;;: j)
a large farm, o* ho mm.il n »ve epa o n a i tit
petency with one ot Unit l:»eM/.t. ou5t m
mere are anxious lor large o»« *»j atu-ia, and
many are thus bet raytui into tie ei roptak ng
a greater quantity ot ground th >u they Live
the means ot nunagir.g to advaidace, some,
in the delusive hope ol acquiring th»• iw ns
hv future saving; others, limn me vanity o',
holding moie laud than their neighbors: i t nee
arises deficiency of stock, imputed n
ami scanty crops, with ail the con»e ui ■ •
of rent in’arrear, wagis ill pant, and det'.i
unsatisfied—distress. duns, and final rum
Wlule he, who prudently commences. *\ *
only such a number ol acres as he ha t.c
power ol cultivating with proper efleet, is tv
tain of‘obtaining the full return from me >
ami not being burdened ujlh more lanu t! •
he can profitably eti;ov, ins eng.igefikn s
within his meaim; and thus, wlule eu •»> 'g
present ease of mind, he lays the sim-t lov
ifation for future posterity. It theielore
Loves a man to weigh we.I the marges u •
his means, and never ado'.v lunaei. t » »><
miceu i•} j '•<*.,i i^u^uuct • ■! gam, into ' l>
imprudence ol enfeoog upon a nt/'.er 'll
than Ins properly will euab.clrun to iiiiilt'
witti the spirit necessary l<» i/; ure sti ve- .
JJritisli I!usbamfry.
CAN Mil: .SPIN r
The iiilo\viiipr appropriate remarks are from
the Boston Transcript, ani are worthy oh an
attentive perusal:
This (piesiion was a^kcd hy Kin^ James 1.
when a vouiii’ tiirl was pie t nte«l to him, ani,
the person who introduced he , boasted ol he.'
prolinency m the ancient languages. “ i can
! d>>iite your Majesty.’’ said he, ** that she ca a
! >, c . k amt write Balm, meek. an.; ! iehrew "
*• i ht-M* a re rare a tlai ei 5 for a damst
sari Jam* s ** t tit pray led i. e, can she s a.'
Alaiiy of tiie \ tiimj ladies ol the present <;a .
can boast «>1 their >ki ; m the h.e arts at.
polite acco.i.j.i.'sl.menis, in music, p.unti l,.
! danci but can tl ■ v n wbat is n
a j propi la te to the tia.*>and the Mio*letn nu
provemt o’> in ia hoi machinet y it :u o
he asked,cun they i ei Jorm tin’ dona sue duke
ol a v'.nle do they oi.k rotund the manage
ment ol homeho d allairs ? Aie lliev c.ipio
ol .'Upermteudind in a to iicpms. prudent, a:
I’C.mniiiiiMi m imic: tl.r concernsul a 1 .new
A \<mii.' l.uiy mav he .• u ’lcd m the aiicic.>
an i modern lnn_:ua_es, may have made t*'
trnordiunrv proliocncy meve.y hi audio,
teraltirt*: tfil" !s all verv weii, aid vei v* «»
it tide, and to a cei tun c * - s »•! the cummin. •
tv, vvIjo are not old pp 1 as was >1. P.na, M*
hi no i* with t h* i r o ,v .i i cmd s,’ i ■> ail that is id.
so y r< juisite, but to a mu h large! I
ol the community, it is <d lar g-eater con*
♦juence to know whether '.."j can -pm.
If is ol more iiilpoi tanee t * a V«un ' u.erhar
ic, or a merchant, or one <d any otn. i *
I he peop.e win) dep**mi > pon their own i»i*.‘ uS
try a i;*l extt tiou ■ il he ma mesa vvde, to i:n v e
one w ln> know > li > v to . . i * »r P'florin >’
dome ticdut ■ than me * e It
• l<>es not exf* li • beyond a p»*tie;enc) m .• -•
a lure ami foe line ait».
It has often l*een s:*i.i that the bates are
*r;i( c!v ,Tt*re*i; ai. i cert . i it t t-i.w
Ie • ie are. If was once t iot t
to tie eo:ist-ni!Iy emp *>>e ! in <.;:•• •’ * *v -
cation ; hu*. now a-diys ;t . * 11»*»^14
in moi a b e to be 1 lie. Ic*»n«p. un e
h.u'tl pf !;‘t1 > ol a , j l!.** Iieces ' ll »e > «»» *
witii muc t But il the nouut ol
ness cot. .! he caiculavd acem it* iy t .10 ..
out ti.e com.PiUi.i ->» •** u‘. *1 ’ tned o
price lor the >erv.<'«'.•» w:,;cli ...■> ut ,p.
!orm, and winch «»:;.> ns :• re p > 1 i I ,r, it f* > ■ •
he a safe ca left a lion to »*>t mate A ♦••pi.
ill .f Is expended f»r | rovi ;on an i marke -
in the United St it* 1 So it is not a litt e n i
cons.stenl to Pear p .rents com plain a h »•
price ol pr »v; .oils, uhdet.ey hrm : u;^
da uylitei i to v .1. k ti.e it eels a nd ex pen-. t:,u
ney.
J,et the fa.r d ni.rn!erf of our rouitry . i
late the in lu matrons *>l the p*M. i • •
j cimj>aino;.m (>! thu- j who loujh * m luc • * 1
! |iiijf»ri ‘.vere inured to hardships, ant ;
■ i'listoined to necessary to::, an ! th'i- •! f the.*
j educate their datwhlers. ! leath, cofitenta-ti
land plenty. smiled aroun ! the family
i i he damsel who wnderslo > i most t.‘i •. ’
| and economically the m:i:r»L,*,v;ent ol »: ■ »ev
j tic allairs, an i was not all aid tu I’d
| inmi-' into the waslroh, or toL-yha l 1 1 '
liistall.” lor iear of dctroyiu.M. • r i ‘>'ch
| and tiimmui;' their snowy uh :enes't v. ■
j s oii»iit hy v■ »ti y men of iho^e days as a • •
I Com pa iiioii 11»r Jde, hot in m idem ’.nu
j learn the m> >teri's *d :hj hoii-einn;, i ”• / I
j make our I »;r out s lam; :i\v iv; uw i to -a•’*
| conies not into toe code ul *_etr. tv ^
j Industry and Iru^alny will lead to crwe -
luir.cs and contentment, amM e"uv ••
ed wi e ten is greatly to so e« t ■ 1
and >*no »t:» tl.e t •«: fa path in a man’** ' jn,<\
s :h. » i.'ii , \‘i — ;i !■ «s en truly Mid i pea* *'
■ r is as ■ ■ - ■ • ■’* ' ;
• • • , ed "
yhen the 1 >a
storms*
Iretlul .. • hour l '
1 thunder clou! c;;-r.t J whiit.cLtnc hoiu.

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