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VIRGINIA?THE OLD DOMINION.
Virginia, Mother of States and of President!, is the Oldest Ststt in the Union. It Is the Gateway State between the North and South. The 8outh Is in Possession of Resources Calculated to Interest the Home-Maker, the Man? ufacturer, and the Investor. Its Cereal, Fruit, and Vegetable Products, Its Adaptability to the Growing of Grasses, Legumes, and Forage Crops for the Dairy, Live Stock, and Poultry Industries, Its Vast Mineral and Timber Advantages, Its World Monopoly of the Production of Cotton and of the American Production of Cane Sugar, Rice, and Naval Stores, and Its Access? ibility to Home and Foreign Markets, Combine in Making It the Most Po? tential Area of Country in North America, If Not the World. Some Pointerr for Consideration. No State is mun conspicuously favored than Virginia, not only for Ita great variety of resources, splendid elimata, nearness to great markets, school nnd church facilities und for the generous hospitality and chivalric character of Its people, but ulso for the number of patriots and statesmen who have sprung from Its soil, having furnished the country five Presidents, two Vice presidents, eix Secretaries of State, titres Secretaries of War, four Secretaries of the Navy, one Secretary of the Interior, four Attoneys-t'iiie ral, live Supreme Ceurt Justin-, ttl PrssMsBtS pro tem. of the Senate and four Speakers of the House of Represent long UH of men and women prominent in other walks of honor and naefulness. With excellent harbors and navigable rivers, Virginia enjoys pre-eminent waterway facilities for inland and foreign commerce. The State is also renowned f.,r miners! sprints, and natural wonders are many. Its waters, too, help largely to supply Amsrlcan markets with oysters and Ash. Coal, iron and other nwin.mic minerals and metals, building stones and merchantable limber abound. lt contains the essentials of empire in being able to produce all thc requisites of food and clothing for s large population, besides a wide range of staples and luxuries, and water-power in ample supply to grind the Hour to fe<d a continent and whirl the spindles and wheels of a nation's work shops. Vegetation is nol limited to one class of plants, for vines and roots and glasses and trees and ttOWSfS and fruits and cereals of every known American variety flourish with ? beauty and a flavor and a fullness that bless and cheer industry and taits with plenty at horne, besides profit from those who hunger for gooJ things in great cities quickly reuched by car and boat. The agriculture ot Virginia has never been put to anything like its oppor? tunities, in the old time, land was hardly regarded as capital, to be Increased, but, considered as a pan of current expenses, the negro help was the capital. Bren today, land with *oil so improvable and yielding products so valuable is not appreciated at its true value, and prices are trilling compared to values IS .North und Northwest, where climatic conditions and market advantages are poor when considered in comparison with the South. What Virginia needs is well-skilled labor?men with a little capital, farmers, dairymen, frult raisers and poultry men and women, who will handle their business in con? formity with the- requirements of climate and plant and animal growth. Virginia ls right in the middle of the front yard of the Republic, a region aptly described In one of the books attributed to Moses: "A good land, a land of brooks of water, of fountains and depths thai spring out of valleys and hills; a land of wheat and barley, and vines and fig trees, and pomegranates; a land of oil, olive and honey; a land wherein thou shall eat bread without scarceness, thou shalt not lack anything in it." (Deut. An alphabetical summary of fads At-.c.slbility.? Virginia lies midwa; between M..nu- ana Monda and is ver: accessible by rail from any point tn th< United Stales, and by sea willi lin world. Agriculture.? Conditions all favor tin work of the Intelligent and industrious husbandman. -Midway betwei North and South, the Slate produce; ipiss of botn es id it In* rites to its tie-ids those who live in ? colder and harsher climate, as well as who live in a wanner and mort ?'ing region lo cone to this sa? lubrious land ol' eui ii and wine, of grape and hg, of sunshine and flowers, Where lippy mean is maintained through' out itu- year, and where pi follows Industry. The- Man Behind the Hoe" in Virginia, if he keeps tho boa busy, I - happy lot, and ii lu- makes tba hoe do ins duty there wil; never be occasion i"i" the "Man Belum; the Uun" or the "Man Belora tha Sher? iff," lor he will live in pei.ee and pieiity Truly did Capt. John Smith, the ad venturous and dauntless fainer of Vir? ginia, suggest that "Heaven and earn agreed belier to frame a place for man's habitation." Apple.-'.?This staple fruit is cxtensive wn, and there is a yearly increas? ing number e. trees planted. In one oi the Valley counties a J .-year-old orch? ard of 1.1.0 trees produced an apple crop in lyu.?its record year?which brougnt the owner Jiu,Ul).; anothei of .u 10-year ines, brought jtou. in Patrick county there ls a tree of . feel a Inches around which has bonn- 110 bushels ot apples at a sin.lc crop. These . . Ids, but under right care trees can be made to give handsome re-tun Pippins grown in Albemarle county are very popular in tn market The foothill ipted to apples. Asea.? VI contains 4_,<_u square miles, or __,C.u,uUU acres, of which _,__;, is ?? ranks .1 in size ? among the other states, lt is divided into lui counties. lt is pop? ularly known as tho "Old Dominion." Hanks.?In Ult Virginia had 111 s, which number had Increased In liuT to 3U_, deposits naving gone in that period trom J-i.uuu.uuu to |9t, uuu.uuu. Virginia has tho honor of ten State banka ot 4_u In Um Union, with surplus and proiila in ex of capital. In this roll of honor la one with a capital of J_u,uuu, iii. surplus am; profits item i the exceptional amount of $.26,611, placing it first among the min ol' the United States. Battle GUroaiML Virginia was a storm center during the civil war. The num? ber of engagements, which embrace all irmed collisions of hostile forces on Virginia soil deemed of sufficient Importance for a place- In the "Official i 'onfedcraie Armies," aggregate 1.40.; to-wlt: i,0(i4 In what is now Virginia, and 34U in what ls now West Virginia, The State put into the Confedera ,. service 63 nts of Infantry, lu battalions of Infantry, 20 regiments of cavalry, 4u battalions ot cavalry, and 128 batteries of artillery. Federal soldiers from the North are now living in every part of the State. Ths family quarrel ls a hallowed mein-. sussed with y in this era of p ace, when the general good of ihe whole Union is the rn Ot the brave aad the true, Who Itt looking forward have- left re? grets and animosity b Bees,? The- abundance of flowers, sweet With nectar, and tie nu. :;io to make thc . a profitable one for all engaged in IL Betties.?The South excels in wil. and tame vari, ties of berries; some kind or oil,. pring tc fall. Joseph E. Wing, _ well-known writer connected with the Breeder's Ga? zette, of Chicago, ha. a * ries of arti on the- South in that paper during 1.06. In one of which he -poke of Vir? ginia as "A Land of Fat Cattle. Lamb: and Black' ring among othei things: The blackberries here an r and more hui . it ? than any where i have- t.\i r tasti . ann. can guess what thc tea lil.> by the blackberries. Lift up a bus! and take- the lower ones that are sot and ripe; they are like- 'iitlc- globule; Of b iney. 1 ODS day ate three bushel of the.*. b-Bckbei i ar :is I conk estimate, And yet hundreds of othe bushels went to waste! 1 had done rn; utmost, and was content." The straw berry is widely cultivated and goe north la the spring by car loads. Tb raspberry, I Bc in yield. ll ulidia*: Marerial.?The Souther) lumber district ls now the finest li America, and mi part ol the countr; has a larper variety ai 1 supply o' marbles, granites, slates, sandstone! brick clays, etc Cattle.?-It is recorded that on Augus J, 1611. Slr Thomas Oates arrived a Jamestown with "three hundred me and one hundred kin. and other cat tie." In the old days, and even to re cent rears, a cow wa_ a cow if she gav about Virginia is herewith presented: 11 milk. Now Virginia has the largest ri herd nf registered pure-blood short-j .-horns (Durham) in the world, and j herds of Devon, Holstein (the j Dutch cattle of the Revolutionary pe-! l|riod), Jersey, Hereford, Hed-polled, Ayreshlre and selected dairy herds, upi to .50, can be found In her different ? sections The Upper Piedmont region j ls noted for Its splendid export cattle, so popular In the English market. MOUNT VERNON. .\lu__l \ emull, the home of Ut-urge \\_s!i logion, is about seven i.nn-s iruui Aie.aiiUriu, aaa readied hy fre__ent trains uu the electric i iie- tatala has iu uaine froui AU uiirai Vernon, ot the Bri-Us. navy, under ?uoae ce.i__i__d Lawrence Wu-hiugtuu served ni lae West lau,ia, aud who settled here iu t liv. Ike estate passed to George Wa.hi__ toil _j>uu tlie aiuia ul his hruiher. _e_. ^.on greatly improved the properly. i tie mansion is a two-story building, uu feel na _ lu.ly porUCO e_ lending SluDg Ihe Knole trout, ll cuaiuiauds a Lue view ol tue river, ihe lulah is out distant fruiu na- bouse, rac property in l... was suid hy i Wusuiugieii fur >_uu,o_-_- to the L* loitnt \eruuu A.suciatiou, who alill con u M ii. .ai aumisaioil ul __ u uu is charged . ; admission _ud many thousand* ol visitors gu lucre annually, uum that ii ls so ijuicaij .iaJ easily leached. Cement.?Virginia is one of eleven States engaged in the manufacture ol Cortland cement, the great building material of the future. The State has enormous quantities of thu material. from which it is made. Cheep Lund..?Considering variety of products, large yields, high prices, owing to quality and nearness lo great markets, lands in Virginia are the est in America. Churches.?Virginia was first to de (larc for religious liberty from politi? cal control. in no State is there a better regard for religious opinion or a mole general church-going people than In the Old Dominion. All denomina? tions are represented. All stand upon absolute equality In respect to the laws. No special favor to creed or denomina? tion is extended by the State, assuring freedom to all to worship according to the dictates of their own consciences. Climate.?As a place to live in all the \ear round, Virginia has no equal. The summers are not debilitating, and the occasional days of oppressive heal j are succeeded by nights of refreshing The winters are never marked by extremes of protracted severity. ; Snow rarely covers the ground for any len.th of tiiiie, and the number of ; bright, sunny days, even in the winter season, is unusually large. The aver ! age temperature of the State is .6 de , frees The variation is from a mean annual temperature of 64 degrees in the low Tidewater belt to 48 degrees ' in the elevated mountain regions. Coal.?This valuable natural resource duoed to the value of millions of dollars annually. Corn.?This crop, the most universal In the United States, was first produced in Virginia. Corn leads all other crops In value, but cotton leads it in giving ; tins country a balance of trade with foreign countries. Cases of profitable cultivation are common In Virginia and j ither States of the South. Among in , stances reported in 1907 are the fol , | lowing: T. O. Sandy, of Burkvllle, Va, . produced 375 bushels of corn from five] ths value of the corn and stover . I being $.31..5. Thc cost of producing rop was ItS.iS, leaving a profit of 1 1244.7s. David Hindle, of Amelia, Va , produced 339 bushels of corn on of $98.60, leaving . i him a profit of over $50.00 an acre. The' . first book printed, devoted to Virginia,( by Thomas Harriot, who accom-i panted Raleigh's first expedition. It! , bora a very long title, of which the j J following ls the introduction: "A Briefe, , and True Reporte of the New-found! , Land of Virginia," etc. It contained. _;a long article on Indian corn, in Eng-j r Ilsh, "as she waa writ" over 300 years y j ago, and closed with paragraph in . which is seen that the disposition to J boom a country was aa strong then as ,: now: ?The ground being; thus set according |to the rate by us experimented, an Eng> ? lish Acre contelnlng fourtle pearcbes In! n ieiiirth and foure in breadth, doth there ? yeilil In croppe of corn, heanes and [ -.t the least two hundred London j , ? bus helles: When, as In England fourtle I ' baahetloe of our wheate yeelded out oft .such an acre ls thought to be much." ft I Cotton.?This great staple ls grown t ? in southern part of the State. IU sales n; abroad gives the Union Its balance of -trade with Europe. In Ita production ??- j the South has the monopoly of the aj world. Dairying.?Tha abundance of hay and fodder crops for making a large milk flow, the ample supply of good water,! the equable temperature and nearness to paying markets, combine to make Virginia an ideal one for creameries! and condensing factories Defectives.?The State takes good care of ths blind, deaf and other un? fortunates. Education. ? Virginia ranks high from an educational standpoint: It haa a complete system of public Instruc? tion, extending from the primary grades to the university and the technical schools, and many church and private high schools, academies, and colleges. The State University, founded by Thom? as Jefferson, is one of the great educa? tional institutions of the Union. Rob? ert E. Lee became president of the University at Lexington, after the war. The Agricultural College and Experi? ment Station are doing a great work. Industrial training has been introduced into the public schools of some of the cities and towns, and the State I of Education recently made provision for introducing Instruction In agricul? ture into the rural public schools. FIRST AMERICAN BBTTLBMBNT. An outline map of Jamestown Island, 35 milt's up the Jame* river from Norfolk, whet. na M.i.v IS, le.oT, three little .hips, contain ii.k' 108 settlers, nuder thc rn??m?__ of Cnp tjiin Newport, landed, mid tho beginning was wade for the first permanent shettlemest of English-speaking people on tin- continent of North America. Here the pioneers put up s sail as nu awning, snd nailing a board be? tween trees, they made s rending desk for made fur thc first permanent settlement of iii.- Chores nf England, ead heard the first sermon lo tbs Kn^iish tongas sn American soil. Tbs Site WSJ Oral mimed Fort Janna, in honor of tbs King. Later lt wss colled "Jsmes City." nnd still later Jamestown. It ares originally un a peninsula, hut long agu ihe water WSCB/d away the neck which con? nected lt with the mainland. The sile now belongs to a Virginia ladle*' historical so? ciety. Figs.?This fruit ls not commercially frown, but every householder can have them. The tree is hardy, and noted for its long life, even with hard treat? ment. Three crops of fruit grow on the same tree between May and No? vember in many a home garden in many parts of Virginia. Fishing.?Virginia's producing water bottoms exceed any In the United .tates-. Twenty-eight counties are di? rectly Interested. The tidal P. under police patrol. 2,SOO square mile^ Sqoal a .strip mon- than a mile extending from Maine to California. More than &>i.Oijm persons are actively engaged In the fish and oyster Indus iries. which hring an annual lacomi jf more than $12,00",OOO. The I enjoys a license revenue exceeding 1100,000 a year. The variety of food fishes ls large, and thc- hush:' ping fresh, -.md salting and packing ls trowing. The most abundant tish, not sdihie. is the Menhaden, need tor lng oil and fertilizer. (Seo Oysters.) Plowers.?Nature is prodigal In Boral wealth, aad when Intelligent i rendered by the homemaker, beautiful surroundings can he made : iwers which cover the unfilled fields nnd bl blush unseen in rorest dells form no small part of the beauty which makes this land of blue mountains and silvery streams "the fairest land the sun shines on." In iprlngttms every stream is fringed arith blooming Howers and white banners wave on every brae SS. Wild roses. 'erns, rhododendrons, forest pinks and srood violets spring up everywhere, ' ivhile daisies and yellow buttercups : ine every pathway. Of cultivated flow ?rs, everything grows In the open air ] :hat can he raised in a temperate eli- , ?nate. There are no homes, bowers! Tumble, that cannot have beautiful sur ?oundings. Corot Wealth.?The forests of Vir rlnia abound In an unusual variety of | the valuable hard- | roods in such demand for furniture. ?ars, implements, etc. Most of the un? cultivated land consists of woodland racts. Pine forests and cypress iwamps corer vast arcas of the Tlde vater section. This soil favors also he growth of the cedar, willow, locust, uniper and gum, and to some extent he oak?woods that furnish the beat naterlal for staves, shingles, ship lim? ier and sawed lumber. It ls claimed >y those familiar with ths subject, that >y Intelligent care of trees, tracts can >e made to yield an annual Income :qual, acre to acre, of land cultivated o farm crops. In central and western suctions are found oak, hickory, wal lut, chestnut, birch, beech, maple, pop ar, cherry, ash, sycamore and elm. In he higher latitudes are found the hem ock, spruce and white pine. FVults.?When the variety, abund ince and excellence of its fruits arc ronsldered, it is doubtful If any other Hate" leads Virginia. Apples, peaches, pears, cherries, quinces, plums and rrapes are in great abundance, while he smaller fruits, as strawberries, rasp jerries, blackberries, gooseberries snd mrrants are plentiful. The peach, re juiring a somewhat warmer climate, ibounds more plentifully in Middle Vlr ;inia and Tidewater. The eastern slopes if the Blue Ridge are especially pro iflc in grapes. They are of excellent Hiality and flavor, both for table use ind wine making. I-'ucl.?This Is a matter of little con :ern to the Virginia settler as it ia one >f serious Import to the settler on the s/sstsra prairie, and plains. Coal and wood can be had in every locality at iiinimum cost. Gardening.?To enumerate the varle y of things produced would be to call iff a long list, from asparagus, beans, .eels, cabbage, cantaloupes, celery, i u mmbers, kale, lettuce, radishes, spin? ier sweet corn, rhubarb, tomatoes, ivatermelons, etc. Profits range from 1100 to 11,000 an acre. While the snow ls still on the farms of the North. ind the farmer Ls cutting the ice In the drinking troughs In his feed yards, the gardener of the South ls watching his crops grow and preparing to make his first shipment by r-frigerator cars on fast trains to Northern markets. When the Northern farmer ls putting In his first and only crop of the year the Southern garden* t is putting In his second one, his first one having left a taste for more of the same kind In the mouth of his Northern neighbor. In the Northern States, on the parallel of the great lakes, man is barred from his garden for six months in the year. Geographical.?Virginia is separated on the north from Maryland by the Potomac river and Chesapeake bay; on the south it Joins North Carolina for 326 miles, and Tennessee for lit miles; on the west is Kentucky for 115 miles and West Virginia for 4.0 miles; on the east ls the Atlantic ocean; the greatest length from east to west ia 475 miles; the greatest width from north to south ls 192 miles. Gold.?The yellow metal ls found In a dozen or more counties in Virginia Grasses and Forage Plants.?There ls a long list of grasses and legumes common to Virginia, Including alfalfa, beans, blue grass, clover, peas, timo? thy, etc., one kind or another furnish? ing feed, hay and foddar in all seasons. Healthfulness?The mortality tables I of the U. 8. Cenaua for 1900 placed thc ? death rate of Virginia at 11.79 per I 1.000. The average of New England'! is about 15. The preventable dis- i eases, or the more amenable ones, ure ? common to the South, where the ex- t tremee do not bring on the agonizing I diseases of lunga, throat and head, so I common In the North. ' Historical. ? The first permanent ( English-speaking settlement of the ? United States began in Virginia, at * Jamestown, May ll, 1607. ' Home Canning.?During the long growing season, on a well-established ' Virginia farm, there ls found an J abundance of fruits and vegetables ' from early aprlng, when asparagus and ' rhubarb are In season, until winter ap- ' plea are gathered in late fall. The best of the fruit and vegetables may be mar- J keted, but there is often a good deal ' of material which cannot be profitably sold, which often goes to waste. lt is in the utilization of this material that a cheap canning ouflt may prove profitable. ;ior*es.?Virginia ls famous the world -vcr for fine horses. At one time in bone-breeding, Mood and record i-verything; now a more utilitarian time ?iie. and the horse that will pro _UCS the grsatrst profit on his rearing, whether for fhe turf, the road, iii farm or the team, will be sought for in the section to which the bet suited. Horse shows are annually iuld in many towns and cities, and at? tract visitors and buyers from all parts A the Union. Huming.?Virginia is one of the tat tired regions of earth in all that at? tracts sportsmen. In its forests and mountains are found four-footed game ?bear and dear; its wooded uplands ITS the favorite resorts of quail, part? ridge, woodcock and the lordly wild turkey; its marshes and bayous are fre? quented by myriads of migratory wild fowl, and its many rivers and streams ue the haunts of gamey kinds of Ssh. Industrial Openings.?There are nans undeveloped industrial opportuni? ty in Virginia, and every Inducement viii be offered to those seeking to tak idvantage of them. The policy of tho? riate is liberal toward manufacturing nvestments; the various town an [OVSramentl are the same, and people iverjrwhers are willing and anxious to ake stock in approved concerns with iced manufacturers. Kaolin.?This fine form of clay Ip bund in Virginia, with other forms of lay, in large supply, for brick, pot? tery, tile, etc. Lumbering.?Saw mills, planing mills, and wood-working plants are busy n all parts of the State turning tress nto merchantable form. Second growth limber ls being converted Into ties, handles, spokes, etc., at good iroflt. Mail Facilities.?There are 3,400 iMstoilices and 900 rural routes. Manufactures.?These are growing -apldly in importance. Chief products ire tobacco, flour, lumber, meat pack ng, cotton, and leather goods. There ir?- serer*] very large shoe factories n the State, and the locomotive works it Richmond ore the largest in the >outh. The capital stock of the manu 'acturing establishments of the State il for the live year CSflSOS pe ?lod ending with 1905 over $55,000, )00. There ls room in nearly every ?ommunily for some form of profitable ndustry, to handle wood, cotton, wool, eather. Iron, etc. There is a large lt-ld for canneries to lake care of the mtput of berry patches and truck gar t heap labor, fuel, timber ami tater are abundant. Transportation 'SclUtiee, rail and water, ar*; of the ml climatic conditions are such ? udoor work can be carried on he year round. Markets.?It ls not extravagant to ?latin thal 00 other geographical dlvi ilon of the '-artli has a more eligible msitiiin in relation with home marlo ts, is well as those of the world, as has Virginia. There ls a downhill haul, BO, SS r> where to the sea, and Nor olk harbor ls one of the greatest on ?arth. A half day's run by rail con mts all parts of Virginia with hird of the population of the United Hales. Minerals,?Virginia presents proba ily the most promising field for invi-st nent In Its vast resources of almost ?very known commercial mineral pred? ict. Building stone, granite, limestone, date, soapstone, mica, clays of all kinds ivallable from the common red brick o the finest pottery clay. Coal, coke ron. lead, zinc, tin, copper, manganese, lyrltes, arsenic, gypsum, salt, baryta, narble, asbestos, gold and sliver are ill found more or less In paying quan ities. Mineral lands can be acquired it the most reasonable prices, and ?very facility is offered to induce capl al to undertake the development of t hese products. I fl 1 tl I v tl CONTINENTAL FROST LINES. The map herewith glren shows Virginia ?oat (leslrahly located between the line of un front ami Ihe region where all nature ls [ir rpi-tua I ly looked In the embrace of ice snd mow. Our tone la that happy medium in a-hlrh exists thc highest emulation In thc aorld. Newspapers. ? Virginia has more han doubled the number of newspapers n three decades ending with 1907, thc otal of last year being 271, as com li rt d with 124 thirty years ago. Nuts.?Nut bearing trees of various Kinds abound In Virginia. The busi iess of planting and cultivating nut ll SS ring trees has reached enough prom? inence In the State to support a month v publication, at Petersburg, devoted to it. Opportunities.?There ls room and >pportunity in the South for more pco The South has material and cli l lvantages not possessed by the North, arel Northern men-are cordially by Southern men to come, and soma today, and help in the great work now under way In developing the re murces of farm, of forest, of mine and of quarry. The enrichment of the South is not a Southern, but an Ameri? can question American mon sood from circumference to center of a vast country and people of other countries are glad to get lt at par or This ls a day of Intelligence, .nd petty differences of opinion ar>- not ss potent for strife as they were yester? day There is no want when men will work. There ls enough and to spare for every worker. It ls hard to define the lines separating the North from the South, and the East from the West. | jj The questions around which a great war once raged have been settled. Oysters.?Gathering shell-flsh ls an Important Industry of Virginia waters. Until recent years, oysters were shipped in shells to Northern markets, but of late shucking plants and packing louses have been established, and huge hell piles are common sights In many acalltles. The planting of oysters is .creasing each year the available rounds for this purpose running Into ds of thousands of acres. Oys ers multiply rapidly. They cling to ll kinds ot articles In the water. An ron hoop with over 10.000 young oys ers attached. wai >p at low Ide. Hard and soft shell crabs are .bundant. and So are clams, and gath rlng them ls a profitable occupation. See Fishing.) Peanuts.?The raising of peanuts ls a iouthern Industry and Virginia takes he had. Tlo> cured linea make good lay, but the nut has the greatest com? mercial value. The yield runs from 50 o 100 bushels to the acre. I'oliiidil.?The State election is bi nnlal; numbers of senators, 40, term our years; representatives, 100, term .rs; legislative session biennial; tl votes, 12; capital, Richmond N^ VUtatNlA BTATE CAPITOL Population.?In 1906 the population vga 1,172,104, or Cs to the square nile. Hank among th, States, 17. In soo there were 166 Incorporated nd towns In Virginia, of which ^4 had nore Utan 1,000 PSOple and 20 of lore than 5,000. ly populat? ed it would have 22,000. 00. Poultry.?Under the odteprehej inn of poultry in Virginia will be .linn! chickens, dicks, goose, turkeys, ls, pigeons and guineas Our is weil adapted to thc bealth wth of ail kinds of fouls, || i freel) all thu j need for Inls and eg ...arni good . tor wild i native of ? sun be found in the roods. Tams varieties of turkeys "ii Nh; geese and ducks ali; also rofitably raised. Th'- duck rarm of ohn W. Mingan, .-a Riverton, Va., ls erhaps th- largt nnual output running na high as 50, 00; ducklings weighing from four to >ur and one-half pounds are ready for ? in nine weeks. A farmer near IfoodstOC-. V;i.. has for many years upplied the Whit... ii,,u.se with eggs, rear Richmond, Va., there is a linn agaged in fattening get se for mar? et, the n;i- idled each year veraglng about 10,000. Public Improvements.--Visitors to . -I cities of Vlr Inia will iiinl tiieio lighted with elec rlclty "i- gas, nnd possessing water ? n.oying not only local tele hone servli iking connection ?1th the surrounding country, SS Well s with cities of this arni other States, ll the principal cities have trolley nes, and service i.? being extended Into rie country. Railways.?Virginia was early in the eui in the building of railways, the tate aiding In t; :ion of rio -.?s than fourteen lines, hut the ven jres did not prove profitable. In 1.90 tie Stats hail t,St*0 miles of track, mich in 1907 had increased to 4,t'00 liles. Rainfall.?The annual rainfall ranges lom 4i? tn 10 Inches, depending upon nallty, from tidewater to the moult? ons It ls fairly well distributed lirough tho entire year. Reports.?No State in the JJnlon pro uc.s aueh a variety of mineral waters intalns such a number of medl Utal springs, situated, fur the most art, in a di it phi nar climate i the most b ii I ,,f thi tine Ridge aini Allegheny mountains, Sering Ideal for summer and saith resorts, some of which are -orld-fainous. There are also delight Root at", ops.?Potatoes, Irish and N i et) turin, nlons, tc, grow bushels and bushels to the ere. Seaports.?The South ls the front ard of the country, and Virginia is ight In the middle of lt, as can be sen by a study of the map of the orld. The railway haul is pratically il down-hill, and therefore following xe lines of Istanca foreign adi must naturally flow through outhem seaports, at least, to countries earest, and these are the West Indies, outh America, Panama, Central Amer :a and Africa, willi an even race for turope and Asia. Norfolk harbor la ne- of the greatest on earth. The outh has advantages In respect to earness to more great world markets ian any other section of the American nlon. The Union is already a potent ictor in world affairs, and when the anama Canal is completed, to which ith has nearest access, the Unlt J States will still have more influence. , ih not the .South be prominent in lis coming greatness? sheep.?Conditions all fav.r sheep usbandry in Virginia. One who knows t>eaks nf sheep as "the best, most ulet, peaceable, Industrious and proii ible laborers, who nearly double their amber annually, demand no wages, do ot steal or commit other crimes, labor sslduously throughout the year, feed nd clothe themselves and their mas irs, make no strikes, utter no com laint and never 'die i; debt to man.' " pring lambs from Virginia farms ring top prices in tne nearby great Ity markets. Soils.?There are all kinds of soils i Virginia, alluvial soils?rich as ream?limestone soils, red soils, and Its soils?colored by fertilising linera)*?loam soils, clay soils, sandy ul , ;.ravelly soils, each and all adapt d to peai Uar crops from those of the arden to cereals, grasses and fruits. I is M - an established fact that it ls osstblc to grow crops without deplet tig the so I. It is known, too, that lek soils jan he cured of their com lalnts, and stubborn soils can be sub ued. It is only a question of intelli ent effort. The U. s. Department <>t .griculture has already made soil maps f a dozen or more Virginia counties. Storms.?Virginia ls exceptionally ree from wind storms and hurricanes, ever having any like those which fre uer.t the Western plains and the States f the Southwest. Such a thing as a welling house being blown over ls a radically unknown occurrence. Swine.?For the raising of swine the asture lands of the mountain districts f Virginia and the South 'titer unusual dvantages, for, beside, the nutritious - ami leguminous plants, there , aleut and aromatic roots tn rRl. h these animals delight. There t a'so an abundance of mast, which upplles food for cattle, as well as hogs, rom early fall through the winter un II the grasses and forage plants spring p with the warmth of the season. The iSSt ls both bitter and sweet. The liter mast ls composed of acorns of he oak trees; the sweet mast ls com onad "f the nuts of the beech, hickory, hestnut and walnut trees and hazel Persimmon, haw, pawpaw, uckleberry, blackberry, dewberry, lulberry, service berry, wild grapes nd other fruits sre greedily devoured y hogs. Thousands of head of these nlmals are kept fat throughout the ntire year by the food which they get rom the natural pastures. The Smlth eid hams Of Virginia are known In he markets of the large cities, and ommand a higher price than any oth r American pork product. Nut-fed tork In any form ls always good. For? ge crops?alfalfa, beans, peas, clover, orghum. etc.?can be produced in bundance feir feed. Taxes.?Land ls assessed for taxa lon at what ls considered a fair cash slue at forced sale. The general taxes for everything will average about $1 on each $100. Title..?The law requires all records and transfers of real estate to be care? fully kept in the county clerk's office of the county where the real estate ls located; mortgages, deeds of trust, judgments or liens of any kind, must also be duly recorded in the clerk's office, or they will not be a lien on real estate; therefore parties buying, need not .fear bad titles, as the clerk's office must show all liens, or they will not bind the land. Tobacco.?This staple ls, in a large part of the State, principally relied on as the chief money-maker. Only one State in the Union, Kentucky, produces more tobacco than Virginia. The "Virginia Leaf," the finest tobacco ralsetl in the United States has a world-wide reputation for excellence. Topography.?Vl.glnia in general outline is triangular, with a southeast ? riv slope, and has great diversity in natural divisions lt Includes a series of parallel belt.- extending from the ocean westward, the divisions rising one upon the other, forming a stairway of ascending elevations, which differ in aspect, climate, soils, geology, and prod.nt:--. There are six of these grand ns; each with sub-divisions. Be rlnnlng sith Tidewater Virginia, hav? ing an elevation of about loo fest, ths divisions become higher and higher throuj Virginia, Piedmont la, Kino Ridge Virginia, the Valby, to Appalachia Virginia, which has an elevation of 1,500 feet. Trucking.?In the seaboard section, extensive tracts are devoted to truck fanning, an industry which annually sends millions of dollars worth of gar? den and farm vegetables and products to the markets of Baltimore, Philadel? phia, New York and .Boston. The large shipments are in the winter. If red bv hours, the Norfolk region is within 12 hours of 20.000,000 con? sumers. (See Gardening.) Vnlues.?Landa in Virginia not many ago on the market and no buy? ers, aro now producing vegetables, etc., value of $100 to $1,000 and more re. Tobacco and peanuts bring from $50 to $100 an acre, under proper cultivation. A. L. French, a Northern man, who la farming near Byrdsvllle, Va., In a recent letter, tells of $2,128.50 clear profit on a $3,300 farm, or about 66 2-3 per cent on the investment. But thia was not done with one-crop farm in,- nt- by old-time methods. He says there are plenty of such chances In Virginia. GRANTS BI KING JAMES. Uta of the grant by King James under which America waa permanently settled by .tish. In thc language of John Smith : "Thia Virginia ls a country In America. ? ? Iii,' liiiiuitl. thereof on the eaat side are the treal ee.-an ; on ihe south lyeth Florida; on ? hr Berth Neva '-'randa; as for the west thereof the limitations are unknown." When Slr Francis Drake, in his clrcumnaTlgatlon of tbe globe, touched os the California coast, he called it "the back part of Virginia." Waler Rower.?Virginia has four j navigable rivers tidal to the ocean. I and other streams have their sources in the mountains, and afford in their courses a marvelous supply of water-power, which in this busy age, when every accessory of human Indus? try ls eagerly utilized, gives our State unusual advantages. A very small part of this energy ls developed. No State is better watered with rivers, streams and springs. Wheat.?This great bread making cereal ls profitably grown, and modern roller mills arc to be found in the chief towns. Wild Fruits.?That Virginia is a nat? ural fruit-growing region is seen by the abundance of wild fruits, for in many lections there can be fonud growing in plenty the strawberry, whortleberry, haw. persimmon, plum, blackberry, raspberry, dewberry, a tine variety, of grapes for Jellies and. for wines, the cherry, and the mulberry, and also the chestnut, hazlenut. walnut, hickorynut, beechnut and chinquepin. And these uncultivated fruits are of excellent _aulity. Weights.?The following are the bushel weights of various products in Virginia: Apples, dried, 28 pounds; barley. 48; beans, white, 60; blue grass seed, 14; buckwheat, 52; chestnuts, 67; clover seed, 60; coal, 80; corn In ear. 70; corn, shelled, 56; corn meal, 60; j cotton seed. 32; flax seed, 56; hair, ring, 8; hemp seed, 44; herd grass seed. 12; lime, unstacked, 80; malt. 38; millet, 50; oats, 32; onions, 57; onion sets, 28; orchard grass seed, 14; Osage i,ringi! .ced, 34; peaches, dried pealed, 40; unpealed dried peaches, 32; pea? nuts, 22; peas, 60; potatoees, white or sweet, 56; rye, 56; salt, 50; timothy seed, 4-"<; turnips, 55; wheat, 60. A careful perusal of the contents of this paper cannot fall to Impress In? telligent readers of the soundness and stability and suitability of Virginia and of Alexandria for home making and factory building. We extend a cordial Invitation to the ither States and cities and towns to visit Alexandria and Virginia ee US, anti become our neighbors and help and enjoy the development of our great resources. J First Fveiits in Virginia History. The first president of the Continental Congress was Peyton Randolph of Vir? ginia. The first Attorney-General of the L'nited States was Edmond Randolph Of Virginia. The first municipal gas plant in America was installed at Richmond, Va, in 1852. The first insane asylum and the first theatre in America were built at Wil? li urg, Va. The first electric street raliway in America was put in operation at Rich? ill,,nd, Va., in 1882. The first patent for tin roof on houses was bafUSd Sept. 10, 1829, to R. S. Til? den of Lynchburg, Va. The first patent for a tobacco press was issued April 30, 1819, to Edmond Brown of Richmond, Va. The first patent for a railroad car was issued January 18. 18 20, to Charles Willlnms of Richmond, Va The first potent for a steam pump was Issued February 16. 1826. to G. wr Long of Old Point Comfort, Va. The first patent for a steam engine wa* issued August 26, 1791, to Ja_a Rumsey of Berkeley County. Va. TheTlrst free school in America was established at Hampton in 1634. It still exists under the name of the Symes Eaton Academy. The first county in the United States nnamed for Washington was in Vir? ginia. There are now counties, towns or postofflces bearing the first Presi? dent's name in every State. The first representative government in America met at Jamestown, Va., .lune 19, 1619?a general assembly of two members from every town, bor? ough or hundred, besides governor and council. Flour and grist milling first began In this country near Jamestown, Va., in 1621, when Gov. Veardley built a wind mill. Particulars In Bruce's Eco? nomic History of Virginia, volume 2. page 4 S 7. The term "States" was first officially used in a resolution "to declare the United fi,lonies free and Independent St;in s. reported May 15, 1767." to the Virginia convention i.i session at Wil? liamsburg by Archibald Cary. Tlie battle between the Monitor and Merrimac (Virginia) in Hampton Ki,mis March S. 1 S62. was the first ever fought between iron dada It was a drawn light, but it resulted in the change of the na vlei of the world from wooden ships to steel-clad ones. The Declaration of Rights, consist? ing of fourteen articles written by Gewrge Mason, and reported to the Vir? ginia convention May 27, 17 76, was the first in America. This declaration ap? pears as Led fie t No. 2, published by the Virginia State Library at Rich? mond. W. E. DIENELT (fljiljtljalinir (Dutiriatt 108 S. Washington St., Alexandria, Va. Eyes Examined Free. Spectacles and Eyeglasses at Lowest Prices. (Eftatljam IMablps Alexandria, Va. CARRIAGES AND RELIABLE DRIVERS CAB SERVICE DAV AND NIGHT JAS. T. PATTERSON, Manager. JOHNG.COCKEY Confectioner HOME MADE GOODS DEALER IN Musical Instruments, Toys and Holiday Goods __? King St., .leia.ulna. Va. lauio (g. (grtllbortsiH FLORIST tf ALEXANDRIA. VA. GROWER Of* ROSES. CARNATIONS. VIOLETS. CHRYSANTHEMUMS. ETC Greenhou.es: 40,000 Square Feet Under Cia.. HUNTING CREEK ROAD Funeral Orders Given Prompt Attention Orders for Vegetables in Season Henry F. Robertson ll.M.ll LS' ?>tapl*> anJn Sumry (&tatm?B rTNE TEAS. COFFEES AND SPICES Customers will rind a lar^e stock ot Fresh and Canned Fruits, Vegetables, etc., from which to select. 700 KING STREET ALKXAXDI.I.V. VA. T. F. Burroughs, Son & Co. Manufacturer-, of CORN MEAL AND CRACKED CORN MT. VKKNON MILL. ? ?nd Wholesale GRAIN AND FEED DEALERS Family Groceries and Provisions Dealers ana Brokera In HAY, GRAIN AND MILL FEED Dried Heet Palp, Cotton Seed Meai, Glutei. Feed and "Badder Dairy Feed" 932 Franklin, 700-2-4 Patrick Street, ALEXANDRIA, VA. ROBERT F. KNOX Ural ?aia_r Bought, Sold and EXCHANGED 115 North Royal Street ALEXANDRIA. VA. W. M. PRIEST DEALER IN* Groceries, Provisions and Meats Try Our Coffee and Tea Best of Everything Eatable 300 N. Patrick St. Alexandria, Va.