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The Columbia Democrat. [volume] (Bloomsburg, Pa.) 1837-1850, May 06, 1837, Image 1

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I1iavc 6tVor uioii the Altar of Go'd, eternal hostility to every form of Tyranny over the Mind of Man."
VoIUSU'C I
! , aadtees
TT BH A lJACHEr.(jU.hlnVI3.
nr tii Wr.ii m
Am "A Highland Laddie h'card of 'war.''
"riio'illfilit waA diirk, the wihila blew UnJ)
My fircliy fitu whs blinking;
fSays I, I'm almost forty -five,
. And wlmtliavo Iliccn thinking!
Theft filtall I ucil, or shall I notJ
, Khali I I)C lonely ever,
''Ami pjiurn great nature's noljlcst latot
I'll he a bachelor never.
A bachcloi! micli a Useless thing"
, The world Uhb pdsigssing; .
None bharc.) the blank within his hedtl,
To none he is a blessing.
'Ifhq hn.i wealth tome wish him dcrtilj
If poor, he's shunned for ever:
IJ'on riches canllot purchase Mis?)
I'll be a bachcldr rievtirt
Was lovely wdman nol iicMnfi.1
To shard Blir joys and sorrow!
To breathe tliii burning brow ofcardj
To cltccr the light of morrow!
Mutbarhelorf, aftdr nature's Itlwti,
lliir dearest tics they sevdr;
fCo rhild'cii lisp around his bodj
I'll be a bachelor noen
They spedk of joys tfld bachelor knotty,
"VVltL'n whlc U flowing round him;
Hut murk lilm when tile llioriiiiig.diiwns.
What dismal thoughts confound him!
A pair of tongs without a leg,
The snuffers without either,
Are not more useless in their wnyj
I'll bo a bachelor lictdr'i
"OPwIGXlTi-L ESSAY.
Fort Tufc Ciilvmiha Df. mock at.
On tlio Origin and Progress of thP
Arts.
Some useful ttrls nuist be nearly coeval
with the human race; for food, clothing,
antl habitation, even in thc'ir original sim
plicity, require some aft. Many other al'ls
are of sucli antiquity, as to place the inv'en
tora beyond the feacli of tradition. Sever
al have gradually crept intB existence,
without an inventor. The busy mind,
however, nfeustomed to a beginning in
things, caiinol rest lilt it find' df imagine a
beginning to every art. Uacchui is said to
have- invented wine; and Staphylus, the
mixing water with wine. . The bow' and
nrrow arc ascribed, by tradition, to Scyth
ios, son of Jupiter, though a weapon all the
v.orldover.'nwinihg' Is so Useful, that It
musibcJuwopfwith tJorrio illustrious ih
iV.cntor! it was inscribed) by the Egyptians,
ilo tficir goddess Ists; by the Greeks, lo
Minerva by the Peruvians, lo Mama Ella,
wife tclhc first (sovereign Mango Capac;
and, by" the Chinese, lo the wife of their
cmpdror Yao. Marl; here, by the way, a
connection of" ideas: spinning is a female oc
cupation, and it must have had a female in
ventor. In the luintcr-statc men itfo wholly occu
pied .in procuring food, clothing, habitation,
and oilier necessaries; and have no time
nor zeal for studying, conveniences. The
case of the shepherd-slate affords both lime
and inclination for useful arts; which arc
greatly promoted by numbers who arc re
lieved by agriculture ffohi bodily labour.
The soil) hy gfadual improvements in hus
bandry, affords plenty witli less labour than
at first; and thesurplus hands iirc chiploycd,
first in useful arts, and next in those of a
muscmenU Arts, accordingly, make the
quickest progress in a fertile soil, which
'produced plenty witli little labour. Arts
flourished daily in Egypt and Chaldea,
'countries very fertile
"When men, who originally lived in caves
Jiko some wild animals, began lo think of a
Indrd commodious habitation) their first
riouscs wBro extremely simple": witness the
liouscs of the Canadian savages, which
"continue so lo this dayi Their houses,
"says Charlevoix, arc built with ifiss art,
neatness, and solidity, than those of the
btaVei's, having neither chimneys nor win
dows; a hold only is left m the roof, for
admitting light and emitting smoke. That
hole must be stopped when it raiiis or
snows; and, of course, the lire is ptit oilt,
that the inhabitants irfay not bo blinded
with smoke.
To have passed so many ages in that
manner, without thinking of any improve
ment, shews how grftatly men nro influen
ced hy custom. Tlio blacks of Jamaica arc
still more rude in their buildin-'s: their huts
niaOOMsitmu Columbia 'cofnty, fa. Saturday, may g, issi.
ale erected without ttven a hole in the roof;
and accordingly, at home, they brdallio no
thing but siiiokdt
ItcvdilgQ daily produced hostile weapons;
Thd club and the dart arc obvious inven
tions ndt so the )ow atid the arrow; and,
for that rcasoil, it is not easy td say how
that weapon came to be universal. As iron
is seldom found in amine lihd othdr metals,
it was a latd discovery: at Ihd siege ofTfoy,
spears; dafts, and arrows, were headed
With bfass. Mencsthcus, who succeeded
Theseus in the kingdom bf Alliens, and led
fifty ships to the siege of Troy, was repu
ted the first who marshalled ilit army in
batllo array. Instruments of defence arc
mado necessary by those" Of olfcHcc. Triihks
bf trees, interlaced with branches, and sup
ported with dartln tlltlde the first fortifica
tions; fd wliich succeeded a Wall finished
with a parapet, for shooting, in safety, ar
rows at besieger's; As a parapet covers but
lialf the body, holes were left ili the wall: a
lKitlcring-ralri was first used by Pericles the
Athenian, and perfected by the Carthagcni
aiis at the siege of Cades. To oppose that
formidable machine, the wall was built with
advanced pafapdts, for throwing stones and
(ire upon the enemy; which kept them at a
distancdt A wooden booth upon wheels,
aiid pushed close lo the wall, seettrdd the
men who wrought the ballcring-rain. This
invention was rendered ineffectual, by sur
rounding Ihe wall with a deep and broad
ditdll. Besiegers were reduced lo the ne
cessity of inventing engines for throwing
stdilcs and javelins upon those who occu
pied thd advanced parapets, in order to give
opportunity for filling up the ditch and an
cient histories expatiate upon the powerful
operation of the catapults and balista. These
engines suggested a new invention for de
fence. Instead of circular wall, it was a
built with salient angles, like the teeth of a
saw, in order that one part might flank
another. That form of a wall was after
wards improved, by raising rouitd towers
upon the salient angles; and the towers
were improved by making them square.
The ancidnts had no occasion for any
form more dompldtc. This being suffi
cient for defending against all the missile
weapons tit that time known. The inven
tion of caliiion required a variation ili mili
tary architecture. The first cannons were
made of iron bars, forming a concave cyl
inder united by rings of copper. The first
calititln-balls were of stone, which required
a very large aperture. A cannon Was redu
ced to a smaller sizo, by usingiron forballs,
instead of stone; and that destructive en
gine was perfected by making it of cast
metal. To resist its force, bastions were
invented, horn-works, crown-works, half
moons, &c. Sic. and military architecture
became a system governed by fundamental
principles and general rules. Hut all in
vain: it has indeed produced fortifications
that have made sieges horribly bloody; but
artillery, at the same time, has been carri
ed to such perfection, and the art of attack
so improved, that, according to the general
opinion, no fortification can be rendered
impregnable. The only impregnable dc-
fcncc'ls good neighbourhoods among weak
princes, ready lo unite whenever one' of
them is attacked with superior force: and
nothing tends more effectually to promote
such union, than constant experience that
fortifications ought not tobc relied on.
With fdspect to itaval architecture, the
first vessels were beams joined together
and covered with planks, pushed along
with loilg poles in shallow water, and drawn
by animals in deep water. To these suc
ceeded trunks of trees, c'Ut hollow, termed
by the Greeks, moxyles. The tidxt were
planks joined together in form of a mon
oxlc. The thought of imitating a fish ad
vanced naval architecture. A prow was
constructed in imitation of tho head; a stern,
with n moveable holm, in imitation of tho
tail; and oars in imitation of the fins. Sails
wcro at last added; which invcntionvas so
early, that the contriver is unknown. 11c
foro the year 1010, ships of war, in Eng
land, had no port holes for gum, as at pre
PRINTED AND PUHLISIIED BY JOHN S. INGltAM;
sent: thdy had only a few Cannons placed
on the upper deck.
When Homer composed his poems (at
ldast, during the Trojan war,) the Greeks
ate tile flesh of bulls and of rans, not hav
ing acquired ihe art which rd'.idvcs us frbm
the necessity of following their examples
Kings aiid princes killed and cooked their
victuals; spoonssi forks, tabld-cloths-, nap
kins, were unknown. They fed sitting,
(the cuslom of reclining upon beds being
afterwards copied from Asia,) and, like
other savages; thdy w'drc grdat caters: At
the timd mentioned they had riot chimneys,
nor candles, nor lamps; Torches arc frcs
quently lnentloncd by Homer, but lamps
never. A vas'c was placed upon a tripod,
In which Was burned dry wood, for glvirig"
light. Locks and kdys Yvdrti ndt cbininbh
at that time. Bundles were secttfed with
ropds, intricately combined; and hence the
famous Gordiail knot; Shoes and stock"
ings were not early kndwn among them;
nor buttons, nor saddles, iior stirfups.
Plutarch reports, that Gracclm' caused
stones to be erected along the highways
leading from Rome, for the convenience of
mounting their horses; for, at that time,
stirrups were unknown; llidugii all obvious
invention. Linen for shirts Was not used
in Rome for many years after th6 govern
ment became despotic: even so late as the
8th century, it was not common in Europe.
I hales, one of the seven Wise men of
Greece, about six hundred years before
Christ, invented the following method for
measuring the height of an Egyptian, pyra
mid, lie watched the progress of the sun,
till his body and the shadow were of the
same length, and at that instant measured
tho shadow of the pyramid; which donse-
qucntly gave its height. Aincsis, king of
kgyP1! w''o was present at the operation,
thought it a Wonderful effect of genius; and
the Greeks admired It highly; Geometry
must have been in its very cradle at that
time. Anaximandcr, some ages before
Christ, made the first map of tlid earth, so
lar as was then known. About the end of
of the thirteenth century, spdctaclcs, for
assisting the sight, were invented by Alex
ander Spina, a monk of Pisai So useful
an invention cannot be too niudh dxtolicd.
Ata'period df life when tht! judgment Is in
maturity, and reading is of great benefit, the
eyes begin to grow dim. One cannot help
pitying the condition of bookish men before
that invention; many of whom must ' have
had their sight greatly impaired, while
their appetite for reading was hi vigour.
As the origin and progress of writing
make a capital article in the present sketch,
they must not bo overlooked) To write,
or, in other words, to exhibit thoughts to
the eye, was early attempted in Egypt, by
hieroglyphics: but these were not confined
to Egypt: figure's, composed of painted
feathers, Were used in Mexico, to express
ideas; and, hy such figures, Montezuma re
ceived intelligence of tho Spanish invasion.
In Peru, the only arithmetical figures known
wcro knots of various colours, which served
to cast up accounts. The second step nat
uially, in the progress of the art of writing,
is, to represent eacli word by a mark, term
ed a li:ttj:k; which is tho Chinese way of
writing. They have about eleven thousand
of theso marks, or letters, in common use;
and, in matters of science, they employ to
the number of sixty thousand. Our way is
far more easy aiid commodious: instead of
marks, or letters, for words, (wliich are in
finite,) we represent, by marks or letters,
tho articulate sounds that compose wtirds:
these sounds exceed not thirty in number;
add, consequently, the satrfo number of
marks or letters is sufficient for writing.
This was at once td stop from hieroglyph
ics, tho most imperfect modo of writing, to
letters' representing sounds, the hiosl per
fect; for there is no probability that the
Chinese modo was over practised in this
part of the world. With us, the learning to
read is so easy, as to be acquired in child
hood; and wo arc ready for tho sciences as
soon as the mind is ripe for them: the Chi
nese mode, on the contrary, is an insur-
mountablc obstruction to knowledge; be
cause, it being tho work of a lifetime to
read with eascj ho lime remains for study
ing the sciences. Our case Was, In some
measure, the same at the restoration of
learning: it required an age to be familiarized
with the Greek and Latin tongues; and too
littld time -remained for gathering knowl
edge out of their books. The Chinese
stand upon a more equal footing with re
spect to arts; for these may be acquired by
imitation, or oral instruction, without books:
The art of writing with letters represent
ing sounds is, of all inventions, the most
important and the least obvious. The way
of writing ih China makes so naturally the
second slop ill the progress of the arts, that
olif good fortune, in stumbling upon a way
so much more perfect, cannot be sufficient
ly admired, since, to it wc are indebted for
our superiority in literature above the Chi
nese. Their way of writing is a fatal ob
struction to scich'cc; for it ig so rivettcd, by
invctdrate practice, that the difficulty would
ndt be greater to make them changd their
language than their letters. Hieroglyphics
were a sort of writing miserably imperfect,
bill as they made a tolerable shift with these
letters) (llbWdvdr cumbersome to those who
know" better,) they never dreamt of any im
provement. Hence it may be averred,
with great certainty, that, in China, the
sciences though still in ilifaiidyi will forev
er continue sd.
The art of writing was known in Greece
wheii Homer composed his Iliad; for he
t .... .:! . . .. t
gives, soincwncre, a hint oi it. It was at
that time probably in its infancy, and used
only forrecor'dirig laws, religious precepts,
or other shbrl Wdrksi Cyphers, invented
in Ilindostan, were brought into France,
from Arabia, about the end of the tenth cen-
'Ur;' - D'
THE APPEAHANCI3 GV TlflXGS.
Br Old iie.-iriinfetsi
A counterfeit looks very much like a
golden c'oiri; but there" is a great difference
between thdiri, aiid when we" have" fhista.
ken the one for the otlicr, wc feel sadly
disappointed. It is so witli il thousand
things in the world, they arc not halfso val
uable as they seem lo bei
In tiic days of my youth, when playing
with half a dozen of my companions, wo
saw something at a distance as bright as a
diamond. A high hedge, it deep ditch, and
a boggy field, lay between us tiiid thd ob
ject wliich had so much excited our atten
tion. After tearing oiir clothes aiid running
till wc were out df breath, we found iliat
which glittered in tho sun's rays like a dia
mond, to bo nothing more than a bit of
glass a piece of an old broken bottldj
Now I will venture to say that you have
often given yourself as much trouble as I
did, and got nothing better than a piece of
broken bottle for your pains;
When a young man, I oncd saw a beauti
ful blue cloud resting on the side of a very
high mountain in Cumberland, called the
Shiddaw; and I thought it would be a very
pleasant thing to climb up close to it, so I
mado tho attempt. 0 how many times did
I turn my back to the mountaiil, to rest my
self, before I had clambered half way up
its rugged sides! ' I did reach the cloud at
last, but had not inuch reason to congratu
late myself. That which appeared from
Keswick vale a beautiful blue cloud, was,
when I approached it, nothing more than a
thick mist. Not only was it without beau
ty, but it hindered mo from seeing any thing
that was beautiful. Tho lovely vtilley, atid
the magnificent lake beloW me, were com
pletely hiddeu from my view, and I came
down from the Skiddaw in a much worso
temper than I went Up; I was very silly
for thus being put out of temper and I must
confess that since theii, often has old Hum
phrey got into a mist in following out the
inclinations of his heart. How has it been
with you?
What a world of trouble Wd give our
selves to attain what is of little value! and
disannnintninnt enrL'u nn nnrn. ilm Aiilum
of yesterday prevents not the expectation I
of to-day destroys not the hope of to mor
row.
Again i sliy 1iat tilings arc not what tlicv
appear, and we willingly allow ourselves
to be cheated roifi childhbbu to old afro, bv
running after or climbing to Obtain what is
any thing but the thing we take it to be.
0 that we could use this world as not aba
sing it, remembering that the fashion of it
passeth away! But nb! In vain the wise
man tells us of the things Wc seek, that "all
is vanity aria vexation of spirit." In vain
an apostle exhorts its "to set our affections
on things above, noton things'dnthc earth."'
Disbelieving the assertion of the one, and
disregarding the exhortation bf the "other,
wc stilij like children-, run after hubbies
that lose their brightness t'h'e moment they"
arc possessed.
But while we thus complain that tilings
arc not what they appear, are we ourselves
what wc appear to bd? Though I have
been speaking df othdf matters; this th6
qUdstiUtt t wanliid b coiric" ttr. This" qu6i
tion; brought homo to oiif iicartS, is likd
cutting the finger-nail to the quick, taking
a thorn out of a tender part) or Irldded
touching thd apple of tlid dydj btii it is
worth while putting it for ail thai: thhef
people may oppose us, but the eloscst
method of questioning is, to question oup
selves. Are we, then, what wc Appear td
be? For if wc are either ignorant of thd
evil of otfr own hdarts, br railing against
others when wrj art; more gifllty than they
are, it is high time that soch ii state of
things slibtild'bc 'alteircfi.
Were the Searcher of all hearts to put
the inquiry to you and to me, "art thoii
what thou appearest to be?" w"duld Hot the
reply be, "if I justify friyseif, mine own.
mouth shall condemn me' if I say I am pert
feet, it shall also "IfdVc mc perverse: t
will lriy liiy hand Upon my mouth.
fllb' CONFESSION OF blib'TIUS;
Grotius Was' & great itiah. Iis natural
powers were sucli, that at the age of 15,
he had made a vast proficiency in polite
literature"; arid he pleaded at the bar wheft
17. At the age of lie Was appointed
attorney general: He became a public ahi
bassador, and wa3 the companion of kirigSt
Tbwards the dlose" bf his life, at the aif8
df 02, rdileclirig 6ri his' various pursuits dild
engagements, he left this testimony for th6
admonition of tho learned: tflhl Hsittnn pfo
sus pefdidi ilihil tigetido I'abonost; that is;
"Alas! t have Wasted my whole life in Ia
boi'ioUSly ddirig nothing!'''
Lest the readef; itt thd end of his days,
should be forced lo make the same painful
reflection; let him' noW remember what -a
greater than Grotius said "One thing is
Heedful)" and let the securing of eternal
life, according to the directions of the gasp
pel, bd lils first, his chief c'OriCcfh;
Look to the End. Consider we'll tlid
end ih every thing you dothc" e'ftel! not
the Immediate results the mdmdntafy grate
ideation the' apparent gain or advantage
for the time but the end of all your course
of conduct; Look on into the future until
you elearly sec It and ftot iritagiiie lite
consequences afd to terminate in an hour, a
day, a week, a month, a year, or even an
age. The end the end is far beydhd, in
eternity. Few, indeed, iirc file faults or
follies of men which rnddt with nd rctribu
tion here suffering CdrHes with every vicei
as its inseparable companion. But thd
end, I repeat, is not now and it is the end
I pt'ay ydu to consideh
n tl ' il ' Ti
Absdnde lessons small pass'ioiis, and id'
creases great ones; as the wind extinguishes
tapdrs and kindles fires.-
tt is impossible that an ill-natured rnin
can have a public spirit; fof how should he
ove ten thousand men whoever loved one?
A Prodigy. An Irishman" recommend
ing an excellent milch cdw, said that she
would give milk year aftfer year, without
having calves; because it'rstn in the breed;
as she came of a cow that never had a
CALF !
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