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I have sworn upon the Altar of God, eternal hostility to every form of Tyranny over tltc Wind of Man." Thomas Jefferson.
PRINTED AND PUBLISHED BY II. WEBB.
" ' i .
BILOOMSBTIJRG, COLUMBIA COUNTY, PA. SATITRBAV. SEPTEMBER 19- 184.
OFFICE OF THE DEMOCRAT,
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Tor tho Columbia Democrat.
Thcro is nothing on earth, upon which a
truly virtuous and great mind can look with
greater pleasure, than upon the rapid nnrch
of intelligence. The arts and sciences aro
fast hastening toward perfection, and the
world is becoming astonished at its own in
genuity. As tho nttsanu sciences arc being carried
forward with an astonishing rapidity, not a
fow havo given their attention to the compo
sition of poetry, both profane, and 6acred.
This stile is so pleasing to human nature, it
represents any Inportant event whlijijhrf,-,
'greater forc. ";a,Jj o't'liousand. and en-
to empti M.nda of tcn lhousan(l8
tllmoiig the various classes of poctis com
-- positions, that which is addressed to the Su
nrnmc Beincr is thu most important, and
should claim oar serious attention their
"umbers aro copious, and. their.-circulation
extensive. i-wju,ar not only be found
,in every family, but almost every child is
taught to .read them. But alas 1 where is
tliu appropriate iniisio which should always
accompany these beautiful lines, which a're
classed so Ingli, and held so dear ! Is it
unimportant that they should be attended
with any,? What on the face of the globe,
tends more to sofien the heart, sooth the
wind, enrapture the soul, and refine the feel
ings, than strains of well executed, intelli
gcut, sacred vooal music.
It is not a science of modem origin; it
was employed by tho morniny slats io cx"
nltiirg the fame of their Creator, when hu
first called tho earth out of its chao
tic state. Triumphant strains were also
isxng by the angelic host on thw plains of
Bethlehem, whon the announced they birlh
of our Saviour. ,
All pious and good people have cret held
vocal music as m important branch of pub
lic worsln'p; nd all wa now complnin of, is
us present rude stato among an enlightened
people; and because it, has not kept paeo
with tho other sciences of the day, which
have been so generally disseminated amoiiff
us. Thai it should, and heieafier will, oc
cupy a place among the parts of an accom
plished education, is the opinion of more
than one of our illustrious generation.
It is true IhaUyo hear vocal music in ev ,
cry ilireclion, in almost every family, and
certainly in everv chinch; but witness its
lowost stamp. Their compilers knowing
little or nomine mote about music than cv.
cry common vocalist should know, not able
even to examine any books that wore no.
issued in patent notes. Hence thoir tastes
have bordered upou vulgarity, and lhcir
means of access to good works mid authors
entirely cut off, while the pioductions 0
scientific vocalists havo been confined to
the Siotler educated portions of our country.
And that all things might conform together,
we have bren imposed upon by a set of
teachers although deficient in that knowl
edge of the science which is requisite to
impart the necessary information : knowing
but little, and teaching nothing. In this or
der of things, the condition of tho sciene
would not be imptoved, though it wsro
taught for ten thousand years in succession.
The vulgarity of the books and teachers
havo produced indifference and neglect in
the people, and our singing-schools havo
become little else than placos of disgraceful
gatherings; no one caring whether ho ac
quired any inforniaiion or not.
It is a universal praitice among these
teachers to begin their shcools with singing,
and end them with singing; and never more
than a few times in the course of the school
pretend to lay before them any rules, and
many will bo attendants forcetcral quarters
an 1 not as much as know the different qutin
ties of time belonging to the several notes,
It has been thought by many, that but a
slight knowledge of the elements was ne
cessary tor ordinary purposes, .ffo'gelfior
I'enjHW.'Wa considerable inforniaiion
and practico is necessary, before a person
can acquiro the habit of striking any sound
in a piece ot strange music according to the
notes belore him. Moreover, to have
knowledge of the different notes, is uotsuf
ncient tv aired a person to Keep correct
time, lor we even notice deficiencies in ma
ny who arc called good teachers. I: is iu
fact one of tho greatest difficulties to ovei
come, and requires great pains, and nerse
vcring dilligenco in teachers, if they wish
their school to excel in this department; and
wuii mo greatest caro and perseverance
is scarcely possible to atlain the object, un
less some instrument bo used to mail: the
time, from which thoy cannot vary,
C! .1 . - .
omcu mo education ot the vouii?. seems
to bo an object to which greater attention is
paid in our own section of tho country, than
in former years, we may begin to entertain
ii lively hope, that the way is opening for
mis accomplishing science; for it is noer
taught with eiicct to the ignorant.
Wo can conceive of no plan better calcula
led to augmcn tlhe interests of this department
oi science, than tho formation of a society.
Though not such n society as wo havo fre
quently seen formed, composed of each,
and every one, that would but consent to
havo thoir names entered; for we have nev
er seen thetn prove beneficial, but always
terminated alter a very short period, with
out the least improvement. But wc would
say, let a competent instructor be employed
for a length of lime sufficient that a num
ber attain considerable proficiency in vocal
music, so as to p?s a certain examination,
requiring them to answer certain questions,
and perform certain exercises of the voice,
winch shall bo superintended bv tho uri'si.
dent sin 4 other officers of the society, and
directed by tho constitution; and admit new
! members no faster than they attain this ccr-
ken the energies of others, after thoy would
strive to gain that information which would
carry them into full membership. If such
moans and ways were resorted to, our
churches would no longer be disgraced with
vulgar and harmonious music, and socioty
in general would be rendered pleasant and
agreeable, and rifinemonl would be greatly
In addition to the foregoing, wc will give
a detail of a system of teaching vocal inu-
sic, in which the uulhor has followed the
most approved, teachers in part, and added
several important parts which are original,
and well calculated to produce the desired
effect. Tho prepsration consist of scales
of degrees, a pendulum, a pamphlet, and a
The pamphlet contains a concise explan
ation of the olcments of rocal music, de
signed to prompt iho memory between the
lectutcs, which aro given from examples in
tho pesullozzian book; which consists of
examples and tunes, painted m white, and
very large, on black cotton cloths, which
aro sewed together along one edge, and sus
pended so as to be seen by the whole school,
and also that when doue with what is con
tained on one page, that leaf can be thrown
behind by throwing it over the top, which
will briiiff another to view. S:c.
The pamphlet is intended for the pupils
each to havo a copy, and is divided into
13 lessons, the arrangements are new.
hilt thn rnn.Pnt, ,ra r:- - "V WD IfOH!
-wrflasuii ol Boston.
FIRST LESSON AND EXAMPLE.
Tho diatonic scale, consists of seven nri
mary sounds of degrees, five whole tones
and two semi half tencs.
. . o
Brown, and an assault, with intent to mur-
nilinlinr nf flnnli nnln. nml nrp firl imrr
without rcirnrd to timn. Thin rtrnctico will dir. Jnhn Ilrmvn. thn falhnrnf llin nliil
enable tho pupils, when singing strango I deen named, and the husband of Rosanna
. . l n
1 2 3 4 fl fi 1 R
The sounds arc numbered from the hot-
An interval is tho diatanco between anv
The interval from 1 to 8, from 2 to 2.
from 3 to 3, kc. is called an octave.
No. 1 is called the ker or tnnin.
No. 8 is tho enme in nature, the differ-
enee consisting only iu the pitch.
In ascending above ,8, we must call it 1.
and ascend towards 8 again.
In descending below 1, wo must call it 8.
and descend towards 1 again.
I he principal sounds arc 1, 3, 5, and 8.
The semi-toncs arc situated between a
and 4, and 7 and 8.
The eylmbles are applied to tho Nos. of
a t -7 a ?
music, to give every note its proper sound
with ease and certainty.
Another exercise, similar to parsing, con
sists in going tho numbers,lettets, divisions
of tho measures, quantities of the notes, &c.
measure by measure.
The principal order pursued in the school
consists in taking one lesson on ono evening
and giving a full and satisfactory explana
tion, after which n course of questions are
to be answered from tho print in the pam
phlet; to givo an adea what questions will
be asked on the next evening; and with the
aid of tho pamphlet, they will bo prepared
by the next evening to answer tho questions
with the pamphlet closed; when an expla
nation on another lesson takes place. This
order is calculated to rivit the contents of
each lecturo much more firmly in the mind,
than the usual order of pursuing tho induc
tive plan of Pcstallozzi.
In order that tho groat difficulties in get
ting a school to keep good time may bo ob
viated, a weight attached to a cord, in such
a manner, that it may produce a quick or
slow motion, is suspended before the music
It is perhaps not generally known, that the
vibrations of such a motion occupy equal
time; or thai it will describe its longest arc
in the same time that it describes its shor
ter ares. The advantage of this particular
can be immagined by thoso who have had
trials of tsaching without.
Tho scales consist of two, tho ono let
torcd.and the other numbered, and by com
paring the two. will be shown all the varia
tions and changes which tako place in the
Keys, modes, flats, sharps, and naturals.
degraded character in must places through
out our own section of tho country, lint.iin dcirron. u-hiMi win i :..
i . ...
tisitu) ,r iis vm ions churches, wo sohh.in et
or hear aliy thing elso than a very small
number of old and worn out tunes, which
by lhcir perpetual and universal use, and
the rude manner in which they are execu
ted, aro rendered loathsome, and disgusting,
ly pure, aud enable it to perform its music
without Doing anim-od 'with imperfect
sounds, and distraction of lime. Tho names
of tho remaindar who are under instruc
tions, might be registered in the nocicty as
candidate members, but not allowed to'en-
u j - ........ IU Wt
to every person of musil acquirements; Joy the privilcgs of those iu full member
auu IHICIIII Vlllf . ami iimnlornstmir. in umpi.
lionrcr: to which may bo added a set of
senseless choruses ntiil nines, still used by
mtmy, whish not unfrequenfly cause per:
sons of musical tasio to blush.
Now for the reasons why theso things
aro so. One great reason is, because our
CQUntry Ips been flooded with books of the
ship. Another class might also be added,
composed of such, as havo heretofore made
advances in music, but who cannot be de
pended upon to nttend all tho meetings of
tho socioty, which class might be denomina
ted honorary mombcrs.
A society formed upon such principles,
would prove a powerful stimulous to awa-
the scale as follows : 1 fa. 2 sol. 3 la. 4 ta.
0 sol, 0 In, 7 mi, 8 fa.
Every note, in all music, beloncs to one
oi incso numbers; and it is an object of vast
importance, to have their different naturpB
so ingralted in the mind, as to be ablo to
give tho sound of either one. as soon as thn
number is given out. Heuce. aftnr nil dm
questions aro answered, we bcjriu bv taking
M - - Q
a certain sound lor No. l;thon lead them up
uy degrees to Wo. 3, and let them sound 3
several times, until it becomes well fixed
in tho car; then alternate 1, S.sevoral limes.
Wo next lead them up by degrees to D.and
alternate 1, 5; then to 8 ia like manner.-
Theso arc termed tho principal sounds.upon
uiiicn aii regular tunes commonce and end,
aud must bo dwelt upon; until the pupils
can inovory caso gi-o tho sound.as soon as
tho teacher gives out tho number. After the
principal sounds become familiar, the inter
mediate sounds are added inliko maimer
Lessons of figures are also prepared in tho
pestallozzian book, varying the order of the
uiimucrs in ovory advantageous mauncr.aiid
aro intended to be dwelt upon occasionally
lor a length of limo.or until a perfect knowl
edge ot mo nature ol eaoh number of tho
scale is acquired, For this purposo.sovcral
tunes in the pestallozzian bqek are prepared
with fburcs at the top, which represent tho
rights interferes in bringing into ono com
ptiation all, the best tunes throuchout thn
country, for which reason this pestallozzian
hook is wrll calcuhlcd-to be r-retrnect whK
interest. It will afford
oringmg beloro a school !! the best tunes
that are not contained in anv ether isood
work, in reforence to which it is framed.
The present peslallcafzian book is common-
cod with a number of original pieces, which
win uo submitted at any time for examina-
lion and trial, by any scientific vocalists of
good taste. 1 hero has also been composed
to tho moravian hymn, an additional part,
calculated to render that beautiful tuno much
mora interesting and -useful.
Tho times aro prepared in patent notes,
notwithstanding most good tsachers objeet
to them. The author is of opinion that the
simplest and most comprehensive forms aro
always the beat provided they aro tauglit
systematically. The low condition of vo
cal music m such sections where the patent
notes are used, is to be attributed to tho vul
garity of tho books, and teachers, and not
to the forms of the noles.
This pestallozzian book is calculated to
bo sufficient for one qnarter,afler which the
school should use Mason's sacred harp or
eccleclic harmony, which was issued in
patent notes, contrary to the wishes of the
authors, but which stands unrivaled by any
other work over issued from tho press.
WAI. KAIILER. ,
About seventy witnesses wcro'examined,
and after the testimony had bpcu summed
up, Judge Burnside delivered his charge la
the Jury, and in such a brief sketch as this
is designed to be, that addross cannot be ex
pected in full; it however sustained tho high
and honorable reputation ho has so long
held. It embraced a full aud clear view of
all the evidence, and the bearing which that
evidence had upon tho case; ho defined the
nature of circumstantial evidence, and how
far that evidenco was deserving of credit by
a Jury; he agreed with the learned Counsel
for tho defcndnnt,on the danger of this kind
of evidence, and yet maintained tho princi
pie, that when tho several circumstances
were of such a kind as to connect and
strengthen each other.and to present an un
broken whole, it was tho best kind of testi
mony; he admitted that many of the cir
cumstance offered as proof in the caso then
before thorn wore weak and in themselves
inefficient to convict the prisoner, but that,
when viewed as a whole, the several cir
cumstances proved his guilt from tho -manner
in which tho wholo transaction was
performed. It appeared impossible 'that
any ono could have done it, iiuless thoy
were intimate in iho family, and acquainted
with tho premisosjhe who took tho children
but on different prctences,Eliza'clh and Ja
cob for berries, and Georgo and David to
hunt, must have been intimate iu the family
and had tho confidence of the children. Tho
prisoner had this knowledge; had this confi
dence. He then referred to the other testi
mony, the testimony of Mr. Brown.proviug
It is well known, that the law of copy 'he identity of McConaughy, whon ho fired
From the Democratic Standard.
THE LATE MURDER TRIAL.
A brief, but faithful account of the. late tri
at ana condemnation or Robert McCon
aughy, for the murder of the family of
Joitn isroivn of Comwelltowmhip,IIun
I his trial came before the Huiitimrdon
bounty tourt at Us last term. .ludjjo Burn-
sido presided, Messrs. Gwin and Taylor ap
peared for the commonwealth, and Messrs,
Bell, Calvin and Wilson for tho defendant,
tho defendant's counsel being appointed bv
the Court. The trial be.ran on Wndnesdni.
morrting.and tho testimony closed about six
o'clock, P. M. thn following Tuesday. The
Indictment consisted f six or seven counts,
charging him with the rnurdor of Rosanna
Brown, John Brown, Elizabeth Brown. Ja.
cob Brown, Georgo Brawn, and David
at Brown; the testimony of the brothejs and
others, proving tho falsehoods by which
mcuonaughy allured the oldest aon -homo
on the fatal day; thojntradiiilory.'accounW
relativo to the way passed, that day, and.
closed with an appeal to the Jury, that
'whatever were their impressions', ihoy
should fearlessly do their ikity. The Jury
retired for about three quarters of an hour,
and came into court with a verdict of sruilhi
of murder in the first degree. The prisoner
heard the sentence, and dropped his head
and wept like a child; but they were iho
tears of the trembling coward, not of tho
penitent, for the next morning ho ordered
his best friends out of his prison room when
they called to see him, and accused them of
swearing away his life.
Here follows a condensed viow of all thn
cireumstances of this horrid butcherv.as dia.
closed, by the testimony:
On the 30th of May last, earlv in llm
morning Robert M'Conaughy left his homo
auout one bundled yards from his father-
in-law's Mr. Brown to bo to his mother's
on Jacks mountain, about two miles off -his
wife and children went with him they
reached there about half past 5 o'clock, iu
the morning, and got their breakfast. Two
of Robert's brothers having lefi for a grub
bing frolic, a! Eichael M'Conaughy'e, a
brother, living in Hare Valley; that after
breakfast Robert left thero, and until near
sundown was not seen by any one in tho
neighborhood, unless by the murdered: that
on the day beloro the murder ho wont to
Mr. Crotliers, whefe John Brown the ol
dest son was living, Mid told John that if ho
would come home tho next day, and bring
ten dollars with him, old Mr. Brown would
let John have a Colljthat it was well known
to M'Conaughy, that John had long been
wanting to buy that Colt from his fatlmr.
and consequently that ho could tell John
nothing winch was better calculated to get
him home; that John wanted to defer com
ing homo until Sunday, but Robert told him
he would not get seeing the old man, that
on the fatal day of tho murder, old Mr.
Brown left Matilda Furnace, where ho had
been working all the week,, and after pass
ing several persons aud places, all which
was fully and clearly proved, he reached
homo about five o'clock in tho afternoon
having parted with a boy who came from
the Furnace with him, until within three-