OCR Interpretation

The Columbia Democrat. (Bloomsburg, Pa.) 1837-1850, November 28, 1846, Image 1

Image and text provided by Penn State University Libraries; University Park, PA

Persistent link: https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn85025180/1846-11-28/ed-1/seq-1/

What is OCR?

Thumbnail for

I linvn u-rtiunnu tho AHor of Cml. otorlial hostility tn overy form of Tyranny over the Mind of Man." ThnmiM Jeirenon
Volume X.
O'uuiber 33
Suurn siK or Main, a ri:w noons bk
low M ahki:tstiii:i:t.
The GOT. UM1UJ1 DF.MOCll.1T will bt
pnbli.hed ever; Saturday morning, at
TWO DOhl.JlHS per annum payabli
half neurit in advance, or Two Dollars
LVfl., fntla t ' nt iit i tlfifll thp arm
fVo subscription will be. taken for a shorter
veriod than nix months; nor any discon
tinuance pcrmitlcd,until all arrearages
are discharged.
JMl'JillTISliMKtVS not exceeding a
square will be conspicuously inserted at
One Dollar J or the Jirst tlirccinserlions
urn Twenl'u-five cents for even siibsc
niir.nl nscr'li'on. XCT"A liberal discoun
made to those who advertise by they cur
Ij K '' mil S addressed on busmess,must
he post paid.
NOVKMimn 28, '.810.
Till: PAUIl'lO.
Operations of Col, Fremont in Upper
The Washington Union contains a
lengthy and very interesting letter fioin
Col. Thomas II, Hentnn, lelating to the op
erations of (Jot. Fremont, during the last
winter and spring, in Upper California, to
gether with oiheia from Col Ficuiont, giv
ing a graphic and interesting account of hi?
movements, 15. 's letter is necon panift! by
acvetal columns of ntllcial cnricspoiidciicc
between the authorities of Upper (Julifoi-ni-a,
and Thomas 0. l.arkin kq. our Con
Bill at Monterej , lelaiiug to Col. Fremont
and the attempt to drive him from that de
pirirncnt, in the early pan of tho year, by
force of aims. Our limits foice brevity up
on us, so that wo are compelled to omit
even the substance, of these letters, but it is
not in known to our rcadets that the ap
pearance of Col. Fremont and his party, in
that department of California, early in the
year, gave anything but satisfaction to the
aiithorilt's, and this correspondence be
tween our Consul anil Governor Casiro, re
Bulled from a proclamation issued by the
latter peremptorily commanding Col. F. to
withdraw with his men from ths country,
Fiorn tho letter of Col Uenlon, wo leant
that after Col. F. hail crosicd the fucky
.Mountains and the A'leira Nevada of the
Alia California, ho lei his men upon the
frontier, an hundred miles from Monterey
and went alonu to that city to explain hie
object and wishes in person to Gov, Cas
tro. The interview was entirely satisfac
tory, and resulted in permission being
granted him by the Governor to winter in
the valley ol San Joaquin, whero there was
plenty of jamo for his men and prass for
his horses. Scarcely had he arrived in
this valley with his men when reports be
gan to reach him from nil quartern that the
Governor was raising the province against
him he was warned of hU danger by our
Consul the settlers proposed to join him
but ho refused their assistance and taking
position on the buuituit of the Sierra, thirty
miles from and overlooking Monterey, he
nwaitcd the assailants. From this position
he could clearly discern tho movements ol
the foice under Gov. Castro, but after all
their threats they only approached the
camp and Col Freir.ont. not finding him
elf attacked, and determined to avoid col-
i-.,.:., ii. ,ii,.rniincd to retire, and to
nrinpml In Orrnmi. on his intended route
cl the valley of the Sacramento, tho Tab
math laki, and tho valloy of tho Wahla
math river. Accordingly, about tho 10th
of March, he left his position on tho Sierra
dcecended into tho valley of tho San .oa.
quin, and commenced his march by slow
iind casv itngcs of four ami six miles a uaj
intv.-ir,ls DrpiMin. Tho Governor after Ins
return fiom the evacuated ramp on Sierra
issued a proclamation denouncing Col. F
Mid his men as a band of robbers anil High
waymen, and it appears they wcro not even
permitted to teiire without lurther moiesta
Wo copy Irorn Col. Benton's Idler:
'The first letter that wo received from
Oapt. Frnuoi.t, after Ins vMllidrmvul from
Sierra, and from the volley of the San Junu
is dated the first day of April, in latitude 40
on ihc Sacramento river; and though writ-lFor
ten merely to inform Mrs. Ficmont of his
personal concerns becomes important in a
public point of view, on account of milieu"
qiienl events in Juno, aud July, by show.
lug, that on the first of Apiil h" was on hif
way to Oregon that he had abandoned all
intention of returning through any pait of
California would cross the Rocky moun
tains through tit o iVorilicrn Pass on the line
between the Upper, or Kettle Fsihs of the
Columbia, and the Great Falls of the Mis
souri and bo in the United Stales in Sep
tember. This shows that ho had at tin
time, no idea of tho ovenls in which ho was
subsequently involved, and that he had
bandoned the cherished field l his inicii'letl
scientific researches for the cxpn ss purpose
uf avoiding nil offence to the Mexican au
thorities. Of the events in the valley of the
San Joaquin and the cimp on the Sierra, he
spoaKs a few winds, without detail, but de
scriptivc u( his condition, characteristic of
his prudence in not compromising his conn
try Si worthy to be icpci.tid in hUownbin
etiaiic. lie sijs: The Spaniards were
somewhat rude and inhospitable below, anil
ordered me out of the country, after hiving
given rno permission to winter there. Mj
senbo of duty did not permit mo lo fight
ihein, but" wo reiirei! slowly and growlingly
before a force of 3 or -I hundred men, and
two pieces of artillery. iihnut the sha
dow of a cause, tho governor suddenly rais
ed the whole country against me, is-uing a
false and seanduloiis proclamation. 01
..... . i
course. 1 iliu not uaro tn compromise in.'
United Stan s, against which appearance?
would have been strong; but though it whs
in my power lo increase my party by Amcr
leans, 1 refrained from committing a solita
rv act of hostility or imiuoprielv.' Ills
next letter is dated the I I of May, and in
forms me tin, in his progress to Oregon
lie found himeelf aud parly unexiieeledh
itucked bv tho Talmalh Indians tho mosi
warlike of thai quarter had lost live men
in killed aurl wounded and still expected
in be in Ihc Uniled Stales in the month ol
I'liis wai the last letter received from
Col. FituMoNx until the following, of Jul-
USih.from duntprey.otid which rut brought
by Commodore Si.otk. Il is a plain slate
mint nf his movement?, and will bo read
with deep interest. Tho letter of Col. Hen-
ton goes into a lengthy and able re.iiew n!
iho operations of Col. I'., and fully juMilnt.
his conduct against the falsehoods gaseun
ide of Gen. CaHro. Tho Union liul)
syf." 'INOIIlltlg COUIO ou .uuru iiiuuuiau; ..'
T . . I...
lirstnolhing more decided, when ho was
assailed by tho Mexicans more manly,
more hcioiii than his conduct.
Private litter from Colonel Fremont In
Senator Denton, dated Monterey of the
Ma California July L'5, 1810
Musi. in oi' Cau.mi:i.. July 'Jo. 1810.
Mi Dear Mr When Mr. Gillespie
overtook me in the middle of May, wo were
ihc northern hhore of the
l'llt,u III "
Jrcalcr Talmath Ltko. Bnow was falling
steadily and heavily in tho mountains winch
entirely surround and dominate the iiicval
cd valley region inio which we hail ponr-
irated: in the cast and north and west barn
ers absolutely impassable burcd our road:
we had no provisions, our animals weru al
ready feeble, and while any other way was
pen, 1 could not bring myou aticuipi
Mich a doubtful entcrprifo as a passage ol
I-,,,,..!, Miniiiiinins in the dead o
wintct. livery day the snow was l.il'.iiif.'
UtlUII""" "
mil in the face of tho dcprtssing inllcene.
exercised on the people by the loss of our
ne.ii, and the unpromising appearance ol
thing, I j idged il inexpedient to pursue
our journey further llls recti..n. an
dUll -1 111. in " ...j ,
. I., r..i.upn inv step, ami i:u
nit tho views of the government by rn.rn
t ; .1 .. II. in nf ilm Co oral
hut IB roniivr u -
.iter I had scarcely reached the lower
u..,.,MMn. when General Castn', then in
UllVI'MIK - " .
the north fal Sonoma, in the depaninenl or
Sonoma, north ol the by of Sun Fraiicuco
commandid by Cicn. Vallrjo.; dsclare.i ins
iHirrminatinn immediately lo roeeed a-
...... .,,i uf.i.r rtnfeniini. me to pronecd
againal the foreigner spilled m the country
gailiei in", n
for whose expulsion an order had just been
issued by the governor of tho Cbliforntas.
these purposes Castro immediately as-
ccmbled a force at the Mission of Santa
Clar -, n strong place on the northern shore
of tho Francisco bay. You will rernernbci
how grossly outraged and insulted wo hail
already been by this officer; many in m)
own camp, and throughout the coun'.n
thought that I should not have retreated in
March last. 1 felt humiliated and humbled
onn of tho main objects proposed by this
expedition had been entirely deleatcd and
it was the opinion of the officers of the
squidion (o I wa infotmcd by Mr. Gillcs-
pie that 1 could not again retreat consis"
ently with any military imputation. Una
ble to procure supplies elsewhere I had
icnl by Mr. Gillespie, to Capt. ilfontgom-
ry, commanding Hie United SlMos ship of
wai Portsmouth, then lying at Montorey, a
4inall requisition for such supplies as were
irulispcnsibly nccevsary to leave the vallej;
aud my animals wero now in such a state
that I could not gel out of tho valley, Kith'
out reaching the country which lies on ilu
west side of them in an entirely deslilutr
Hiving crefully eximincd my position,
and forcn-t ing, I think, clearly, AU. the
consi-qoences which may eventuate lo
me fiom such a Mep, 1 deter mined lo
lake .-u:h active & anticipatory measure
is khouhl seem to rne most expedient lo
protect my rmlv a"d justify tnv owi
character. I was well swam of 1 1
H'hvh ii'tponibility which I .-Miniuil.
hut I aluo ih terniit'cd llut hnvii.g. one
concluded to do o, I would asMime H
a.ul i s routequences fully and enliroh
i ml I'D ilnooti with the business com
pletely to the end. I iee,iol that, by ;
a dden i mti tu-nr y , I have inly an lioin
f.ir wiiiii ( to sll tiionds, ami lint Mint
fore ft oni the absence of detail, whai 1
-ij lo you will nDl be clwarly uudei
s ood. Cas'ro's fust measure w..s an at
tempt to incite iho Iuil. an Oj)ulaiiou
he Siiaquin andS.icramei.lo valhys,ani
he i e ghboring m-uniaiiu, to bum the
crops of the f. rMgncrs and otht rwi.i'e
pn Cfleil irnmediaiely against thoni.Tiie'f
Indians ars c x t r c m I y nunu'rotivod l''
ticee?s ol this measure would have hue .
eery (It slrocti ve, uu h failed eniiifl
On the 6ih of Juno I decide.) on Ilu
cour.-o which I would purine, and m
mediaitly concericd my opeiations will
he lflivinnern inhabiting I lie S .crimen
id vulliy. A few days afivi war d., i n
of Gasro'j officer, with a parly of Mai
empled lo pa.Madiove of 200 lioises,fion.
Sonoma lo SiiHa Clara, via New Hid
elis, with the avowed puipoto ofbting
ing Hoops into Hie counny: uu me
1 lib. they weie surprised at daylight
in the Consilium- liver, bv a n.iilv ol
2 Irom my camp. The hoi.-ts wck
liken, hut they (ilie men) weie iIimiius"
td iviihoul iniuiv. At davhreaU c t
he 15ih. the mililaiv fort ol Sonoma
was taken by surpri-e, with 9 brans pie
aes of artillfiy, 250 siandsof rnuskeif,
line (it her aims', and a quantity of am-
uunilion. uen. v aii jo, ins oroiner,
(Capt. Vallejo) Colonel Grcuxdon, and
ome. uthei.", weie luken pi ibonei f, and
placed at New Helvetia, a forufind poM
inder ni) command. In Ihe meantime
i launch had rvachediW wlh Ivelia with
.toie.c finm Ihe ship l'ortunouih, now
lying at Verba-Huon.vn Francisco ba.
vN'ews of Gen. CaMio'd pi oceedings d
ainsl tn c in ilaich, had reached Com
nodoro Sloat at Mallon at thn end o
mooih. and he had imineitiaK l
decpatiheil the ship Pirtsmouili loM n
l, it.y, with gcneial instructions lo pro
leei A mi l tean iulertsis in California.
Tin i-o i-nierpiises accomplished,
piocceded lo i he American eelitlemenis'
on the Sanumento, and lliellio del
Anieiieunos lo obtain 1 1 infoi cemeuls ol
mpn and I''fles.
'I he inl'oimalion bi ought by Mr.uiH
leepie lo Cap'ain Monigomrry, in n
uliuti lo my posil ion, induced, thai ofii
cor inimrilia'ely lo proceed lo Verba
Huena, whence he had despatched In
Uunch lo me. I irnmediaiely wro o lo
him, by Ihc return of the lioal, dcsciib
mg to him fully my position and intn
ions, in order that he might not, by
lupposing me lo be acting tinder older
fiom our government, unwittingly com
mit himself in affording me other than
uch O'fi.'tince his instructions
would authorize him naturally I j offer
in officer charged with an important
public duty: or; ;u fine, lo any cilizeim
of the U. S.
Information having re-ached mo from
the commanding officer at Sonona, thai
hi- post was threatened with an at ack
hy a force under Gen. Castro, I raUe.d
camp on the Ameiican folk on the al
'emoon of Ihe 22dj and, accompanied
iy Mr. Gillexpie, al S in Ihe morning ol
ihe 25ih reached Sonoma, with 90
mounied rifimen, having mnichod SO
miles. Out people still lulii the place,
inly one division of Casio's force, h
-qundron ofcivalry, nunilmr 70 uei.
Hid coi.in uidcd hy Joaqirn de la Toi
re one of his host officeia, having suc
ceeded in crowing the stran, Fi incis
co bay. Tins fuicu had attjek d in
idvance paity of twnuly Aoiencai.s,3nd
W4h3 defea'ad with tho los two ki.lcd
mil two or ih.'ou wcnivdid. Iho A-
nnricans lost none. This wss an tin
xpected pin-el; lo ihe Cil forniauv who
hid announced their intentions to dtfea.
otirpttoplu without filing a gun; to heal
out their brains with their 'tupctlros,'
md destiny thorn 'con cucri las puraa.'
They wcru h.d lo u-e this expression
if m the circiimslaiico that u few day-.rt-.vious
ihey had cptuied two tit out
j i on (an fixpiom,) and after woundiug.
n id bound them to Decs, and cut then
o pieces while alive, with an exager-
tion of cruelty, which no Indian wouh'
ie capable ot. In a few flays de la lot
ic was driven fiom the country, havinc
hirely succeeded in effecting his ojcap.
icioss Ihe sttails, iho gunt tix largi
.nil handsome piece.- spiked at tin
'ori on th south side of entrance li
Fraririsico bay, and communication will)
Ih opposite hide entirely bn ken i.fJ.ilw
boats and launches being eithei de-no)
ed or in our posiesaion. Thiee of Cas
io's party having landed on the Sono
na side in advance, woie killed near tin
beach; mil beyond this there was nc
loss either side. In all iheso proceed
ng; Mr. Gillespie acted wiih me.
Wo reached S .noma aiin on Ihe e
veiling of Jul d, and in ihe morning 1
cilled Ihe people together, and poke lo
hem in leUiion In the position of the
counliy, advising a course of opeiaiion
which was unanimously adopted- Call
I'ornia wan dt dared independent, the
.-ountiy pul under martial law; the (ore.
u gained, and i fliei rs eli cied. A plulge
biudii' iiemtlvef tn Mijiport ihe e
meai-urf'S, andob.y lher i fl'ut is, w .f
igned hy those pieMi.t. liiowuon
was placed ui-der my dirtciioii. Set-
ral ofliceiSk from iho Purl iui h wen
pieseiil al I li is- meeting. Leaving Cap
lain Orijfb) , with fill) men in commani'
of Sonoma, 1 left thai place on ihe fit".
nit I cached my r.icimpmenl on i t
Ainerscan Folk in three dayy. U.fon
we arrivtd at that place. Gcneial Cdht.u
Had v acualed S inla Clara, which 1"
had bet n i ng'gfd in for if) ing, em
with a foice of about -100 men, and 2
pieces of arlilleiy, commenced his ie
treat upan Si. Joliu's, a fortified pot-'
having S pieces of arlilleiy, pnneipill .
brai-p. On Ihe evening of the 10 h
weie eh cinfi-ii by 'he i.nivalof an ex
piefR fiom Capl. Montgomeiy, with tht
iiilotiualton that couimodoie Sloat had
hoii-ttd lh(. flig of the Uniled Slates al
Monterry.iand tok"ti posvosion of ihc
counliv. Capt.Monlnonieiy had hoi
ed the flag at Yorba Uueua, and sen
one to Sonoma, lo bo hoisu-d al that
place. Ono also was enl to ihe officer
rnmm.inding at New II Ivcli., request
ing I ha it uvght be hoisted al I lily post,
Independence and the flan ol Ihe U.
States are synonymous leims to ,1H
foreigners here, he northern, which is
the stionger pan, particularly, and or-
cordlng'y I directed the fhg lo be hoist
ed with a salute next morning. Thee,
vent produced great rejoicing among
mr peop'o. The next day I received
n express from Commodore Sloat,
iransmiiting lo mo his proclamation, snd
lirociing mo lo proeeod will, the force
irnler my orders to Monteiey. Tin
regi.-t-rod force, aclinlly in arms, aiul
'inde i my ordtrs, numbered two lain
Ired and iwetily nfl.-men, with one
piece of field artillery, otid ten men, in
ddilion to Ihc arlillery of io girrison
We ware on Iho eve of marching ii i
pursuit of Cisiro when this intelligence!
irnved; accordingly 1 directed ui)
unrch upon Monterey, where I arriv
id ihe evening of 15ih, with i comman.
..I ICO lillemcnaud one piece of arlillen
1 found also there Stockton in comatio
of the frigate Congress, and Adrnira
Sjymour, in command of her Iliitanir
m .j-si)' ship Callingwood, of eight)
guns. I luve been badly intoirupted,
mil shsll scarcely bo able la put you n.
full possession of occucn:es.
To come briefly , to conclusion. Com
m .ilore Slonl Ins transferred Ihe fqua
(lion with California and its appurle
nincrs inlo Iho hands of Coinmodnrt
Siockton, who has resolved to maki
good the possession of California. Thi-
"ffijei approves enliiely of tho course
pursued b) myself and Mr. UiLlespie,
whu, i repent, has been hand in ham
.iihtne in thi buines, I receive.
ihii morning, from Commodore Slock
on, a commission of M jor in the U
S. aimy, lolaiuing command of my bai
alliou, to which a force of SO manor
will bo attached. We sre under ordei
to embark lo morrow moiuiux, o
mutd Hie Cyane sloop of war, and wii
liaembark wt San Uiego, immedialelv
n the mar of Cai-tio. He is now at tin
'uebla da los Angeles, Rn interior cily,
with a force ol-ahout 500 men, suppo
d to be incieasing, The design is I.
lUack him with my force at that place.
Ho has theio seven or eight pieces ol
C'jmmodore Sloat who goes honn
b) way ot Panama, promises lo hand o.
vih! this to you immediately on his at-
rival at Washington, lo which he goeb
lined. It is my inlcuiion lo leave thi
con ni i v, if il is within iho bounds ol
poi.sib.liiy, al (he end of August. I coul.i
then t-uccced in crosnng the Il-ick)
Mounlainf later it would not be poh
blc on account of the snow; and by Ih.i'
lime a turiloiiul government will be ii
op ration here. Your?, very tru'y.
Hon. Thnmis II.. U nlon.
U. S. Senaie,Wahinpion city, D. C.
A correspond. ni ol the New YoiK Mir
or fuiiii-hf-a the l.illowiin; iiithentio mid
arefully repared sreount of Col. Fre-
nont, ol the U. ft Army tlie eeieuraieu ex
hirer ol Oregon and California:
Col. Fremont, -a hor.ii celebrated explo
ration in the i.rtiieresi esi ate now uie
ft 1 1 f .1
heme of universal applause, is a native ol
South Carolina, the sun of a widow, am
die an luted of his on fortunes. I.e'.t an
irnh.in at four veHru of age with a brother
and sister Vi.unger than himself, his uiuih
er, until he ae sevi'ineeu. provided for his
Mipport aud education; at that age he began
in provide foi himeelf, and lor tin so con
ucoled wtlh him. ror three years he
taught mathematics, perfecting his own ed-
ucatinn, and giving all his rarnings, beyond
tits necessary suppuit, to bin mother nnd
die two)otinger thildien. At the age o
twenty', his skill in mathematics procured
him employment on the rail-road exploia-
tions undertaken by the State of South Car
olma, to connect the AiIhiiUc oeenn and tho
0ni" r'V6r' 81 ,ne P"'1" "f Ctiarleston
and Cincinnati and this gave him occupathm
ln Ml m'lll"lalnn,"' region of INorth Laro-
"ntt anU ' n"eo, iimi iirsunorea mm to
.l.l.uillrt.ll I. in, iuu ...ill ... uui.i.i.ciilc i.iu
scientific obscrvRiioiM of the heave.ns aud
eailh, tha he has since extended over o
vast a field. While engaged in this busU
ocas, an in ere we. was made by Congress in
orue brandies of the regular army. Gen
eral Jackson was the President of the Unt
ied Slates, and directed one half of the new
appointments lo ba taken from the class of
citizens; and out of this class the young
Fremont obtained a place among the junior
iflrcers of the Topographical Engineers.'
The wise and patriotic dcclMon of General
Jackson opened t'.ie door for this appoint
'iiont, but il required the merit of the appli
cant lo obtain it. The Topographical corps
ts eminently scienlifii: and the yout.g Fre-
Jiont, never luting been at 'the national
Military Academy had to stand an cxaruin-
ntinn bcfoie he could be appointed. A
uoard of eminent officers examined him.
ile stood the test of this severe ordeal. Ilu
iriumphed in his examination; and thus woo
his way to a place which Ihe euhghicned
patriotism of Jackson hnd laid open to the
con petition of friendless merit. This was
i first fruit a rich one of having been a
eachcr of mathematics. What uu eucmir-
igemeot to young men n-ho have to ad
vance themselves bv their own exernons.'
No sooner was he appointed, than ho
vent into active service in the field, and
ipent the first 5 ear in the Cherokee country
11 Ihe topographical urvc)s, (under Cap
ain Williams,) which the apprehended hos
ililies of tho southern udians rendered tie
essary lo the expectud military operations.
The next year he wai aeni as an assistant
.1 ihe oslebrated astronomer Mr. Nicollet
') the valley of the upper Mississippi and
vas engaged two yean in that remote re.
;ion in aiding that eminent savan in collect
ng the materials verifying the facts and 111
diluting ihe seventy hnimnd meteorologi
nl observations upon which the great hy
Irographic and topographic map of Nicol
el nd Fremont, was constructed and from
vl.ich so many publishers of maps hivo
levied 'contributions,' without ackuowledg
ng the source from which they ciroc
ln 1S-J2, Lieut. Fremont first became
commander of a teparale expedition, and
nxploied the couniry between the Mic-
issippi river and ihe Hucky mounUine,
0 ihe South Pjss aud Fremoni'a Pak
nd the brief, modest, mililaiv and sci
ntific ippori which he made of this e x-
jloraiiou, immediately made his name
known in Europe and America as one
of the diHiiiiguished explorers of Ine ago
n 1S12-M1, he went upon his gi rat ex
uedi;ion lo Oregon and North Cahfor
in; he ofreport which .published by or
ler of CO igiess, i now niiiacliug uui
veisal addition, In 1815, ho has gone
pon his third expedition, determined
upon a complete military and t-cientifie
exploration of all the. vast and almost
mknown legions between Ihe ltocky
mountain a ml 1 lie Pacific ocean,
nil bel ween il 0 Oregon liver and iho
Gulf of difurnia. Tnis expedition n
xprrlcd to contiritie near t wo ) eaic.and
t Micc"-ful ie? nil is looked lo wnh tho
nighetl degree of inlrrcM by all lha
hieniU of fcience in Amciica and 11. En
Peilnps no man of Ins age, m any
count.)', has gone through such an
mount "f labor and exerlion of borlj and
mind as wol. Fremenl. From Ibn ne
nf iwenly the canopy of Heaven has
been his covering the mountains and
plaint-, the lakes ami rivers, from this
Atlantic lo ihr Pacific, from the Gulf of
Mexico lo the head of Ihe Missi .Ji, p ,
have been his home. Hie military re
connaissance in which he was engaged,
became alio scientific explanations; and
geography, botany, Biology ,aslronomyj

xml | txt