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" I have swornupon the Alter of Uod, eternal hostility to ovory form of Tyranny oror Ihe Mind of Man." Thomas Jeflemon.
H. WEBB, EDITOR AND PROPRIETOR. Volume X.. BSOOMSBUIiG. COLUMBIA CObNTY, PA. SATURDAY, DECEMBER 193 184G. O'tinibci iSS President's SSessage. Fellow-citizens of the Senate and oj the Home of Ihptcscntativts: In resuming your luhors in the service ol tilt) people, il u a subject of cuiigriilulmioti tlm there has been no period in our pam history, uIihi the elements of nmiini pri)!"punty have been so fully developed Since your hsl session on iilllicling dispen sation, lias visited our country; general good health has prevailed; abundance tins crown cil ill e mil of ilie husbandman; ami lubur in nil its branches M receiving un ample te ward, while education, science and the mis nie rapidly enlarging the means of suuia happiness. The progress of our country in her career of greatness, not only in iho'vast extension ol our leiriiorial limits und the rapid increase of our population, but in re Bouices mid wealth, and in the happy condi tion of our people, is without example in in o history ol nations. As the wisdom, strength, and boticfieencr of our tree institutions are unfolded, every day adds, fresh motives !o cniilentmeiil, mid fresh incentives to patriotism. Out devout and sincere acknowledgment? nio due to the gracious Giver of all good, lor tli o numberl it blessings which our be loved country enjoys. It is a source of high s-itisfjclinri to know that ihu relations of the United states with ul other nations, with a single exception, tire of the most amiable cliarncter. Mil cerely attached to the policy of peace, early adopted ami steadily pursued by lliis gov ernment, I have anxiously desired to riilu vaie -Hid cherish friemlship and coinmoree with every Foreign I'owei. 'l'ho spirit mid habits of the American people arc favorable to the maiitwinancd of such internutional liar- mony. In adhering lo this wise policy, a pre liminary mill paramount duly oviutisl) consuls in the protection of our national in tcrests fro rn eiicio'ichmunt or sacrifice, and our national honor from repinich. These must bo maintained at anyhazird. They admit of no comprouiise or neglect, and iiiusi he arrupulously and constantly guard ed. In their vigilant vindication, collision noil coullict with foreign I'owers may some times hccuinc uuavnidible. Such has been our scrupulous adherence in the dictates ol justice, in all our foreign intcicouse, th.il though steadily and rapidly advancing in prosperity and power, wo have given no just cause of complaint of any naion, and have enjnyel tlm blesjingi of peace foi more than thirty years. From a policy so sacjed to humanity, and so st.lutary in its efleeU upon our political system, we should neier be induced voluntarily, lo dcpmi,' The existing war with .Mexico was neith pr desired nor provoKetl by the United Suies. On the contrary, ill honorable means were resorted to avert il. After years of endurance of aggnnuted and unre dressed wrongs on our pan, .Mexico, in violation of solomn treaty stipulaihnis, ami of every principle of justice recognized by civilized nations, commenced hiisuliticsrmiil thus, by her own act, forced iho war upon us. Long before the advance of our iirni) to the left bank of the Itio Urar.de, wo had ample cause of war against jlfexieoj and had ,lho United Stales resorted to this cxtroiniiy we might have appealed lo ths whole civil ized world for the justice-of our cause. I deem il to ba my duty lo present to you on the present occasion, a co. doused le view of the injuries we had sustained, ol the causes which led to the war, mid of its progress sinco its cummencemenl. This is rondered the mme nece'saty becaO.se ol lite misapprehensions which have to some ex tent prevailed as lo ils origin and true char acter. I'he war has been represent! "as unjust and unnecessary, and as one ot ag gression on our pari upon a weak and in jured enemy, Such erroneous views, though entertained liy bill few, have been witlelj and rxieneivelv circulated not only at honi' .but have been spreml throughout Mexico and the whole -world. A mure rfleclual mean's could not have been devised lo ru- 'ennrago lite enemy Mill proirael the war than lo advocate anil adhere to tkeir cause slid llius give them 'aid and comfort.' It is a source of national pride anil exult.) tion, lint the groat body of our people havs thrown no such obstacles in the way ol Hie covcrnninnt in prosecuting the war success- fully, bill have shown themselves lobe phi- iueniiy palrioiic, anil ready to vindicate tlieir o n country's honor and interests ni any sacrifice. The alacrity mid prompt- . ness with x-hirb our volunteer forces rush ed to lhe field on their country's call, prove not only iheir pattioiism.but Iheir deep con vietinn'that our cause is iost, 'I'he wtongs which we have suffered from Mexico almost em since she became an in dependent Power, and lhe patient endurartci with which wo havo brim 'irm. me wnn out a tiaiallel in lhe history ol modem civil' , ized natioin. There is reason lo believe thnt if these wrnrigs had been rcsen'ed and resisted in lhe first instanc" "te present n.iniii hv lif.pn avnided. One nut - . ....... .. ! r!iP, liosvover, lermitieu tu pass wnn im- p'uwiy, uluiosl nfcetsarily cncouri?cil the peipotraiion of another, until at last Mcxicoiinsuro ampb reparation lo our injured ciri sroiiieii to aitrlliuto lo weakness and inde cmon on our purl a forbearance which wa Hie nll-spiing of magnanimiiy and of a sin cere desue lo pteseive friendly relations with a sister republic. Scarcely had Mexico achieved Iter inde pendence, vhicli the Unilcd SlMes, wen the lirsi among the nations to ncknowlodge v lieu she cominenced the system ol insuli mid spoliation, which alio has over since pursued. Our citizens engaged In lawful commerce were imprisoned, their veseels, eized, and our Hag insulted in her pons. il money was wanted, the lawless seizure uitl conliicaiion of our merchant vessel mil iheir cargoes was a ready resource; and il to accomplish Iheir purposes it became necessary m imprison the owners, captains. and ciews, it,was done. Kulers superseded rulers in .Mexico in rapid succession, but still tbero was no change in this syBtem ol lepreuuiinn. I he government of the Uni ted Slates made repeated reclamations on neiiaii ol its citizens, but these were anvcr d by new outrages Promises of redress nado by .Mexico in iho most solemn forint were pusinoiied or evaded. The liics and records ol the Department of Stale contain ;:oi:citi3tve piuols of numerous lawless nets- perpetrated upon tho properly and persons ui out citizens by Mexico, and of wanton insul a to our national flag. I bu inloiposi lion ol our covcrnmont to obtain tcdres? was again and again invoked, under circum stances which no nation ought lo disregard. it was Doped ihat these outrages would :ease, and that Mexico would be restrained liy the laws which regulate the conduct ol ivihzed nations in Iheir intctcourso with Hiieu oiner niter ilie treaty ol amity, com ineiei) and navigmion of the fifth of April, 1831, was concluded between the I wo rc public: but this hope soon proved lo be vain. The course of seizure and confisca tion of the property of our citizens; the vio laiion of their persons and the insults to our Hag pursued by Mexico previous to that limn were i.Micelv suspended for even a brief period, although the treaty so c'earl) 'lines the rights and duties of iho respect live parties tint it is impossible to misundor- st'ind or mixiakt! ibem. In less than seven years afler the conclusion of thai trealy out .Ticvances had become ho intolerable thai in he opinion ol 1'iesidcnl Jackson, Ihey ihould he no loogpr endured. Im Ins message to (Jongress, in rebruan 1 837. hit presented litem lo the consideia nun of tint body, and declared thai ' Tin length of time since some of the injuries have been cnmoiiiied, the repeated an I un- ivailing upp'icaiiuns for redress, the wanton .'.hataclcr of siiinu of the ouliages nni li tin piopertv and peisons of our cinzans, upoi the o Hirers and II ig of the United States, independent of leceul insults to this govern mem and people by the laic extraordinary Mexican minister, would jusiify in tun if all nations iiomediate war. In a spun ol kindness and forbearance, however, he re- cnminr-iided repiials as a milder mode ol redress He declared that war should not be user as remedy 'by nisi and generous nation- confiding in then stieiiglh for injuries com unteil, il it can be honorably avoided, and hied, 'it has occurred to ice that, eonfid crini Hit! praseut embarrassed condition ol that counirv, we should act with both wis om anil moderati jii, by giving lo yiexico one moro onnoriuiiits lo atone for lhe nasi neloro we take redress into our own hands. I'd avoid all misconception on the pnri ol Mexico, as well as lo protect our own na tional chaiacter from reproach, opportunilt "lit.tild be given i ll the avowed design and full preparation lo tike immediate satisfac u.Hi il n thould not be obtained on a repott (ion of the demand for it To this enil 1 recommend thai an act be .nssed authorizing reprisals, and the use o die naval loreo of the United States, by the F.xecutive, ag iiot Mexico, to enforce them in the event of a refusal by the Mexican ijovenuneut, to come to an amicable adjust uient o! iho matiers in coniroversy between us upon another demand thereof, made from on man one of our vessels ol wsr on l in coast of Mexico.' Oouiinitices of bothllotif es olCongress.lo which this uiei-saL'u of this ('resident was referred, fully niidamed Ins views of Hie aracler of the wrongs which wo had suf fered fioin Mexico, and recommended thai 'iiiothei demand for redress should be madi before auiliori'jinii war or reprisals The Uommitteu on l'oieign Uelalions nl the Senate, in their report, Bay; 'Ai ter such a demand, should prompt jusuot ho refuted by the Mexican government, w may ant eil to ml nations nnl only inr int iquiiy and moderation with which we shall nave acted towarus a sister renuonr, uui iui lhe nereiiy which will then compel ur lo pk redrel-s lor our wrongf. eiiuer oy amu at war or by reprisals The toibject will then be prtfrnted In fore OongrePf, al Ihf commciitcmeni ol lhe next eetston, in cleai and distinct fuim; and the conimitleeh 'cannot doubt but HiM 6ttcn measures win or ! .!!.., ..! flflnnloit a, mou hn nfipphflnri' to tindicaie the lionoi of Hie country, ontljing a territory contiguous lo our own, nut. iminioiui; au.i.u u - zens. Tlio Commilleo on Foreign Affairs of the House of Representatives made a similar reconnnondalion. it their report, lhe) 'fully concur with the President ihat ample tause exists for taking redre's into our own hand, and believe Ihat we should be justifi cd in the opinion of other nations for taking such step. Ail thty ate willing lo tiy tin experiment of another dcina d. mado in lhe most solemn lotm, upun toe i us lice nl tin Mexican government, bslore any furthei ptneeedings are adopted. fs'o diflerence of opinion upon the sub joct is believed to hue existed in Oongresr at ihat time. 1 he Executive and Legisla t.ve departments coucurted; and yet such has been our forbearance, and desire tu pre serve peaco with Mexico, that tlio wiongi of which we then complained, and whid gave rise lo theso sclemn proceedings, no- only remain ntirodroaseil to thisday,bui'ad dilional causes of complaint, of an aggrava tod characlor, have ever since been accurau lating. bhorlly after these proceedings, a special messenger u-as despatched to Mexico, li- make a final demand for tedress; and on tin twentieth of July, 1837, the demand wa made. The reply of the Mexican govern ment bore dale on the twenty-ninth of the in. do month, and contained assurance of the 'anxious wish' of the Mexican government not to delay the moment ol thai final und equitable adjustment which is to terminate tlio existing dillicullies boiwcen the two gnvcrnminls;' that 'nothing should be left undone which may contribute to the sub- jects which have bo seriously engaged the attention of the American government;' thai the 'Mexican povernmeni would adopt, as the only guides fur its conduct, the plainest principles of public right, the sacred obliga lions imposed by international law, and the chylous faith ol treaties, and that 'whatev er reason and justice may dictate tespecting each case will be done, The assurance was further given, ihat the decision of iho Mexican government up on each cause of complaint, for which re dress had been demanded, should bo com nunicatcd to the government ol the United States by the Mexican minister at Wush- ngton. These solemn assurances, in answer n il r demand for redress, were disregarded l)y making them, however, Mexico obtain ed further delay. President Van lioren, in his annual message to Conuross of fifth of December, 1837, slates, that, 'although tin larger number' of our demands lot redress mil 'many of them aggravated cases of pei- mnal wrongs, have been no for ycais be fore thu Mexican covcrnmcni. and some ol he causes of complaint, anil llioe of tin nosl offensive character, admined of iinine Iiatc, simple, and satisfactory replies, it i? uily, within a few dajs past ihat any spe cific communication in answer lo our last lominil, made five months ago, has been received from tlio Mexican minister,' ami that 'for not one ol our public complaints has satisfaction been offered that but one of the cases of personal wrong has been fa vorably considered, and that but four cases of both descriptions, out ol all those formal- presented, and earnestly pressed, have as ye', been decided upon by the JAxicati government.' President van Murcn, believing that n would be vain to make any further atiempi to obtain redress by the ordinary means within the power of the bxecume, cemmu nicaied this opinion to Oongiess, in the message referred lo, in which lie said. 'On i careful and deliberate examination (I the contents,' fof Iho correspondence wnli the Mexican government.) 'and cnnsideiing tin spirit manifpsied by the Mexican govern ment, it has become my painful tluiy to re turn the subji c as it now stands to Ooi -gress, to whom il belongs to decide upoii ilie time, the mode, and tlm measure ol re dress.' Had Hie United Slates at that time adopted compulsory measures, mid lakcu redress into their hands, nil our difficullier with Mexico Miuld probably have been lone since mljiiMud and the existing war liavi been averu il. Magnanimiiy and moderation on our pail only had the effect lo coinplic.no tlnsa d i IV livulnes, and tender an mineable solilemcni of ihmn lhe more cmbairassing. Thai such measures of redress under similai provocations, cnmmtled by any of thu pnw orful nations of ICurope, would have beei promptly resorted lo by the milled biato canntit be doubtrd, J he national liunoi and the preservation of iho national charac ter throughout the wonu as wen as our ovtv elf-rc f peel, and lhe protection due lo out own riU7ns, would have rendered uch resort indispcneablc. The history of tn civilized nation in modern limes bus pre senlftl within so britf a period to matij wanton attacks upon the honor of ils flag. and the pioperty and person of ilR citizen as had at that lime been borne uy mo uni. led Slates from the Mexican authorities and pvople. u Mexico was a sister republii on the Noilh American conifnent occupy was in a feeble and distracted condition! and these considerations, it is presumed, indue- od Congress to forbear siill longer. Instead Of taking tedetss into our hands, a new negotiation was entered upon, with fair pi onuses on the pari of .wexico, out wnn tnc teat ptwpnse, an lhe evrtit has proved, of indefinitely postponing Hie reparation which wc de inanded, and which uas so luslly due l'ho negotiation, afler mure than a year's lelfly, resulted in the convention of the I llh of April, 1830, for lhe adjustment ol the- claims ol lhe citizens of lhe U. S. ol Amt iicH upon the government ol lhe Ali-Mcan republic. J he joint board ol comnmmonera ciealed by this conven tion tu examine and decide upun hest claims was nut organized unil lit month of Augus, 18-10, and under In feimsolihe convenion hey were,o erinnifie heir duties wihin eigheen mouhs from ha time. Four of he eigheen monhs were coiiMimeil in pieliminary discussion on frivolous and ilia laoiy poins raised by he Mexican commissioners; and it was no unil ho moi,h of Dumber, 18-10, h hey commtneed he raMminaioir )l he claims of our citizens upon Mex ico, fourteen tnonhs only remained to examine and decido upon these nu meroiiD and complicaetl cisen. In hi monl) of 1 ebuary 1S42, lhe erm ol the commission ttfpired. leaving matn claims undisposed of for wan ol lme. The claims which were allowed by ht board, and by he umpire auhorizod by he convenion to .IhciiIp in case of di- greme.i beieen he Mexican and A menem cumnussioners, ainottned lu wo millions weny-sij; hou?ar.d om hundred snd hny-niue dollars and siaryeigh cents. There were pending before the um pire ulirn the commision expired ad, ilitionalcltims which had beeitexamititd nil awjrdrd by the American commis sioners, and bad not been allowed b he Mexican commissioners, amounlin u nine nunnreo ami tneniyeigm tliouh n'd six hundred and twnniy.se.yen dol ar.- oj eighty. eight cenls,upon which In ltd nol tit ride, alleging that his snlhori y had ceased with the termination ol lie joint commisMon. Besides ihesi claiins, there were othe'sof Americai en z-ns oniouiiiirm to ihtco millioi ihrt hundretl and Ihirly 6ix thousand ight hu.idred and ihiriy-seven dollar) and five cents whirl) had been Kibmillei o lhe board, and upon which Ihry hat' not lime to dicide btfuto ihcn final idjcut nmenl. The sum of iwo million." Iweniy-m houb-snu ono bundled and thirty mm iolluj" and sixty riglu rt nls which had been awaidrd to the claimants, was t iqtiidated anil afireitaiticd debt due b Mexico, abrul which iheie could be n I if put p, and which she was bound n pay according to lhe Units of lhe con- vrniion. boon sfier the final swan's (or tins Bmonnl had bren made, lhe Mex can governnienl 8'ked for a post poncmrnt of lhe lime of muking pay. mrnt.. alleging that itutuld be incon- venenl lo make Iho nRvmenl at lhr itnc Mipulaled. In Ihesintli of fot Inur ing kindnt'fs towards a tisier republic, w Inch Mexiro has fo long nl.nsfd, llu U. Siaies )iumpily complied wiih hei lequesl. A e-icond conyrnfion was occoiding ly con.cludt d heiw een lhe iwo govern ments on lhe 30 h of Januaiy, 18-13; which upon ils faro declaief, thai 'ihn new ai ranccmeul is rr.'rred into foi he accommodalion of Mexico,' 1) i he let nif of lhi convention, all lhe in eifft due on thu awatds which hml been made in fivor of the clnimanty tin ier the convention of the llh of A pr il, Iblil), was to he paid lo Hit m on tin 20.li of Apiil, 164l, and Mho principal if lhe said award?, and the in iciest uc ciuing ihercon,' was Mipulatml to the paid in five earc, in .qual insllnienlt evoiy three monihf.' rNoiwiinsisniiing tins n w rnnyen- lion was en eied into by irqursl ofMr x co, and foi the puipose ol it'liiviug htr from unbjirassmenl, lhe claimmHe have only lecelvi d lhe interesl tlue on lie 20th of Apiil, 18-14, and Ihtee of lhe twenty un-ialt tnenli. Although the paymant of ihe mm thus liquidated, ard comenpuiy uue uy mexico io our Cil) - izens as indemnity foi err-nowledged acts of ot trsge anil tu milA 1 1 r. xi .,iune, r.tui.u by treaty, Ihe obligations of which oie ever held sacred by' all just nations, yet Mexico has violated liis tolemnengjge- menl by failing ?nd refu? ng in in la Iho pay man). . The I wo instalments due in A pill and July, 1844, under lhe peculiar ciin.m. stances connecled with ihcm, have be. n turned by the Unilcd Slates mi. I die. .chareed to lhe claimai.t". bul they are mill one oy lwexico. uui this i nol all of which we have jutt c.itine ol of complaint. To provide a ttmedy lot ine claimants wnoso ca-es were not tie cided by lhe joint commission undei me covmiion oi April tlio ilt vi nili, 1830, it was exinessly stipulated by tin sixth article of the lonvenlion of ttu 30lh of Jnuaty, 1S43, lhal 'a new con veuiion shall beenleaed into for the u lenient of all claims of Iho novel uim-ni and citiz-ns of lhe U. S. aumnsi the ie public of Mexico which wore not fnihlls decided by the lale commission, wlnth met in the city of Washington, nnd ot ni claims ol the government and mi- zens of Mexico against the Uni td Stales. In conformity with this stipulation. ihird convention was concluded ami signed at the city ofMtxico ob lhe 12. h ol November, 1843, by the plenipoten tiaries ot ine two governments, by which provision was made for ascertaining and paying ihese claims. In January, ISM, mis convennen was ratified by the Sen te ol Ilie Unitedatales with two amend incuts, ol which were manifestly leu .onablo in their character' Upon reierence lo the amendments pmposcd 'o Iho government ol Mexico, thu same invasions; difficulties and delays weie interposed which havo so long market he policy ol lhal government low iua uia uuiteu aisles. It lias not even yet decided whether it would or would not accedo lo them, al though the subject has been lepeatedly pressed upon its consideration. Mexico lias thus violated a second time- iho faith of treaties, by failing ot refusing to carry into effect the six'h ai iclo ofcanvenlion of Jmuaiy, 18-13. aucn is tno nisiory ot Hie wrong- -ve nave suUeted and patiently endutci from Mexico lluough a long serious o years. So far from ((Tording reasuna 'ile salisfaclion lor the injuries and in ults we had borne, a great aggiavatioi f them consists in lhe fact that wh)l he United Slates anxious to prtseiv i good understanding wilhMtxico, havt been constantly, bul vainly, employee in seeking redress for past wrongs;, new mirages were confianily occuriin). which have continued to irorease oui causes of complaint and lo tvvell the a moul of our demands. While the citizens of lhe U. States were condocling a lawful conimeici with Mexico under (he guaianlee of reaty of 'amity, commerce and naviga tion,' many of ihem have pufTtrtdall he injuries which would hsvo resjiliMliner a government llius nternied they from upon war. I his ttealy, inHead of tiiui.iing pruiecnon 10 our citizen', lias been the mesns f inviiinc Ihem im. he pons of M?x!co lhal liny mighi ! . is ihey have, been in numetous n.ni u 3cs, plundered of Iheir property ai,d ,'o ptivtd of Iheir personal liberty if if. land insist on their lights. Ilml h nniawiui seizuieoi American prop i . ind the violation if peisonal liberi n our citizen.', lo say nothing nf the in.-ulis o our fi g which have ccruried in tin potts ol Mexico,'8ken place on the lul ta, ihey would themselves long mne consiiluted a state of actual war between he two countries. In so long sudeiing Mexico lo vi la'. her moM (-olemn treaty obligations, plun der our citizens of their pioperly, and mpnson tlim peisoin wnhotit i,fluidiot ht n any re drew, we have failr d in mm- furrn one of the first and highest dono which every govern menl owes lo its en zens, and the const qu.-rro hm bn-i lhal many of tht m have bt en mli.tu fiom a stale ol t-ffluenre to bank'tipli The ptoud name ol Ainenran titz.n vshirh ought lo pioieel all who In . r i lioin instill Uni it'jiuy iliinugln tit ih. wot Id, has otfi t ilt'il no such pioi.ciion our ciliZiiiR in Mixtco. W had an pi. cause of war against Mexico loi-u bi Ion ihe bretikiug out of hnmiliiies. Iiu ivei then we foi bote lo lake rediess inio eui own hands, until Mexico hei felf hecmnt lhe H(!f met r by invidingour eoW in hos ii)9 airay and shedding the blood ol otn ' citizens'. Such are the crave cmises of rom ill . . I . 1 . t t piaiui on ine part ol lue United aiat.f againM Mtxirocaiifes which existed long before the annexation of Texas I ht- love of pef-c , and a magnanimoU1 mod. ration, we did not adopt those rnrssur. f of redress winch, under such cirr nmslanrcs aie the justified ttsoil of 'njnieil nations. The annexalion of Ttsos to Iho Uni ted Stales r.onsii'tiled no juil cause of of- Meitro lo Mexico. l he preltxi Ihat it did so is whcHvinronmsienl and irrecon- citable with u til autheniicated facts enn- necifd with the revolution by which Ttxas became ind'pnodenl of Mexico.. Thai litis may be the more manifest,, i' may be proper lo mlverl lo the c-usos mid to the history of the principal, events of lhal revolution.. T.xas constituted' a portion of lhe anm eienl province of Louisiani,crdedi lo Iho Unit, d Stairs by trance in the ye.irl.S03; In the year 1813, the United Siates-by Mel' orida treaty, ceded lo .Spain slli Hal ol Louisiana wi'hin the present Ii- nits of TtKat; and Mexico by ihp revo ution which separated her from Spain, ml rendered her an independent nation u-'ceedtd lo lhe rights of the mo her couniiy over- this leritorj.. In the year 1824, Mexico eslablmh- ml a fedi ral constiution. under winch he Mi xican republic was composed oft' a number of Sjvereign Slates, confeder ated togMher in a federal Union similar lo oui own.-fc'xch Ihest Siale- hid its own executive, legislature, and jndicaty, and 1 ni all, rxrepl fedeial puiposr.", ws a independent ol the general government,, and lhal of the other Siates,. as is Penn . Ivania oiViigiuia under rur own con--nlotion. Texas and Coahula,. united and Corned one of iheseMexican Slates. The Slate constitution which they a dopied, anil which was appioved by 'lie M- Xtean conli tli-racy , asserled ihat' tliey ivtie 'fiee and independent of lhe ojhet Mexican Uniud Suies, and of eny other power and dominion whal- ojevnj.' end proclaimed ine nreal nun- ciple of human liberty, Ihat 'the ov len-gniy of lhe Slate resides-oi ignl y and efsenlially in the general' ni8b if the individuals who compose it." To. he goven menl under- this ransiiinlion - well as lo Ihat under the federal-ron-.ti'ut on,, the people dl 'l'txan owed ai.e i..nre. i'migr'anls from fineign coun'r'ei. in. lulling lilt Uuiled Slate-, were invil. il y the colonization laws i-f-tlif Siaie ai d -ilthe fideral goveinmeutli selllc'in l' xas. Ad Voiiisneous h riiis vere.f- red to induce them In leave iheir own otn.tiy and become Mexican citizen.". This invitation was accepted by tnai y of our cil z -us, in the full faith lhal n heir own new home they would bo governed by laws enacted by icpresti aln ex elected by litems. Ives-, and that Iheir lives, libeity and properly would be protected by consliutional guaranteed dmilar lo those which ihey had lell.Un- continued until Iho yesr 1835, when a nnlilaiy levoltilion bioke out in the cily of Mt x co, which enlirely subveiu ml ihe fed. isl undstale coiistiiulions,mid pl,red a nnlitmy dictator al the head ofi 'he govrriiinenl, liy a sweeping decree of Congress ....l, ..... :-. ... .1 ...ill ..l .!:..,... ., i Biiuc-i uui lu um win ui i il u uitidiui, l u; everi fttutc cunsttiuiimis weie abolished,. and tint States thcmselv. s convened ii.lo, mere departments of the Central Goven uient. The people of Texas were unwi ling tn suhmit to this usurpation, Kcsi lance in sueli tyrany became r high duty le xas was fully absolved from all vlleu mice lo lhe Central Government of Me ho. irum the moment that government had abul- sii.d her state cointuiution, and in its plum -tihginuleil an arbitrary mid dispone Cen tal Government. Such weie iho principal causes of tlvi I'uxaii revolution. The people of Tek hi u once determined upon resistance, and lirw in aims, In the midst ol the important mid excising eienls, howevt r ihey did no. omit in plm e their liberties upon a tecum and pern. mieiit foutiilaiion, J hey elerled 'iieiiit.eis to a Convoniioti, u h , in tint month of .March, 1830, issued a formal ! latxiun ihat their 'polineal rnnnei-in-m wnh lhe Mexican nation was foieui e.nihj,, 'ml tiiat ihe people of Texas do rnii cno-., miiiiie a l'ree, Sovereign, and Independent fepiihlip, and are fully mvisitd with till the tights and mtnhuie ulfh pioperly belong io inilfprriil. nl naii.nis. They nl--.0 tdi'pted for their gottriimerit a liberal lepnhliei n rons'iniiion. About ilie same time Santa Anna then, thediciatni of Mexice, invaded Texas with a numerous ariry for the purpose of subdu ing her people, and enforcing obedience to his in binary mid despotic, government. On the 2lt of A pit). 1630, he was mel by the lofexan ril'zen sold'eu and on that day waa