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Columbia Democrat and Bloomsburg general advertiser. [volume] (Bloomsburg, Pa.) 1850-1866, May 27, 1865, Image 1

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ryoL. 19. NO. 13.
' BMtimoro, Md.
J -a .
The 'Only PImc where a Cure can be ob
tained. Dr. Joliusori has discovered tho most
Certnln, Spctdy, and only Effectual Remedy In tho
'World for Weakness of tho Hack or l.lmba, Strictures
Affections of the Kidney, anil llladder, Involuntury
DIscliorKi's, Iiuputenc), General nihility, Nervous-
ne. iysiesia, Languor. Low S-'pirits, Confusion of
Iili'in. I'ulplmtlmi of tho Heart, Timidity, Irtnililing,
Uliiilir-is .if Sisht or Giildiness, Di.ca.e of tho Head
Throat, Noac, or Howels those TcrriMa Disorder,
nri.ine (.rem Solitary I ! nl.it b of Youth-secret und
olitary practices more fatal to their victims than tho
ions of syrens to thu Mariner, of Uly.ac., blighting
'their most brilliant hope, ur anticipation., rendering
tuarrlnse, tc, impossible.
Especially, who Iisve laconic the victims of Holltary
Vice, that dreadful and destructive habit which annu
ally sweep, to nn untimely crave thousand, of young
men of the uiot exalted talent, and brilliant intelluct,
who inluht otherwise have entranced listening Hon
ti'i . with "lie thunder, of eloquence, or wukeil to ec
tacy the living lyre, may call with full coufideuce.
, Married person, or youiiR men contemplating map
rinit". being nvvara of pliv.lcal weakness, organic do
blllty, ileloriiiitiu-i. speedily curud.
lie vslin places himself iiioler the caro of I)r J, may
i nlluiijinly conlidn in Ills honor at u Rentlemau, dnd
cniitlUeiilly rely upon his skill us a physician'
mm cd lately Onreil and full vieur restored.
'I his illntrcni ik direction w hiih render, life mis
liable and inarrl iru Impossible i tlie penalty paid
ly tho virtitus of improper iiidulgeuie. Youni; per
on. are too apt 10 commit excuses from not being
ov.aru of the tin ndfnl rou-icpiences that may ensue,
Now, who that understand the sulijcct will pretend to
" lany that the power of procru nlion is lo-t sooner by
those fallim! iitu improper loibitri llirin by the pru
dent f llesid.s bung ilepriwil oi the pleasure ofheul
tey otfspriug. the most si-riuu. und destructive synip
bin. of both b.idy and mind arise Thu System be
tomes deranged, th.' pli)sieul and mentil functions
wearteiied, Loss rif i'rucrt-ative power. Nervous Irri
lability, Dyspepsia. I'Jlpuatinu of tho Heart, IiMiges
lion, Constitutional ll. ljiluy, a Wasting oi tlic 1'raiuc,
Cuugh, CunUM.tl.ir.,. Decay and Heath.
Slouibor of tho Koyal College ol Harpoons, London,
IJrudu.ili' from on" of .'.ciroi uSbiiicnt Colleges in the
United .-tales, and the greater pa:t ut wiioLii life has
limn hOuul in t e hospitals of l.ni.don. Paris, 1'hil.i.
dellihi.i. 'tnd eUt'ivhere, lia rifccted some ot the moat
a.toui-hnig cures Hi it were over known ; many Iron,
bled with riiieini! in the head and er.r. nhuu asleep,
great iiervoui.nr.is, being alarmed at sud leu suuuds,
bafhfuluefis. -with frequent blur-hi'lg, attended some
times with di raujrmcul of mlud, wire cur J J iunueui
mely. TAB I. .UB'iliri.AI. NOT l'K
' .fr. J- nd.Vferses all t'-oscuiio have injured them,
'.elves h Improper !ndulii:'.ee ami solitary habits.
winch rum hoik body and ootid, unfitting them for
cither bii-iuefe, stuuy, ..cirly, or m.irriaije.
I'hesu ,irn same of th sad and iiielancliullv effects
produced by utrly nalilti ot jouth, via Weakness of
th Hack ami Limbs. Pains ill tin; Head. Uiiiiiies. of
Sight, l.osr of Mii-rul-ir 'owei. ralpitntion of the
Heart fit 4pcpi i, Neri oji Irritability, Her.iugement
of the ilig.-.'li. e Kuiuliniis, Uiiiur.il llebilit, riyinp
tonM of ( onauumttoii K.c.
MrciTAU.Y 'J hofearlul elfects on Ihe mind are much
1o be ore. mod 1,- .s of memory. Confusion of Idcds,
Dcpiession of r-pirit.'. Kvil rnrhoilinj., Avernion to
Bocii ty, a.'lt l)itru' .if bo iludi , Tlimdity.occ.
are some of the ev i s orodnced.
'thousands of purotiH of all ages ran now Judge
wrim is nie c.iiho ot nn ir in cumin ueaitn, loslog tneir
vigor, h,Tiitning w eak pale, iiitvi.us ,iii. en .iciateil,
liAving h binolar appearance about the e)cs, cough
anil tynptoiiiu ui ivouju mpuoti.
Who hsve irlurri1 th- mselve. hv a curiam ntnclice.ln
uuli(ed to ,,.iett .iln.ui, a habit frequently luained troin
HVil coiupHnjoos.or.it -ichooi, the etfects of whtch ure
jiislitlv lelt. even when asleen, und, if not cured run
ders ir.arrl.ice impossllile.niid destruys hoth nun. I und
body, should apply immediately.
What a pity that a ouuj; man. the hepe of our coun-
I ry. the jiriac of his parents. 1 1 he snatched from
all prorpects on. I enjoyments ot 111". Dy tnu connc
Suencoof dclating Irom I Ik. path of nature, and in
ulg 'Utf in uc.iinio necrcl habit. bucU ptrson. uiu.t,
tifi.ri coll u pi BB
reH'it that a sound mind and body aro tin) mol ncces
ary re.pil.ltei. to promote ronimhial happiness In
deed, without these the j'.'imey through life r.ecomcs
h weary pilenmave ; the prospect hourly darkens to
thu view, the inind heiiini-s shidnvwil with despair
and Alio.) nun the melanrliolly r fl.iLtlou that the h lu
pines of nnuther becomeg blightud with our owu,
Office, 7 South Frclcrick Street,
lefl-hand sidcgoinc from Ualtimoro stri'Lt, H few doors
from th'iconur. Kail not to obsere name and num
, No letters received unless potpajd and con
taining a stump ue used on the reply, Icrsons
writing shocl.l tzf age and scud poitiou of advertise
ment driii rlrlng ymptom
The Dueler's Diplnmn hangs In his office.
Endorsement of the Pras,
, The many thousand-! clued at this establishment
within thu Ian iwuity years and the Humorous im
portant tjurgk.il operations perlor.oed, by Dr. Johns
ton, witnessed by tho reporters of TtH Bun and many
other papers, notices ot which hao appeared again
and again b fore the public, beside, his standing as u
gentleman of character and responaicllity, is a suffi
cient guaranty to thu uilliclcd.
tikin Diseases SpciUily Cincd.
Aprtl IHCi. ly
Select Poctrj).
When Ho I niean to marry t Well
TL Idlpo dlisitewth ho i
, Dut if JrouVchooio to near mc tell,
Tray liatoti while t fix tho dale.
When daughter, haute with eager feel,
A mother's dally toll to .hare I
Can make the, pudding, which thoy cat.
And mend the .locking, whjcli they wear ;
Wbcn niaiJcn. look upon a man
As in himself that they would marry,
And not as army soldier, .can
A sutler or a commissary ;
When gentle ladie. who have got
Tim offer of n lover'. Hariri,
Consent to share hi. "earthly lot,"
And do not moan his lot ot land.
When young mechanic, nre allowed
To And and wed the farmer', girls.
Who don't expect to boendowed
With ruble's, diamonds and pearls ;
When wives, in short, shall freely give
Their hearts and hand, toald their spouses,
And live as they were wont to live
Witbiu thiir blrcs'one story houses ;
Thou maiden if I am not too old
Krjoice to .Jult this lonely life,
I'll brush my beaver, cease to scold,
And lookatioHt mc for a w i'fo I
New Skirt Tor 885.
J, W. Brai'lny's New Patent Duplex Elllptu,(oi dou
ble) Spring .Skirl.
West.' Ilradloy k. Cary, fla'.o J. I. fir. J. O, Wot, )
Bole Proprietors and manufacturers, 0? CT.anibei. and
JJand bl Keai'e Streets, New York
, Tbis irventiou consists of Duplex (or two) Elliptic
Steel Springs, iegenlously Ilraidtd Tightly and firmly
together, edge to edge, making the toughest, most Ilex.
Iblo Lluslic and Durable Spring ever used, 'i'hoy sel
dom Dend or Urcnk like tli Single Springs, and con.
eqnently Preserve their perfect anil beautiful shupo
Iwice as long us anv other skirt,
'J tie wonderful flsxibility and great comfort and
pleasure to any lady wearing the duplex E- ipticskm
will be exneneiiced particularly in all ciowdcd
UVs.eiublics, Operas, Carriages, Uailro.d Cus, Church
rew., Ann Lliuirs,ior rr.omi.naic aim iiou.o urcss
us the Skirl can bu toldcd, when in use, to occupy u
small place as easily as a silk or muslin dress
A imiv li.iinia eulotcd the pleasuro. comfort, and
ercat convenieiiee ct wearing the "Duplex Elliptic
eteel Spring Skirt" for a single day, will never ufter
u iliinalv diboensc ilh their use. 1'or Children
Misses. and YoUrg Ladies, thoy are Superior to all
tIibv rue the best quality !h every rart, hod unq4ee
tionablv tha Lighted, most deslritle, tcnifortablo.and
eoei'.broical "skirt evur made.
yOB SALE in all first class stores in thia City, aitd
thrOoghout the United States, Canada, liavava,
Cuba. Mexico, South America, and the West indies.
April 15, 13C5.
Skylight Picture Gallery.
VmiE umlorsicnod respectfully informo
'i1 the citiicns of Illoouisburg and tho public gene
Vsliv that he baa succeeded Mr.Koacnstnck in tho Pho
tograph and Daguerrean business, at the well known
Bky-LlghtSluild, in the Exchange It ock overStohner'e
Bior'ei to which hehas added u full Camera and ru.
proved material, by which he promise, to wk the
mos'. period
ca't'e4or Handing, that have ct been prndurod lu
this aoclion of Country. , .
Th.t. being tne oniy erianiisiiiiisui -
piooiiiihurg, rtnd having been lilted up at heavy ex.
penm. it may be considered a first cla.s LIKENfcaa
MALUOV, Groups or a single picture taken at anv time
lu solicits the public custom und ttu.ts be will be
sble'to render general satisfaction.
slnia. eonetautly en hind end (or a! cheap.
Bleomituif Mairh
Thrifty and Careless.
Two girls sat in Mrs. JNortu s nursery
one cold January evening to enjoy llio
comfortable tiro. The maid of all work
was busy beside tbe eveniug lamp repair
nig an olu gmgliam apron. It was a very
unpromising piece of work when eho Lie
gun, but ebo worked away witb a cheerful
good will, and eooii its nppenraiioo was
greatly improved, Sudan might it is truo
have bought her a ueV? apion without tuy
inconvenioij'cc ; she had three hlindred
dollars out at interest, a legaoy from her
grandmother, but she prudently let It ro
main where it was, content ritn receiving
her iuterist from it every year, and sup
pleinentiug it with her earnings. Many
hud bu id to her they wculd not livo out
now they could do better. "Why not in
vest her money learning a trade, whiuh
would be far more genteel?" liut Susan
was eiout and hearty, work agreed with
her, and bcwing did not, Sho felt that i1
Eho did her duty and deported herself
properly, she would be as much re-pected
doing housework as if sewing for a living
The cbildieu were all asleep, aud the
nurho was rocking leisurely beside the
fire, while a truukful of unmended olothcB
lay untouched in her room.
"Uulbro I'd patch nn apron ! Susie,"
khc.fi. id, laughinf ; ' 1 know you will be
an old rhaid, you are bo parU'oular."
"I wotold rr.ther patch than wear ragged
olothis," said Susan good naturcdly. "I
will not wear a torn dress if 1 oan help it,
but 1 have one which has a whole bredth
made up of darns and patches. I wore it
last winter through,aud it will make good
carpet rago, now."
June rocked aud laughed away at her
prudish ooiupanion, tnd Mrs. North, who
was knitting by tho table, remarked to
Juno that it would bo an awful thing if
she would follow Susan's example.
'I learned a lesson in economy when a
young girl, whioh I never havo forgotten,
though it wai from a very simple thing,
I was fipending tho bight with a young
friend.when hor sister-io law had ocoasion
to cut out a new dress for her ohild. They
were poor people, but ebo took down a roll
of carefully ironod pieces of stout cloth and
laid them out on her patterns, studying
carefully over them, to 6ec how she could
pirco out a lining to the best advantage.
Sho was neither iniserablo nor parsimon
ious ; she was only frugal, and her frugal
ity was tbe secret of tho family's prosper
ity, The dress looked just as neatly
when it was dono, as if tho lining had not
been made out of a half n dozen pieces
lior husband is now Judge II . If hi
wife had been a wasteful woman, be would
never have had tho means nor the heart
to rise in tho world.
Girls you may set it down as a fat,
that a woman who is not prudent and eco
nomical will hover securo a oomfortable
iiving,evoii if sho marrico a tbdu with lever
eo luorativo a business. If there is not
thrift at homo, thero will never bo a ohecr
ful, comfortable look about anything. You
know Mrs. HcrBon is always fretting be
oause her husband docs not get on in the
world, Sho lias a drawer full of finery,
ohiriii--aro and the hko, sho is saving up
until she shall get a bettor liotilo and havo
a parlor." Hor husband makes good
wagon , but it will bo a long tirao I am
afraid boforo eho will get into that coveted
house. She thinks it "moan" to practioe
tho small ceonomies--to warm tho frying
pan and save the littlo dripping? of suoti
to picoo out linnings, inako over old clothes
tin lnBsnr onca for tho cuildron. Sho
ill.v w - - - f
will have a uew soil of choap jowelry every
little wbilf, lint ehc may "look like other ; Ur win
folks.' Now there aro plcntv of othor la
boring mob who moke no inoro than he,
who have now a little home and garden of
their own, fill acquired by their industry
and frugality.
4,I road a littlo book when a child, writ
ten by a groat German writer called
Zschokko, Tho title of it was "Mend tho
hole in your Sleeve." It began, l believe,
with atl account of two boys sitting down
on a bench under tho trees, tollian what
great things they would bo and do when
thoy were men.
''You will nevor bo anything," said on
old man who was tcatcd near them. Tho
lddu turned, not well pleased at tbo inter
ruption to their blight day dreams.
"l see mat you nave a nolo in your
sleeve," said ho. "A boy that is going
to bo anythiug when a man, will not have
a holo in his bIccvc. If his mother or sis
tcr cannot mend it for him, ho will mend
it himself." Iho bonk follows the history
of ono of the lads, who took that as bij
motto, and the history abounds in useful
suggestions aad hintfi about mending all
manner ot tiau, tiiriiue.-iH ways. I never
know any ono read it without bi'ing influ
enced by it to repair nd set in. order their
own possessions, whether they were little
or much.
''Depend upon it, girls, careless, untidy
pcoplo will never be thrifty, never get before-hand
in tho world. They live in con
sUnt discomfort, and have a thousand
times inoro trouble for waut of well-uiended
and promptly made garments than thrifty
people ever have in putting theirs in order
A Sailor's Description of a Dance.
Haven't had any fun with tho land lub
ber. till Thursday night at a dance.
t IT t T . I. t t
ivnuu i arriveu in too uuuin tonuu cm
underweigh on a Sp tuish daoe. Took
my etatiou in line with Susan Tucker
fell back aud filleu, tliun i.Woi a head tw
fathoms hauled up on thu starboard tack
to let another craft puss, and then cumo
stern on another sail ipokf her and bore
round agaiust the euu, aud full iu with
another sail ic fall clia'e. Passed twen
ty sail on same fturat',and weut half aero.i
to thu other short', dropt, a stern fell
baok couldn't Gil, o let go anchor and
hauled up for repairs.
Itckt time I was drawud into tho current
by & cowtillon, but didn't make much
headway shot ahead with Uetsey tark
and sailed over to the oilier ooast. Tooli
a turn opposite, ranged u brcst towards
Tho Emperor Nicholas and the
Tho following anecdoto is now, and ex
hibits the late Emperor of Russia in a now
character, as well as records ono of tho
most happy escapes from an awkard po
sition that wit and prcsdnco of mind might
tTord. Some years ago thero was a very
eclobrated comio actor at St. Petersburg
named Martioff. Ho bad most extraor
dinary powers of imitation, dnd was a
great favorite witb tho public r'.s somo-
timss to Venture interpolations of his own,
instoftd of following the advice of Hamlet
to the players to ''speak no more than is
set down for them." Tho Emperor at tbo
same time had a uii!i chamberlain, or
pcrsonago Glling a similar office, named
Poloffsky. Whether for fuu or malico,
Mnrtinoff while performing, contrived to
let fly sotno puns rgainst this greatjmati,
which wore warmly rcocived by tho audi
once, i lie consequence wa, as coon as
the play was over, the actor found himself
in the custody of a guard of soldiers-, who
took him to prison, where he was told he
was to be confined for a fortuight. Not
contented with this, Puloffoky cither told
tho Emperor himself, dt contrived that it
should ccmo to his caro, that the player
had actually bad tho presumption to in
du'ge in imitations of His Imperial Majes
fjn his liberation, Mariinoff went to
Court to p iy his respec s as usual, aud the
Fitiipernr tuld hitu of this accui.'taiou, which
he denied. 'Well," said tbo Emparor,
"If you never did so, let me havo an lm
itation of myself wcitf. W'o know you can
do ro if you choose." This was an awk
art! aud dangerous position for the poor
actor, who telt he should get into trouble
lor either falling short of or overdoing tho
character. Still tho autocrat Was det r
mined ; there was no escape, Suddenly
a blight thought struck tho player, and
drawing biat-ulf up, he as.umcd the exact
boariug auJ manner of tho Eaiperor, and
ia a voico so like that it made every otic
present etitit, said, "Poloff'ky, give Mar
tiooff (himself) a thousand silver roubles !'
'Stop," said tho Emperor, ''I have heird
quite enough. The imitation is aduiisablo
bui the entertainment primuses to bo too
expensive. Give him the roubles, Polo-
ff-ky ; and now mind, sir, let this be the
last time you ever dare to miiuio mo hero
or elsewhero " It in, of course, unneces
sary to say MartiuniT was too glad to
pocket the money, and csoapo so well.
The History of Coal Oil and its
other crafts and baek aMoru arruin mov
ed round to sturboafd pasud near part
ner's lights and made sail fir berth.
Third time run tne into port to tho tune
of tho Temp est tho Yankee tar's favor
ite. Prooecding along tho boast accord
ing to the rcgulur order of Bailing bore
ahead again rounded to then passing
adversely yard arm by yard arm locked
astern with the whole squadron iu circular
order of sailing Sally Jones all tho time
manoeuvring aud making Signals when un
der full sail. Finally aucborod alter a
hedvy squall.
Don'c Complain.
Don't complaih of your birth, your
traioging, your employment, your hard
ships ; neves fancy you could be some
thing if you only had a different lot or
sphero assigned to you. God understands
his 0T7H plans, and knows what you want
a great docl better than you do. Tho
very things that jou niuat deprecate aa
fatal limitations and obstructions, are
probably what you most want. What
you call liindcraiiceS aud discouragements
aro prdljably God's opportunities and it is
nothing uew that tbo patient should dis
like his medicines, or any certain proof
that thoy are poisom. No ! a truoo Io all
such impatience. Choke that devilish en
vy which gnaws ot your heart bteaii.se you
are uot in the sunie lot with others j bring
tlowu your soul, dr rather bring it up to
recoivo God's will, and do his word, in
yottr lot, In jur sphere, undor your cloud
of obscurity) Against your temptations ;
and then you shall find that your condi
tion is never opposed to your own good,
but really consistent With it.
X5S" Tho beauty of a religious life ia ouo
of its greatcet recommendations, What
does it profess? Peace to all mankind, It
leaches U3 tbcBC oris whioh will render
us belovod and inspected, aud whioh will
contribute to our present oomforts ds well
as our future happiness, Its groat orna
ment is obnrity it iuetilcaics nothing but
lovo and sympathy of affection but it
breaths nothing but the purest tpirit oi" do
light; in short, it is a systoui perfectly
aloulated to benefit tho hoart, improve
enlighten tho understanding
Eftct of Laziness.
A lazy boy makes a lazy man just as
sute as a orooked sapling makes a crooked
tree. Thiuk of ihat.my little lads. Who
over saw a boy grow up in idleness that
did uot make a luzy, shiftless vagabond
When he was old enough to be a mail,
though he was ndt a than iu chareter, un
less he bad d fortuuc left him to keep up
appearance ? The great mass of thieves,
paupers, and criwiuals have oomo to what
thoy are by being brought up to do noth
ing Useful. All those who drc good inch'
now, aud useful to tho community, wore
industrious When they were boys- If you
do not like to work now, a lovo for indus
try can soon bo accquired by habit. So,
my little reader, I want you to ldok around
at once for something to do,lu doing which
you oan benefit somebody. Shun Idle
ness as you would the evil one.
Good Advice. If the body is tired,
rest; il tho brain is tired , sleep. If the
bowels aro loose, lie dotin iu a warm bed
and remain thero, aud eat nothing until
you tre well. If an action of tho bowels
does not ooeur at tbo usual hour, eat not
au atom till they tlo act, at least for thirty-
sis hours ; moauwuuo uiiok largely oi
cold water or hot teutvxerciso in tho opm
air to the eStent of a gentle perspiration,
and k.tjep this up till things are righted ;
this ono suggestion, if practiced, would
savo myriads of lives every year, both in
tho oity and tho country, Tho best med
icines iu tbo world are warinth,ubstinenco
When vVc jpoak of tho dincovory of
ooal oil, in referenco to late events, it must
not bo mistaken for a modern invention,
Tbo extraordinary attention drawn upon
t by tho discovery of a moro abundant
supply, by artificial wolls, since tho Au
gust of 18G0, has made its provious his-
ory of comparatively little interest to one
class of minds, but, on the other hand,bas
invested that previous history, to philo
sophic eyes, witb all the oharrh of an ar
chaeological Investigation. Did hot the
builders of Babel use clay for bricks and
slime for mortar? (Gen. xi,,3) Il is
evident from an examination of any of
tho ruins of Mesopotamia, that asphaltie
ruortir Was the bed into whioh their nla
bastcr wainscot picoes were set, and with
which their vast terraces were compacted,
and probably their roofs protected ; the
use of whioh so abundantly, only facilitated
their destruction when tbo torch was t
last applied. The pitch uicd was made
by evaporating petroltum. That of Ba
bylon wo know wss tJbtained from the sul
phur, brihe, dnd oil springs of Is ; the
products of which aro still sold in tho vil
lage of Hits. The story of tho catastro
phe of Sodom and Gomorrah, if not orig
inated, was perpetuated by tho vast accu
mulations of rock nil iu the centre of the
Dead Sea, as on the surface of a heated,
simmering briue vat, w hero it is hardened
by oxydation anil drifted to tho surround
ing shores. A similar phenomenon a
lako of pnro pciroleum elicited the
amaccmeut of the Spaniards who disoov
ered Trinidad.
Oil epringc, ih Idct, have been known
and estietned, and worshipped, iu every
age and many countries. Hctodotus do
scribes a bitumen spring in Zacynthus
Zauteo, ono of the Ionian Islands; and
probably this bpribg sufficed tho Egyptian
nation for their iuoessaut religions use of
petroleum for mummies, the embalmment
of which is amusingly desoribed in Hunt's
Merchants' Magazine for 1 803. The
"Greek fire'' of more modern times was
probably compounded of petroleum from
tbe Zauteau springs. Dio&eorides tells us
that rook oil was collected in Sicily and
burned in the lamps of Agrigentum, Tho
olai-sio home of naphtha is Baku, a high
ponin"tila ou tbo wc.-tern shoro of tho Cas
pian Sea, coniaining thirty-five villages
and twenty thousand souls, rocky and ster
ile, without au attractive spot, without a
t&f A railway is to bo built in Pales
lino. It will connect Jaffa with Jerusa
lem, will be about forty milos long, anil,
with a harbor at Jaffa, will cost bolfn
million pounds sterling.
8& The offioial statistics of the War
Doriartment show that upwards of 0-1,000
Union prisonous havo died in rebel prisons.
rjiS What is tbe most pleasant musio in
a ball room l That mado by tho belle.
BST- What clothing
W6at ' Chancery nuts.
should lawyers
stream, wiihoul oue drop of sweet water
except what falls directly from the clouds,
and without a tree. But coal yas rises
everywhere from a toil saturated with
naphtha, and numerous volcanoes in action
diacharco volumes of mul. Froth tho time
of Zoroaster tho uaphthi of Baku has
been sebt all ever Asia for the ervico of
the sacred fire of the Parsees. The liquid
ntrcams spontaneously through tho surface,
and rises wherever a hole is bored. But
especially at Bulegan, sis miles from tho
capital village, tho sides of tho mountain
stream wiih black oils, which collect in
rcssrvoirs constructed in uti unknown an
cient time ; while uot far off, a spring ol
white oil gushes from the foot.
Upon their festival occasions the psoplc
po'dr tdtis of this oil over tho surface of
the water in a bay of the Caspian, and
then set, as it were', earth, ssa, aud bky in
a blnze of light. Sometimes far grandet
exhibitions tako placo naturally. In 1817
a column Of llame, six hundred 3arda iu
diameter, broke out near Balegan, and
roared with boiling brioe and ejaculated
rocks for eighteen days togither, until it
raised a mdtuid nine hunJred fott in
height. Of course, ihe population use tbo
oil for light and fuel and coat their roofs
with it. A olay pipo or hollow reed
steeped iu lime water, set upright in tho
floor of a duelling, serves as a uatural and
HUfiieiint ga-pipo. The Ghebers btttle li
for forcgn uo" the Atecshjahuis firo with
it their luue-kiliiB and burn their dead.
No wonder the religious seiulriieot of ori
ental mystics " cutraoceu by tucli a
land of firo as Baku, wbcro iu tho Gssurcs
of the while and sulphurous soil the naph
tha vapors flicker into flume ; where a
boiling lake is covered with a flame devoid
of tensiblo heat ; whero after tho warm
showers of autumn the surrounding coun
try seems on firo; flames in enormotis
volurncs tolling along tho mountains with
incredible velocity, or standing still cz
peotant ; Whcu tbe Ootobijr aud Novem
ber moons light up with an azure tint tho
entire west, aud tho Soghdo-ku, Mount
Ptradiso, tho oastern buttress of tho Cau
casus, covers its upper half with a glow
ing robo ; while if the night ba moonless,
innumerable jots of flamu, isolated or in,
crowds, cover all the plaint, having the
mountains In obscurity. Tho Ghobor and
the bheinist hero may worship side by sldo.
All trie phenomena of distillation and com
bustion, Junder varying barometric and
tbermometrio conditions of tho atmosphere,
bay bo studied ; for nono of this general
fire burns unless when captured and ap
plied to human uses in tho lamp or stovo
or kiln. In tho midst of this devouring
clement through this world in flames
men live dnd lovo unharmed, lend sheep,
plant onions, sleep, aro born and die, as
in moro prnsaib regions, Tho reeds and
grass aro in nowiso affected by the flowing
oil or by tbo burning gas. In fact, Hot
tiers, the traveller, thought the wholopho
norhenon electric, when ho noticed that
the vacuum in bis thermotnetor tube seem
ed to be especially full of flame, and that
the east wind put to Oiiiet tho wholo ex
hibition ; with which faet we miy csmpare
the oUriod.3 discoveries of Moffat with his
phosphorous themometer, published in
Silliman's Journal, December, 1602, p.
137, as bearing on his theory of two nor
mal opposite air currents. From au
equally remote, ora thu Burman empire
and northern Hiudostan have received an
nual supplies of rook oil from tho wells
of tho Himalayan valloyof the Irrawaddy,
through Rangoon ; and it has always been
6 favorite drug in tbo Ihdian pharmaco
poeia. In Italy, the oil wells of Parina and
Modcna dato back nearly two centuries,
the year 1040 being that assigned to their
discovery. The springs of Ammiano have
long lighted the streets of Genoa
In France, oil springs havo been kuown
from time immemorial at Clermont and
Gabian ; aud in Canton Neufshatel ; and
in Bavaria, Germany.
In the English coal mines, of oourso.the
coal-oil gas the dreadful fire-damp was
always a well known demon to tho mining
population ; but iu 10G9 Shcrley, perhaps
first, doscribes it to the reading publio us
an illuminating gas, In 1733 Sir James
Lowthcr laid pipes along tbo mines and
burned the cases at the surface of the
earth. Dr. Clayton's retort experiments
to which wo referred above, at the bo
ginning of section 2, were si years later
still. His 'Mncondensicle spirit" he burn
ed ih bUdders for the amusement of his
friends, as did Dundonald again in 1780
aud Muidockin 1702. But tho lighting
of London streets and bouses with gas
came not till 1842. Twenty years havo
elapsed, and there are in Great Britain and
Ireland 1,015 gds-works, with aoipitol of
$90,000,000, charging an avcrago of 81
80 per thousand cubio feet to small con
sumers, and deducting from five to thirty
per cent, for heavy cousuuiption. Some
of theso companies pay twelve per cent,
dividends, and many of them ten percent.
Tho average capital of British gas-works
is said to be nearly twenty por cent, less
thau that of American works.
lu America tbo history of coal-oil com
mences witb the use which the white set
tlers found tho Indiana mado of it for
medicine, for paint, and for certain religi
ous ccremonicB. The settlers adopted its
medicinal use tlcnc.aiid retained forboro
than one affluent of the Alleghany river
tho Indian namo of Oil creek. Tho one
which has become bo celebrated lately,
enters tho rivor a few miles above the town
of Franklin. Tne oil was collected both
by tho natives and tho whites by spread
ing blankets oc tbe marshy pools which
lino the edges of the bottoms at the foot
of steep hill-sidcsjor even mountain trails,
such as hem in thoso valloys and support
a table land of coal measures above. Tbe
remains of ancient pits, with notohed logs
for ladders, show how long tbo product
has been valued by the aborigines, But
although iu all tho valleys of western N
York and Pennsylvania, eastorn Ohio and
Kentucky, and northwestern A'irginiu, the
evidences ol the almost universal existence
of tbe Seneca oil was known to the early
settlers, its actual abundance underground
was noidreftmcd of. Even long after the
ora ol salt-well boriiiff bad begun, the is
olated cases of spouting wells did nottcaoh
the truth as it is now known. Sonic of
tho oldest salt wells of Iho Pittsburg re
gion, it is true) and of the Kanawha val
ley, yielded not only brino, but also oil
and gas in great ubundanco ; and iu moro
than one plaoo, and with a partial and
temporary success, tlio gas was tubed off
and led beneath the boiling vats for fuel.
But it was too fulul in its esoapo to bo re
lied upon ; tho oil which acoorapanicd it
was of no use, aud when abundant agroat
nUisance. Ilildrcth describes the quanti
ties of petroleum spouted from tbe silt
woll boated iu 1810, in tho valley of tho
Little Muskingum, iu Ohio, and the tro
mondods.esptosions of gas vrhioh inter
rupted, sometimes for dayg together, tho
flow of brino. It was this fitful and un
govcrnablo a fcro;bavitig its unknown
seat oi" power in tho deep, which made
every effort rdtijo to employ the gas as 'fuel.
Traveller", howcvor,rcpori that this hB
been successfully dono by tho Cliinoso
salt-makerj for many conturies. As for
tbo oil, odntibues Hildroth, it mado for it
self a local commerce, beginning to be id
demand lor lamps in workshops und manu
factories, and tho edjgehion was alroady
made that it wotild serve to light tho ttrcstd
of the oitios 6f Ohio. It' is not a littlo
singular, says Air. Ilodgo, that with tho
sources of supply thtia pdlnfod out, and
tho useful application of tlio petroleum
understood, its value should Havo remained
unappreciated, and, at tho expiration of
more than thirty-five years, bo at last per
ceived through tha progress of experiment
made upon tho distillation of bituminous
shales and coal. But the fact eeoms to
stand thus : tho natural ooal oil was a dis
gusting and imporfeot thing, and there
wag noither tho prcssuro of necessity nor
the favor of scieuco applicable, in Ohio,
in tbo beginning of the century, to ito
purification. The destruction of iho whalo
h'ery, the iucreaso of tho railroad sys
tem, with its rolling gear and workshop
maehiuory, and the coming in of lard oil
as a substitute for whale oil, r.ll had to in
tervene between tlie inception and tho per-
tormance of the coal oil drama.
It was in 1847 that air. Young, in
Glasgow, (the most intimato friend, by
tho way, of tho African traveller, Living
stone,) had established his purification of
petroleum from tha Bidding's mines in
Dorbyshiro, boghead oannel, oommon coal
b1 ales, peat aud solid bitumen, and inlro
duoed tho use of these mineral oils to such
an extent that a tcArch for the native ar
ticle, long known to Siist, was set on foot
in earnest. The oils of tho ooal region
of America at once commanded piincipal
attention. The fir&t praotioaj movement
in this direction was not made, tintll, ia
1854, Messrs, Evelcth and Bissell, of N.
York, secured the right to the upper spring
on Oil creek, and organised a company.
Still, thrco years passod before Mr. Bow
ditch and Colonol Drake, ol New Haven,
began tho first Titiisville boring, striking
the oil stratum at seyenty-ono feet depth
in August, 1853. tfbe drill sank sudden
ly into a cavity, nnd ths oil roso within
five inches of tbo surfaco, and was pumped
off at tho rate of, at first, 400 dnd after
wards 1,000 gallons p6r day. Tho news
spread. Tho wildest epecBlation Boon
raged. Every aero of laud in the valley,
and part way up tho steep hill-sidcs, for
ten miles south of the boring, aa far as
to tho junction ol Oil creek with tho Alk
ghany river, was bought up by eager con
testants for a fortune suro to bo real ed
ia a few months. Hundiods of wells sank
speedily to various depths. The ouco
quiet. beautiful valley became a noisy dun,
a hideous desert. Dcnickd, scaffolds, and
pumping gear took tho places occupied by
the tall forest trees or blooming orchards.
Groups of warehouses, barrol fdjtorics.
boarding bouses, and wholo villages rc
plaaed eaoh solitary farm-hojse. Tho
stream was dammed and fcluioed for arti
ficial floods, barbora were excavated in
tho lowest places, and tho rest of the in
tervale becamo a stinking bog of mud aud
salt mingled with oil. Not a blada of
grass was to be seen, and nothing to bo
heard but the olanking of tho pumps, iho
blowing ol somo new woll in its first en
ergy, the shouting of drivers urgiog mis-
erable mules and horses through tho naus
eous mud, dragging empty barrels to the
wells, or full ones down to the stream,
whero the boatmen fasten them together
for the nest flood, jiong barges filled
with casks, or with the oil itself in bulk,
lie watting for the moving of tlio watoru,
when the upper dam is openod. Among
them aro lo be teen strange Crafts, com
posed of barrds lashed togothcr liko ts
raft, or barrels siwed in two and lashed
together thus, to corry tbo oil In bulk,nud
filled to the brim.
Occasionally the pontl freshets, as thoy
ore called, become tceucs of ludicrous diu
aster. The latest Were those of Deocmbot
3 and Dooember 5, 1802, in whioh fifty
thousand barrels of oil were lost. 'The
loss on tbo Alleghany river'writcs a ooi
respondent, "is estimated at 400,000 or
500,000 gallons." The scone la graphi
dally described i ct the columns of tlio
Philadelphia Coal Oil Circular of Decern
br 13 : ' The boats grounding in great
numbers ; the larger overrid!ng,ciuihiDg7
and swamping thu miuller craft, j,ltj
broskibg ech othor up lu the Ffi ii7l
freshot tncuty ill secured tot m

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