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a.1 -j ' -- y. . i 1 I" "1 , 1',J . i",' t t-vf i'r wti -i i M .'iTjl .' . til Jorf n, l-.-f, re ma 4i ha -T trt -f I'i'- tfl J.lrn 1lt:tfi ; f t ''."," 'j -f ", ' . 5 n ! ' if 4l it 4!ru utfl ft 1 isr lt -51' i't ti i ) ,tti :. .1r jiuK-i ; . '!-.! 1 t j- " 1 , , r.,t :r-ii) ft !- I w,v ! '' !- u t inrtt-t In . i,. . V Si ;.' .ll'4HjT 1.t fjr.fi WHEN THE PRESS COMPROMISES ;TRfJTH,i IlfCEASES TO , BE TnE'!GUAR'DIAN '6F tlW - T, ff:.- 1 Ji in i:: .v;iit,ff' .ffiwyrv-' ail f.-r',J""n. - .ii! y'! !t 1' -j.iiMl it ) lt"'iij;"';;i'u,j() j - r ,,l t,,i'!,'i.', hi'.,',,ji.f.i .J'-nl .iHwh j NEW SERIES VOL. 7 - Governor's Message . To th Fifly-Fonrth Geocrni Ateiiiii!y, at the Seosion Cummeacing JauunrrS, 1800. , Ftlliw citizen! of the S natt and , . lloui'e'of Representative!; The people with whom is the io! goV reipiiity of the State, hnve committed to jou, for the fifth bipnnial period' under the existing Constitution, the iegislotive authority of . the Commonwealth. Upon Ibis first seenlm- dny of the new year you hsSume Ihe great funotion thus assigned to rou. and enter upon the performance of your important duties. Powers 6f government delaguted by the people of free States to chosen Represen iatitea wueth'er LeRislalive, Judiciary or Eisouiiv, are sacred traits. The people. Who hono r by suob proofs of confidenoe, thbse whom they select for tnjployment !n publio fiinatfoni, have a clear right to expect frob them fidelity, Zeal and uhre bitting diligence in the promotion of the publio good.' Having confided by elec lion; the powers of government to citizens 'of their oboice. they return to their re isjWtiye , aVocatioiia trusting confidently that all publio Interest and public rights will be diligeritly prdmotod aud faithfully guarded, and that e oh individual will be fully p'lal'ecled by equal laws and ihip'ar tial admi'ofstraltion, while contributing tn bis sphere to the general good by private thrifts How Weighty the obligation whioh Buoh o'onfidenn'e must impose bn right minded men. How deep' And earns est the solioilude which all true hearted representatives must feel, that neither by Remissness', nor by inditiVrence nor by abuse, the just expeoMions of a generous people may bo disappointed! ; No extrBoi'dinary chahftPB ip the rendi tion of the State have rcourred during the past yeah Private and public affairs have gradually recovered from the depressing effects of financial revulsion add oflL'ini de linquency. Health has invigorated ,and sustained the energies of industry. The labors of the field, though frustrated tn sev 'oral counties as to important crops, ly 'the' seVere ahd unusual frost of Jane, have ' nevertheless, been rewarded by a harvest ' fully equal, in 'the State at large, (o those of ordinary years. In mining, manufan 'turing, and cdmmeroial, as well as in ag tioultuial pursuits, improved rhichinery and processea, augmented capital, and in creased numbers ol laborers, have yielded .proportionately increased returns Insti tutions of Religion; Education and Chart ty, wl ether organized by the voluntary 'seal of individuals, or the wise providence 'of the State, have contributed in full mea . ure, to improvement, melioration and pro gress. Solid growth, substantial prosper! ly, and social order,' distinguish alike the condition of the State and the people, end 'demand grateful Reknowledgnmnla to the Supreme' Dispose of eVente, whose Meg ' sings alone gives real value to the results 'of human labot and human wisdom. ' The sixth genaial vnluation of iBal prop erty )ias taken place during the last yexr, and will, naturally, direct your attention to oor material resources as bus exhihiit d and 'their relaMons to the general condition of the State. , The theory of taxation, settled by the Constitution and sanctioned by general ap prota!, requires that all property of what ever description shall contribute to neces try publio expenses in exact proportion to value. The exceptions to the practical ap plications of the rule,admitted by the Con stitution and by law are of properties be longing to individuals not exceeding filly dollifrs 10 vslQe. and properties helonging to, the oouo ies, the State, and the Union, or held and used exclusively under publio aiHliority .for 'educational, religious abd charitable purposes. ; In order tdglve praciioal effecl to the intention of the Constitution, provision has Been made by law for periodical Valuations. All laVds and town Iota whatever, subject to taxation, are required to be valued once in six years; while lands recently become taxable, being fur the most part, lands sold by the Federal Government Or the Slate, together pith all recent improvements on lands, and all nonexeitipt personal prop erty, riiost be valued annually. These appraisements directed tt) be made at the true value in money, will ex hibit,' 1 if ' the' law b intelligently and faithfully exe'outed, the progressive in crease or diminution of wealth in the State, and in eaoh locality, with approxi mate correctness. . Some deductions' arid some additions must be made on account of that lanJ Whioh is taxed more than once in diff rent forms And of that which through the neg ligence of assessors 6F in spite of their vig ilance, will, under every system of taxation escape just" contribution. Some additions must also be made to tbe official . apprsis mention aofioant of the disparity whioh Is hlways found to exist between, the average kaaessme'nt And the average roaoket value, tt Is to he rememberedj also, that valua ttoos must always be 'atfeotod necessarily by th general oirotlmstaidet Of the coun try. In a time of ..extraordinary apparent prosperity and gone al expansion, valua tions may be too high; and in a time of re vulsion and great depression .will almost oertainly be too low. With tbe corrections suggested by these considerations, tbe val uations eljeaoh year and especially of each sixth year, will supply tbe means of ascertaining with some reasonable appro fmation toaocuracy, the aotual amount c I property within the State. Ntarer approaches to absolute exact Seas will doubtless be constantly made, as , NO, 37. experience shall suggest more perfect leg ialaiion, and dearer appreciation of the du ties enjoined by it shall securo more com plete and faithful listings and Appraise ments. Every citizen and every assessor should bear in mind that the assessment o' prppery. at ju true,,ra.lu eloesmot- iuereese the amtuot of taxes to be paid by proprie tors. If the aggregato amount of property is augmented uy correct assessment, the total taxation peed not be affected, for tbe r.'ttes may be diminished. Correct assort ments, at nal value, will alone insure the equitable apportionment of public burdens among tho people. Whoever, therefore, causes his property to be listed at loss than actual value, evades his just share of pub lio contribution, and unjustly increases tbe proportions of his fellow citizens. A succinct account of the various sys terns of taxation adopted in this Slate, and of the valuations made, will illustrate these observations, and will enable you better to understand our prevent oonditioh. For many years no prov ision for general-valuation constituted part of the revenue system of Ohio. : All lands were classed as first, second or third rate, and taxes for the support of the State government were raised by assessments according to rate, varying at first, from twenty to sixty cents, and al last, from seventy-five to one hundred and fifty cents on each hundred acres. The assessments were fixed by legislative enactn ent. without reference to the different values of different tracts of the same rate. . ' Taxis for county and township purposes wore levied on town lots and buildings ac cording lo appraised value, and on a few tpecibed classes of animals, valued at oer tain rates per head, by law, without ap praisement. ' ! " ' - Thst this system was inconvenient and inequitable is very manifest. . The assseas ment of taxes for State and county pnr pOieS, on different descriptions of properly was productive of ho li tie embarrassment and difficulty; while the assessments accor ding to rates, Ahd hot according lo value, resulted in great and grievous inequality, which hrenrne more conspicuous and vex atious with the progressive but very une qual increase in the value of lands. In 1824, Ihe taxes levied for Stale purposes in Hartiilton county amounted to 82,080, while Athens, wiih less than one thirteenth ill valua of tbe real property in Hamilton, paid t'Xes of the same description to the amount of 82,142. It w s not until 1 825, however, that this system- if ftybttm it may he called was abandoned In that yeardistinguished in our annals by the coincident adoptisn ol practical and eQici nt measures for com mon school, education, internal improve ment oy canals, and taxation according to value prevision was first made, by leg islative ei aotment for the valuation of real property at its true value in money The amount of personal property actually valued, . however, was still small. Mer chants and brokers were arranged in cer tain classes, by the associate judges, ac cording tocapiial, and were taxed accord ing toclaaa.w jthoiu refi renneto the amount of capital actually employed by different mmbers of the same diss. The values of the animals Subjeciod to taxation Were still fixed by Ihe legislature without ap praisement, and tbe list of exempted prop erty waa very lurge, including, not only real prop-rty used for educational, relig ious and charitable purposes, but mills and factories almost or quiie without exemp tion. It wili be. seen therefore that the act of 1825 initiated, rather thah established, the rule of valuation, and taxation accord ing lo value. But this was no small mor it,land it was enhanced by the introduc tion of a titiKo'rro s'yalem of, levies for all purposes,- both 8' ate and local, and of s provision for the equalization of valuations aa between individuals, l.y County Boards, du as between counties by a state. caard cf Equalization, Both in. substance, still make parts of our revenue system, tt will be admitted of course, that the val uation directed and made under the act of 1825,. affords no sitisfaolory menshrp of the actual wealth of the Slate at that time. It has. ho-vever,' soma claim to attention, pven'in.thnt view, end it has . a higher interest s the practical result of the first attempt to. aoerlam, however, deieclively, a. true basis for the equitable sppointrnest or publio burdens among me citizens. The-whole number of acres ' subject to taxation, retdrned I by ' the Assessor;- was 15,143,309; the average value pur aore.as equalized by the Board Of Equalisation, was 82 47; the total value of lands was 837,714,823; of town-lots, 87,321,034; in all, 8,5,035,259v " -.Tbe aot of 1825 fixed no period for a second general aluatlon--The appraise metit mad under liwas tdremain unaltered Until further legislation. The iconnty as sessors, however, were required to aaoer. tain, in the spring of each year, what land had become iiabl j to taxitioir during tbe preceding jjear, and wtul-. new;,' perma nent improvements,, had, been c vnada by structures on, lands. The . yaluo. ol this land ,nd. theso.i improvements, annually ascertained y the assessors, together with that of all" taxable, personal property, computed '.according to arbitrary , rales fixed by law' added annually to the equal iza'd value of real ' property,, was to oon slitute the Grand Listj end form to ' basis of taxation fot the current 'year. " " 1 Thus in 1826, the Valuation permanent ly settled by the Board of Eqalization, with the valuations, in the Spiing.of lands recently bocome taxable, of new improve LANCASTER, OHIO, ments, arid of porsonal property, constitu ted tho first Grand List under the set, up on which were to be assessed the hecebsary levies for State, County and Township purposes. The value of lands' waB S3D, 719.411; tbe Value of town' lots and 6r- 'flhslfreHjr' wsa '$18,745,09(5. The .,...,1 ...t.n,:'A. I. AEA aha m '. ' -' butm tiiiu'iiiuu ivaa uo,tit,ou. Important changes in :he laws relating to taxation were introduced in 1831', An act of that year enlarged very con siderably thij descriptions ol taxable prop erty; reduced theltet of exemptions, and extended the rlppllcation of the principle of appraisment and proportioned con tiibu tion. It did hot disturb," howerer, the valuation of real property eqalized in 182 and it still retained, in Some of its' applica tions,' the principle of arbitrary Valuation by the Legislature. ; ;'. 1 ' '' '''' "At length', after the lapse of nine years; a re-valuation of all real property warf di rected by the Legislature, in 1834; was made the same year; and was equalized in 1835. The property revalued oonaialed of the descriptions made taxable ' by 1 the aot Of 1831;, for the act directing the' re valuation bad made rio ohango in the sub; jects of taxation. ' ' - "'' The result exhibited a striking increase. Tbe equalized value of the ' lands ahd town lots was 873,932," 892. ' The Omnd List of 1835, embracing' this ' valuation, inoreased by tbe usual Spring; valuations; amounted , . exclusive of four counties, whose returns had not bten received, to 895,927,390. In nine years the Value of tanhle property had increased 837,' 452,889. :. ''' A third valuation 'was made In r 1 840, and was equalized in 1 84 1 The suhjecta of valuation are still defined by the act of 1831. ' 'The equalized valuation was 699 ln4, 745". The Grand List for 1841, em bracing this valuation, ; arid .the additions for rca estate and perso'ohl property .made in the Spring of that year, was 9 128,353, 657. . The, increase in five years bad been 32,420,86 J..' ; : 1 '" '"' ! ; A thorough revision of the laws con ceaming t-axation took plnce in 1840.' Inf. portant additions Were made ' to 'the ''do. sbriptiona of taxable property; exemptions were restricted and defined with greater precision; rules of appraisement were pre scribed with a view lo ensure a closer approximation of valuation to Value; the prinoiple.of actual appraisement1 wtS for the first time applied tt all objee'ts of tax ation to which, in the natUre) o f things, it wa . applicable ; elear directions- were givon for the annual listing and valua' lion of lands becoming taxable, for ! the first limn, of improvements,; and ''of ail persona property; a new valuation of all real property was directed,' and provision was made lor future valuations in every sixth year. The first general valuation required' by this set, being the 'fourth in the wholn series, was made in 1849, and' was equal ized the same year. The influence . of the wie provision) of -the' new law was oonspiuuousin its results," whioh 'for tbe first time approximated, though - still remotely, the aotual value of the - real property in the State. ' The Value Of, that description of property; as equalized, was 324,495.804, ;, - ! . ;;. - Tha grand list of 1847, embracing this equalized valuation, ihe spring of valua tion of personal , property amounting to $83,964,430, and the other usual spring valuations exhibited as aggregate of 410,763,160. The increase in six years had bten almost inuredible. It was $281 409,603. - - . . Before the time for the second valua tion under ths act 0 1840 arrived, a new Constitution . had been adopted. 'r The principle of that aot extended in its ap plication to nil property whatever, with some specific exceptions, was' now incor porated into the fundamental law; and the first General Assembly under- the new Constitution provided for a general valu alien and equalization of real property in 1053, and every sixth year thereafter. - In pursuance of Ibis act, tbe fifth general valuation took plade and was equalized in 1853. The aggregate, of the equalized valuaiion was 8558,725,542, The per sonal property listed the following spring was valued at 8297,001,672. Tho grand list for 1854, including with these values those or tbo lands and nevf imnrovenjen w listed in tho spring, was $866,929,972. The increase in soven years' had' b'ien again startling. ' It was 8456,166,822. '' The appraised now more - closely' ap proached the real value, and no such' ap parently rapid augmentation of -.the list could be in luiure expected..., The sixth valuation ' look place during the past year,' Under, an Hot '..of 'the" last General Assembly, and its equalization' is not yet.combletotU; According to the re turns made by tfie County Auditors, ! der Ihe set of April last; the aggfe'gati number of acres taxed 18 26,314.200; ihe average value of, each acre,,-, $17,48; snd the total value o the- whole real property 041,913,15ii' , .Tbe'.lisfs 'iflf,, persomil property jnoltfiUng tbe spring valuations, are not vet made. .. Should they' show, an increase during the year., porporjioned, o that fll Mai , proporty ; anringK six years, the amount will not be less than Vi'Jl, 0OO.O0U: and tba general .ar gran ale,,, as summer that the total valuation of realty will not be redu'oed by edualization, .will be about 900,009,00.' ,Tbe increase fpr six years; will bou 33,OO0O00 . '. ' ,Xhe .Graud Liat of . 1 860 will doubtless show. wit reaaonable aoouraoy-, the true amount of taxable Dronerty in the State, Returns of exempt property ((rou all tlie THURSDAY MORNING, conntiet, except Hamilton and Kavette, ex hibit an agereirate, of 810,670,658. .These returns are doubtless imperfect, : The real amount of this daeripiioo of property! In all the counlien,' including chatiela, does not, probably, fall nitmb slioUI 650,000, 000. The Commissioner of Statistics, baa ing opinion on. reports of actual sales, ftti- oiatea the entire property in the State, 'at $ 1. 050,000,000.; .i ' ;i 1 1 The population of the State is now about two. millions and half. Suob-a popula tion, grown up from the.twenly-fiva thou sand of sixty years ago, educated, energe tic and. indefatigable, and popaeieed oliucli a masa of means, creatad by the skill and industry of two L'Pueratiyos,1 presents a striking picture of progress and power., i venture to suggest the, expediency ul diieoting the general valuations of real es tate, after the next, to ,.pe mauo once in five years, so that tho .results obtained nn der State authority, miy be easily coinnar- d with. those obiainad under tuderul in the eew&us-yoar; while those obtained by iho general .valuation in (he .iiitermodiate years, and the annual estimates, will sup ine -means ol determine the rate of growth and progreis each year during the interval between those years." ' The amount of debts, of wha'ever des cription, Stale, corporatCi commercral and every olher, is now estimated al 8210,001), 000; but of these not less,. .probably, than one third would be cancelled by payment of other debts emhraced in 'he aggregate. f he whole exiting debt, constilu'ing a real qharge bpon the whole exi.tjng proper ty, hardly, if at all. (X eerls S!00,00y,000 aooutoiie.sixtli ol US valu ,:, ll-Uiis sum be compared, nut merely with the cn. tire properly, hutwilh ,llie entire .products of tbe State, whicp, accoding to my esti mate in 1858, amounted, in., 1867' to 2G1, 167,600, end doubtless txi-eeded that euiii is 1859, or.with the probable ne'jpfo(!uots ter deducting the. consumption, pireot and indirect, of the people, the gratifica tion afforded by the spectacle of our geui ral prrisperity, will, not bo sensibly a- bated. , . ' . ' , r - While .this review, of (he piocreasivii dovelopmont of our revenue system, agd. of our material resources must necessarily in spire a just confidence in the pliyiical en ergies and financial ftrungih of our great commonwealth, it will also seivj, trust, bl osarying tli'eso I-elsliuhs in levies and sp proprisuons.,, f!. , ,TM fun lamenlsl principe,.of our reven- Ueaystem, lht ell property,, not rxempted upon pverruling oobsiderations of -policy sliiilJ.Opn tribute to necessary public eipf n Sssio just .proportion, to value, is now firm ly established in the oonvfctioosof (hepeo- people, and nothing w more certain than thai they will insist on its uniform and uni- versl appli0aliohr.4f tliora lie any das- scription of properly which has ihillurto! escsped.iust wntiibution,. the Leeislnturel unr.tontinrr ll,u n0hnl will nnt l,atiuta to subiflut it to, the. operation of the gener al principle, i'. , ,. It is a groat, merit of the system that is easily understood, and that the result of any given rate of assessmeut cannot mate Ihe humbler purpose of con'ributing to. a one account to another, It is to be observed, clearer u'mlerstandin'u' ( tlie relations of, nrnferrver, that more than the whole retired . i li' ' i from' all sources, except' levies, is either sbs iHxation aud disbursement to means of-con-1 JM oy lh ex,iehses of tM Public Works', tnbutioii. snd of ths necessity of carefu vi wri th Ppnitenitorv. nr snofinniiv nhnmttd. nallv neoeiveiSXpootatinn.- AS- the grand1 not properly constituting revenue, should be list supplies the basis of revenufl.and as the ! deducted, leaving the tn!e Sum lor disbiirse rl , . nl!, , . i ment, 868,940 dol. Of this there was disbar- necessary means to meet all State.cnunty an ! ge(, d'Hfi ' UeEeti 73o58, dol. Bnt as thb municipal expenses are provided by assess-j-,,,,!,, ,i1(i not exnetly represent revenue, so men's for State purposes on the entiae list, neither did the disbursements precisely repre- and for IocbI - purposes on the properly r I . .. r r J listed w.lbin the respective loc. .lies, inmuvu nojiintiiiDut wi levies iu uiu puoiiu needs, and of appropriations to levies, nan never bn difficult. The rates of levy be ing fixed, the revenue for the years inter veneing between general valuations cab a). ways be pradictod with reasonable certain ty. Tbe equalized valuation is the p rma nent, and the annual valuations are tho va riable elements of the 'Grand List. The equalized valuation once made remains un changed until the next valuation, year. The first Grand List after equalization ex hibits the aggregate subject to oontribut:on; and the Grand List of : subsequent , -years until a new valuation, wil),,oU course, e? hiliit the same aggregate increased oh di minished only by the increase or- diminu tion of !llie annual valuatioesj'The Grand List of no year exuept immddislely l atter. a goneral yaluationv br -in .consequonce of serhe;4egislAiive action.tbe.resulre ol wfaiob the Legialatiire must of pourse foresee. ean differ Widely from .that of dhe-preceeding yesr.iii!, vri' ' ' ' 5'ii"'-i!' l rl: - The gSnerul Assembly couvened irv.any year, has, therefore,- al waysat. :band, (he means of asoevtainiog,- With substhnlial ac- csrsby tbe evenuel of that aufl,.li- ssxt iisnsl "year., i Levies-. already, 'made en; the Graad List'.of the. preceedipg.wyear will 'produce the Xomr.,n(LU?ie8,lrU I? nine List of tha current ;yenr, o ratse, .uxwl. or ssnrtioaed b,ytht) Lnuislature jtstd.wjll produ.ethe latter. With a gisven, basis aud' givan) rates it is easy f to eonppuie;rev- Q0; TlUlOo i'J riiiA ,,o -'i With these observations IVJWH Mt,ti submit to you a JuggestipiLtnore than once ad dressed to your, predees8iirs?-i.hafc4t: i in (Jis'pensabie to every'fiound ilanijicfaljsyteiii that apprnpriStlons be' lifp'ted by revenues, wd'Rpeinlituresbyappro'Mial!diiS Tha;-rsnKoniniUi-KJiich hove (oimelinm stnbiKaas ed ou nflc8iir.,)r be traced, Sjlumsj, iojvu.ri bl); in llie absence of frinio',' lo a 'disregard nf this 'salutary principle. Nothlnjrblit an'6er- ruling enierKcncy-oaii juMtfy -ApprorniaUotis beynad vBpile,fqr'epeiiditdrta -beyend ap proprtationH. V'bi so justified ,tle . appio prjaliqns .in tho former case, should be prompt .provided tor' by, taxation; and tbei tfxpendi ttueS'in the Inlter case should be aa nroinntly rtpoilcd to the Legislature for its judgment JANOARYIS;:!; arid sanction I embrace this iwc'aslori to 'tuit' tfce irv. ' pedieiicy of requiring, under suifablp penal- 1 ?. nnrter xuitalrle nenal. . ties lot omission, all officers having cbarfft of worss or institutions, tn stale dixtinctiri tn amount, 83S,070 ilril. wufe na't'i (iW fhler- i connection fith erich artnrial repurt, whether ,et on Pntehrl debt,' is 2(6 'del. o'a tle'lw- j an debts, befond apMopriatyjns; wern ent- i-rrx-slie fVM; !5?,So9 doHaf en tlie Irrefli). standing "at the end of "tfie 'jetf s'fnRTJWnWTJeW W,75!Tlift3! 1Trpirriin.iri'- their precise nature andarrfotnt. ;. Forallsiich j went of the eipensri rtf fliis Kimd CorrrmiM- debts the officers contracting thcM are; nrt'ler ionera, incfudini; th cost of a siill for their tsistlng lawr, personally responsible, end their oflicej 1,300 dot. in disehafire f a i clsim oflfia. payment, without express leg'jlative sanction, cd t bi ' pSidMif f tw lt fjeaersl' Aerrl- out of any ailbstantial appropriatiorii should blyj nnd C'J,513 dol. in prirchase of bunds of be strictly prohibited. " in tins connection I also renev my reenrm ,nsJ mm payment. The"Sfr raletrrieridP rhehdotion of'an apprnpriatiou for each rer tnre was l.-ttt.fiM tll.i atWS-'bslaw:-'s of a sum sufficient to provide -srainst wjifor- left in the TreSsnryon2S,9i4 dol."- ' '' sen crncrgenr:ies, subject orily to the wnrtanU j It Will be seen that the revenue provided of the Governor.'to he drawn-' nn antisfnetury iby taw fut the pnymeOit f iofewton te Ti H evidehce of necessities' nhepectfcdljr requlr- lio Debt,' not rne!ndin the Teinpnrary Lrarr, fng estraonlinary expenditures.' t was injiilTicittit for that-pnrpose. The amount The public welfare would 'life'tvis be pro wa"nn was sboot 114,000 dol. - There riioted, in my judt;ment, if the seretal dCc-ers j' hovtv, in the Treasury a lwfeiim he of the Kxecutive Uciiartmeht.were ortam'JeJ '"nPn! t0 th Fd, derived from th as an nxecuuve uouucn. anil tecuired to mtet from time totime, and.Mhtntvcr ennvuked ty l,,jr P'Ttnent until next Maioh, tt fl as the Governor, fur 'consultation ahd action ii) "bo'ht htlter to sup;dv the deficient amount regard to public interests. The s ictieii of;,r'Juf bat source tha n-lo re.rt te 1hpoer such a Council to the drafts on tlie coatinxtnt '""pose a.ldillonal levies,' re-let hy the taat appropriation just proposed, would constitute, i"8"1 Asaetnbty lt the -Auditor (if KtaU-.-i-on ample eunranty airainst improii!t.nce and I f k public interest utn ptrhaps beat onnmilt abusc. . ' ", ' " M in thitii(Hifin.- tiUt itl.iVolv;dS-!epnrliir Th whoie " amount of receipt into th fmm tRal i"vl!,io" of llie-Temjwary Loan Treasury Awiat the last yenr wns Sl,5n,ir,i, Ar' wlwh rerjniros the proceeda-of th h-vie and the balance from the preredimj year 'ns for " P'ymei" to ha aluolutely reserved from 822G,liS, . The total sum JuMc-tt to disburses a" &A,tt applications i ami it n,ay I wll ment in 1S.rS,' was :t,746,272. ' j rjueationed wJiette r any advantage tamed h Of this sum $22,000 was'reatfteil ttm dJa'fls ' urM "I'-'P"'"" ought l.y prevail over ihe (on in anticipation 'of the revenue of. 1800. 9S,7.1J were received from levies, on the urand List or,.I8.'3, of one mill and a half on the dollar for Common Schools; ope tenth of rf mill for School libraries; nine tenths for Suiking Ktindjseren-twentietlis forreimbiirfe- mepl ol Temporary Lonn; and seven-tenths I '"I en" Mate Government.- llirte miMs nna elererJ-twentieths ol the do!- ar.' assessed' upon the taxable valuation of KTio,3ui',iiJi, ejiniuuer, ayineuran'J List on ISM, would naveprnflutcd, if rullv collected, S2,)SI,810. Tbe difference between ibis sum and the reveniie actually received nbnut for jy-'five tl-busand dollars Is aitribulable lo the costs of collection, variations between delin quencies unpaid snd delinquencies collected, and errors in asses'sirent." ' - The principal sources of revenue,'' olher ttinh levies, are Tolls and Water rents on the Pubbo Works; callectfons of surplus revenue; Proceeds c.f sates of lands'! Cnnvir.tJ,ihor; and Canal, Turnpike and Kaitroad Dividends.-, Of receipts from these and other sources be sides levies, some; classed as revenue, rarj not properly be considered such. ' Prboecdsof overwork of convicts for example, and collec tions' on old claims, and advances from cort tinuent fund of Executive' Officers, are not properly revenue! but either simple deposits, 1 or inenns made money, or mere transfers from aiedto the' Si'nkihi; Fnnd for the' navment of in'etest riri3 principal on tlie Public Debt. " Frit the' annual expenses of , the State foi F.ducntiont far Jlerlevolent inslitiitidn-l ana , for all departments of the Rurte Goverhment, no substantial reliartce can' be placed on any other sources of revenue Thart the annual rfev enue. ' ". . !,'' ' ' '" ' 1 ! ' The 'wble'amnriet)f disbdrserhefits dutirig 1859, tipon all SCcnurits, was 3,S52,i'0f, and the balance in the Treasury at its close, WD6 8193,578. '. " ' A more particulor review of the serernl branches of collection and disbursement will present, in a stilt clearer lieht, the finnncinl transactions of the year. . For the support of 1 the. State Government and Institutions there was collected dnring the vear, ffom levies on the Grand List, the snnl of tG03,617.' Re ceipts front licecses and auction duties; from it! hii PenHeatlarys from taxes, on Banks and , fh.ris(. nf i. w.i, ,m - j to?8S4,l07. Prom this sum several amount?, ! ent expenditures. For example, the sum of . n,,,,l Hltlmrpt whin ha , 'tpi.-oroW claim; nominally of that amount, In the hand of the proper officers for colleclioh: and the sum of 90,200 dol. was similarly charged, when the whole amount was paid, not for general pur. posts, but on account of Public Works, under the direction of your predecessors." The act ual disbursements for the Executive,' Legisla tive and Judicial departments, and all the be nevolent and reformatory Slate Insrtilutions, including the Penitentiary,' were, therefore, (126,838 dol.- The balance remaining was 101,691 dol. ' " ' For, the expenses of the Public M'orks there was received, from tolls and waHer rents on the Ohio Canal, 71,442 dol,;' ort thb Miami and Erie Canal, 114,237 dot.; ontheMuskmg um Improvement, lh,274 dol. i on the Hocking Canal, 17,301 dol.: on '.the Walhondiitg Ca tial, 475 dol., -on-the Western Reserve snd Mnumee Road,1 2,181' tloL j oij the'' 'National Road, dol.j from sales of Canal lands, 818 dot; and from Other soiitces,, 9,921 dol.j in nil', I lS.TU' tlnl." The disbursements were 3i!C.93'i dol. "Ths'r.hparent excess of outlay over incomcwns, tiieraioreyi',4is. aoi.j- ana this amount was paid from the Uertrml Keve nue, as has just been stated.'.' Of this 'sum, however, 1 P-l,084' dol. Was expended in 'phy merit for the Lewistown llescrvoir, httd fur other special purposes, outside of Uitr proper repnlri of the year. '' The real excess of cost over leceipt was 6,170 dol " ' ' ' ' 1 ' For common schools there vVere col'ceteden the grarid. list, 1,248,797 dob There was also coilectert on tftegraml-tisr,'iorcnooiii, mil as part of the levy for sinking fund, 5:I,M5,9. Una sum was the 'interest: oa,tii UrtiUiCibie DebW created ky-thefapprrrpiiation of the pro-l-.eedsof the sohool Iniuls to RenejalRtate pars poses.; Tha two sums,' with the balance (mm tho preceding yeniy ;forned an Aggregate vor school purposes of 1,418,617. dol-,' of :which were disbursed l,36-'),'iia dol., leaving a bal--l Dee of 04,7 KMM' ,... r.'. it .., ;.. J w. The amount eolleclen for .School. Llbrnriesi, already s,Utejl,.jviih the bnlsiice.ttf Lheprece-J hifrjefl:was; 79;6-9;lof.J) leaving a'tahitice'of. Ma-dell r.s Tir.iJt'jLii-tii" u-J iji.5 oi:l) d.Fs pnyaieot t ;lpb(,1ja;nd SfltetesV-Were. were, colh-cted (rom levies i,p21,12. of yflifcb'i 6,G79l7jluT. .The gtiwttr.hsrt, pfequrae, as 740,970' dolwro' for the general 'purpose ot applied in 'psymeaUoJ,iiirt;sl, Instead of ,te-' tlie '6lnklrisj"f iHirlsntl SteJaM'tloU' wcto Tot..4otion of piiucinal, ''...',,' . ' . . , Ths -TeimbnrWI rnent f-tht TeOipitrsry Lanni 'mere, weresisn resive4prui.-?iinjnp iiujm, irom ainplus.JlBvenye; dcmositttjl wilt), coun ties,' front sals of Schoo) La'ndsi liptd Caual, Torrijiikei'sitd Railroad dividends, snrffrnrs a few other ooitiparaHvely anitnpollarrt soilrnes, yi3.96'i dolt raid, fthers -r rekijuiM to the treasury, ft mplky jlrawp for Ui jiayoif nt of ; 1 J t interefsf. 2?,1I? dofr These sums, with'fTie bafeiteeef ti'fiffl ifof. from 158, nmotint;rt"lo 1.2". 0,238, 1.2 ,0.2'tS. which th nmn-inl nrliral,le to HinJiirl? unrl purpwefl in IM9. Of this 1h- Ternftortry I.6an, and other bonrti In t'i "'"i"""1; "" jsiderations - which enjoin strict' compliance with- the -law..' li is obvious, however,' that the additional tenea necessary te prwride for the interest of the debt should have been tnv posed by fj-'e Oenersl. Assembly its. If, fully advised aa it waa, as tfJ the anion ntf iatareal and the inadsquary-nf-thte provision made for It. Ihe respolisibilityoMhe necesssry lata tion tb'onld have been assumed- hy the I-eei- instead of beinj imposed on the Aud ' '- " '' '-" 1 " " ' ' --- - -V1.,-. .. ,..-,.,, ,,,- mtinieation, and numbered II, espest at one (Viewthe number f acres of hind oi the Brand Iirt tbeir-n-aliie; the value- of taisbwr tuwa loU and cliotlels, the-ft-verel airirrtalei. (i( State, county loco I Jeties, and the. rates of levy for State purposes in each of the last eight-rears. - It h-ill be aeeh that the avertte rate of taxation in the first half of that time exceeded curwiderably that in the last half: while-the agsreraie retenue of U ' Jat half excew'.ed -that- of Ihe first., This result -was produced' by tho Urt-ei aoeraee bans of tax' tion. in the iaa period. ' More lhau; the .whole eireu of-levies was for school pnrpowra ami the payment -of. debU contracted in the first period. ' :-'.a , '- Anolhrr tabular, statenient, numliered I, wilt show the yearly disbursements for Li-iris-lative. Judicial sad Executive expenses; fur the expenies of the benevolent and refornieto ly .institutions, Bad o account of -tire Publie Worss fur three peiioda uf four- years each the filet immediately preceding, anil Ihe two others immediately following ihe adoption of Uie existing Constitution. , It will lie see a, upon inspection uf it, that the expensea were largely inoreased after the adoption of Ihe con stitution; but that Ibey may have been con. siderably leas during the thud than diuint; the second xif .'thwe penoda.- The average yearW expenditure from IMMo 1361 waa 7-t8,C73 dot-; from I8bi lo ia."o inclusive, silding to the aunaieiit amounts the unauthorized debts contracted-wiibin those years anda'jl-aeqnent- ly paid, J,095,b2t dol.; from IS j6 lo t6i in clusive, Ueducling Irom apparent amounts, payment on account of debia previously con tracted, 9'J5,5-'1 dol. .When it remembered that during the last period lliei'Ublio U oiks have become a charge upn ihe general reve nue; .that to new lleformatory instilutiens have bees oreanized; that large additions have been made to tbe list of judges; that the Conptroller'a oftice haa been created; tbai four sessions of the Legislature havs been held; that a number ef aalatiea, especially of judges and- officers of tbe Uunrd of Public Works have been increased, and that other new-expenditures directed by the Legislature, may it not be toped that the rosulls of those- four years will be accepted as evidence at least of a sincere tlesire oiut eudeavorrOn tlie part of ..the.. Executive oHicers, to perform faithfully ttisir duties to ,the people I Besides the advance from the Treasury for repairs of the Hocking Canal, which has been heretofore explained to the Legislature, and will. be ago'n lully explained in i Ins common cation, no expenditures beyond appropriations and no debts incurred without authority, du ring the last two biennial periods, will em barrass tlie finances, or opposo the reveauea of future years. " I v. -. ,. .- .-; Permit me now to invite your attention to some observations upon the Publio Utrta of the State.: 'l'hatdebt, I need hardly repea', is of two descriptions; the Reducible and the It. reldcible. 1 The former represents loam from Capitalists! tha .latter -represents the proceeds of School Lauds granted by Congress-. The forniermay 'Je reduced bypsyiuenta; ihelatier must continue to increase as lon as the pro ceeds of school lands are lucd and funded as now directed by law Snd under the existing pledge of six per cent, to tbe purposes tor which the School lands were crnn ed, - t In- January, .1845, uftrr tlie completion of the Public Works, and after the abandonment of the policy of aid to public improvement by Slate subscriptions to ihe stock of ruilrvad, canal rmd-lumpiks companiesrthe,eniireilbt waa l,2.U,nu dol.:pt whu;U tlie Heduciide Delt.WJif I ,iVti,Poi dyJ.,uBu the IrreUjieible M&o,;) dOl. KruiOv that. tunc the IitiliiciMe dilit was griidually; duniuisbed,vuhtil, the' ,'.ili;fiucatiori and debl.'i..couira.ctcd in antic-ipntion of reve nue .ruatcil m. liectssity .for tha Tcinporarv Loan uf? 700,000 do.,, which, was utlio(iaed by yyut,predecessjfs iiid negotiated .ip. 185S, and hi reimbursable up l,Uu,Ut,Jul, (SiiO, aud ,ls,t:.M.arci, l8(iVt ix ;,!'.,. '.' ... ' v ...Auhe close, ofi Jb53- the entire .debt wns thus constitjueik The .foreitn dvpt was , ti21,lJ,'20 ,- lhe tlomesiioIlebU'iiS.StiiiloV msaim: mo wDoiojtueiuiceur irovi,, 24;3 20' the' Irreducible liebt was S'Vui J076 f&i and tiiexTeiuputajfy Loaji JCll.OCp tlofi. pin-, kiBK a, total ol I7,131lv. :. Irom this amount jnay-hjorurly bc.d,'eiluqteS jKt.iJM'jbjl,' alridy,qolleeled fur part payment .ofjMii; T W- B'HtJ.,w'lt.l ; itfT .-.-mi 01 V,.- ,.' ft will:be,.seen Dial, -in sixteen ffears toe pun-' lie debt .baa. been ruduccd only, by the su it has. bceii ruducL'd only, bv ,lie sum of 2,3ti8,(18fi.5... Jbe, 'jiihisiieeeiy'e4l.iD the jsame;VSie.,irop HMIputSy f yvenuc, saics ,or J8IUU, 110111 tlie. ptipiiq )i:oii;s, auu. a lew uxia ccUauuous. soukcs, oilier ibap. taxes, Provisions'. uf,', be. newCopsUlfii-ion pfobib- .ifedithe increase and reuuued Ihe.grauual ex- eial, Assembly, was iriteoilt,'4 toseEite 'hat re- nail ft II t lirifTstt-Ol. u-hehevef any nottion of the iabt iha l.heeurce' payablfc, theijss.iunK'lorl rnf hands to aa 'amount'sufficieol to discbprgel IT" ii-, t.-u.'i. ' ,A nt.i,r.'rSvibleT. estabi isEi);iNr'is?fev 4'" ' V in neb Iniftallmentaihrt-iSe. snBsaHery flilirei)'y the- ConUtuUo-wbk-aupplr the inennn lortlietr -MVmeni ur 1HH abatMaillVV nit imarrrqnire tbir:ruwnt atcoiuipglv without renewal and without delay.--,,." This plait, rf periientl 4tiied toaill eer'.ainJyesUaruith the who! leiacibW dltV) hut toe pertaB woale.tKriM thtf-no years, nl maiir circumatatioes may-occur Is twtpijm! or frustrate U -result My a it prtnieB' ia, that tfcei wishes ot'.lhm people would b Mler-ceaanllMt' by proviaurtjt fuf wilier 'payment and T)neqiieiil..itlil from Uiatioa frtntret.1btioia your'piauin b otherwise, you will do nothlna't truaMo ibm pair, but eveo'thin to aeeute the certainty ef pavmeot within the time limited " the acU - On th rrt of January. if it be the pleatuieof thti Stale, t8.4W.-. 27 oLtL;deb may be paid, . Tbe contract of. UiS loan, howf ever, does not impae (ho- ebbxatiorbof pay, ment al that time- -..The, whoie duly of. tiif tiiaie will be performed by puoetuaj, payment of interest, and sued piovisUui.f'JC.lha dis oharire of the i'rmcip4- rny-be retired by ihe intert-sts Mid waheaotthe-pecipls..,, , " WhetheT U ba-tkiiiighl Bspedientoraotte dnpt the arrtemeof payment propnnaMiy th ftl ol last year, someclins will probahlyjbe foimd neressary to the descript en of bond to be issn(.-fl. That act, m onrina'ty framed, and nail passed the Senate by a-'enamntous- vote, contain-! provisions exempting from taxation the bnndsta be issned undetit, and slso a jot liciofla diacriminalion in favor of Joato takers withui'the State.- It wiramendev in the-Hoste by striking out the provision fur exemption anem'.lujistinpv became a lawv- The discrmi inatiim in favor of dommtic boDlholder wsa bus converted halo a -diseri mi n alios -apani them; fori under tbe law as it nowatand.U ation uf bonds will not reach foreign "boldera I auryeat the expediency Ihrrefora, of SHrthst ixmir the Oommwaioneraof the Rinkiar Pundi if they shall beof opinio that the interests aa ttie State ret) u'iraa he payment of the ilebMipoa the arcioanrrf the-ripht nf psymeat, to-pro-.te lor it either by hew bonds, i any rale of iai teres t not exccedins five per cent, leiBibwta ble st p!eanrs, after a term net -exeeedta ten years, or fcy bonds issued ts ontenipuited by tbe art, aid bearing interest DOtexoeedinaj six per carrtw . tn either-case, Ihe boa da shr4 hear upon their face a stipulators expreaama the tru, character,-as subject nr not tubjret to reiUiohcm hv taxation o other If 4sa liondsof the Stale are to ha. taxed at aiW'ttere r f a mote reason, for dbair ;taxtin -in .tbe trend Df the foreign than-ef toe domestia kU dec. "Neither should bi taxett. or bfHlti. &oth should be taxed, if at all, not by uncertain as esnnents, lut teaerviag from-payments of In terest sums equal to the avenge taxes for alt pHrposta on other property of ctiual value- If it be oejected to this mode oi taxaltoa, timt it takta back with one hand the -interest paid, with 1he other, aad is therefore equivalent la a mere refasal to pay tha fuH .rateatipalaW the -answer is obx ians.lbat lb same objection apphta, just a forcibly, lo every anode of lax me bonds gives for moeey laruu-d Id the Slatn It is- a very aenoiis andia my ,jadgoient aa iosuprnble objection, nntess the rightof .laiv ation bo reserved en the f see of the beads whcansned,-xWxiethar bonds boariaKi juok resrrvationa will, find takers, ran only be de ternnned liy tnal.i..'rhan!ier will not.it more than prubaide and if they will not, it is carr ttn that tim taxation -of Slate bond is aik impolitirt,and unjnat. y k'n.'. t.1 .7 t recommend, therefore, siirh-leeislationa will give tbe sutjEited discretion ot the Coma mwsionars, tix beyond- liability.- to- alteratioa tbe rate ef interest, sad seem ths control, re duction and fiaal payment of debt, at the ear lies! time and in the mast economical aaode . The two great lines of canal, including ths Wabash and Erie, with ., their feeders, cost f 12,110,120 ; tbe olher canals, with the Mus kingum improvement, and tbe Western BeJ serve and Maumee Road, cost 13,467, 1 12, snd the amount subscribed to turnpike and railroad companies, was S3.226.C90, making an agjrer gate cost of 1 18,803,922. ,7 s. . T For a number of years,, the net revenues de rived from these works, though never snfli cient lo pay the cost of the investment; were veiy considerable., Tbe competition qf rail' roads, however, soon .deptived Ihem of a greal pait of lie business oa which reliance bad been placed for increase, and strength a mark-' ed decline took place. , Within the last few, years the outlay for repairs and improvement kaa exceeded the income. Tke real dfcienry lost year, afier deducting the extraordinary disbursements directed'by the Legislatures was not larpe, but there is little room for hope that it will be less herecfter, while there is muck ' ground for apprehension that it ,w411 be greater. 1 1, will certainly be greater, un'ess me intro duction of steam navigation, or other circum stances now unforeseen, shall enable the can als to snstain, at less disadvantage, the railroad competition. The cost of these workr, how, ever, has doubtless been repaid to the .State is the increased value of lands In the counties through which they extand. And this considi eration may well abate the censures which the debt contracted for their construction it apt to provoke i. while it auggeats caution and prudeiire in dealing with interests io important as are involved in their disposal. ' " i 1 luve heretofore expressed the opinion tht they should not be retained under State man agement, if s sale can be effected at reasons ble .price, and-uider such rfstiictions and liunrnntees as wYill secure to tue people me benefits of transportation originally comtem plated. Thatnpinlou remaina unchanged. With economical management in private hands, the etnais can brobably be made sufficiently productive to warrant the investment of soon sideraVile sunt in their' purchase.'' The reduc tion of theUebt by the Same amount; snd re lief from taxation for interest, recommend the sale-to the people at large while the suggest ed restrictions and guaranties.will prevent any loss Or inconvenience to tbe ihhabitsts of ths canal counties. ' 'v ; " ', ' The s:at stocks In Itirbp'ik'es and railroads sfihlitd nbt be included in any sale, unless the interest of the! price will equal the revenue hnW defivnd from them. ; 1 recommend -tiat attUiority'he' given to the Governor, to appoint art acfent with aronttf powers to -ascertain the condition of Kfl companies iri which 1e State hplds-,atoeks. 'l'he prorliiatrveiiesi investments xvonld, 1 kave ao doobt, be (rest ly enharrced by such sreinvtlgatn;?.H . Btienld yoir regard s-scala ot the CstiaISs epedies. end. i anroaws tenr vhey reMvn ender l(ie Slat MWJKM . nrietvof striotcomplianee, in -theith dimnista. ion wii" the-diteotiohs-orHhe'Constitution, Will, not tse questioned. The'aepsratioii-pf themlnto Sever fvisions,-ad tSs ssaigarsdnt nr ( trivisroh totheoontroi vf ssisgtosaem her sf the-Boartt'Of PttlriOf.WJrirks.'ainj deni, in most importantvespeetSrOf se Board itself, sesmsto me not only-inexswdsssrW kl of more than doubUul osUtuHosamyWJ w eommend( therefow,:sBsri saodificstion at the act SMhs lest Genital Ajsembly-oa-trusstib-; le-t ss seesSe. t Uiai whota4Bosi.he control of the-' PublloWorts whiefcis Cja.t Iu lion eommits to-its stlpritni!sro4 1 siso;. reewnmesd theiealoraisos '-,li?5' ilTe4f4vic ViAT.(Mlaerstf liSeae,iea't; ,. -:u.s. .'..'"-.'"1."- T ;-.