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THE PERRYSBURG JOURNAL.
45 The Amazon and its Tributaries. This is eminently an age of conquest. We mean not the achievements of war, but ihe triumphs of science, navigation, skill iuid civilization. And as an arena for these glorious exertions, a world aye, literally a new world is, we confidently hope, about to be opened to American speculation and en terprise. We refer to the river Amazon its vast and teeming valley its giant arms; in the form of tributary streams, many as great as itself, and all the fertile regions! which they water. Seldom have we perused work of travel with more deliht, than! Lieut, llerndon's Report of his exploration of the Valley of the Amazon, made under the direction ot the United States Navy depart u ie 11 t. present interesting and gratify boundless prospect of the future is opened, the uealth, industry and end of which no man can foresee. Visions of greatness in com merce, tropical agriculture, mining, steam boat building, lumber of the rarest kinds, gums, apices, medicines, gold and silver, involuntarily arise before the imagination, even with the indifferent though contempla tive readers who examine the subject. And such visions are the more agreeably indulg ed, because mingled with them, there is no coveting by annexation or otherwise, the land or property of our South American neighbors, but only a desire is cherished, that the Amazon and its tributaries shall be thrown five to American and European en terprise. In no other way can their im mense resources !) opened. So impressed, Not only is the information of the r . d gratifying, but indeed, were and are the novernments ofi Peru and Brazil with this fact that they not! only granted passports and everv facility to Lieutenants llermlon and Gibbon, (the lat- ter gentleman took a different route from the'8" furmer, and has not yet reported,) but seemed to take a deep interest in the success of the exploration, the suggestions that would be sure to follow it, and finally, it is believed, in the results of steamboat traffic, settle ments, plantations, and towns. Landing at Callao, in the United States ship Vandalia, and proceeding to Lima, we ascended with Lieutenant Herndon to the summit of the Corderilleras, through wild and mountain scenes, marking every successive elevation; by the barometer or the boiling point, until at no greater distance than sixty miles from the sea, we cross the great "divide," which wparaiM tne waters ot tne Atlantic irom those of the Pacific Ocean. And here we n .... , . . ian.se 10 reueci uiai wnue Deiween Hie Andes t 1 wwi :mtt win m u lnt a nort-mK K ! 4 if T , i Vi i.i V i . : r land-all the wealth and broad extent of oouth America, for thousands of miles, lie these same Andes and the Atlantic TT ?";? ,'!,VMit a '7S cf the, mn' ... . , 1JO i,.lttt -um V- VC , "' ic jxuLiAim. . imon wiiaieieva- rSlul,m , , ,B iiiounwin arw, Ul .midlUlllMH, IIUUC WIIIU11 CVPn All) upon Alp is piled, though the Pass itself is 16,199 feet above the sea about 1,000 feet higher than Mount Blanc, in Switzerland. And yet the way across is not as difficult as the Swiss Passes of the Simplon or St. Ber nard. Snow, icy cliffs, barren peaks, fearful j treci pices are everywhere around, while the clear and rarified atmosphere produces some difficulty in respiration. The small towns and settlements that are passed, and where our travelers were on all occasions received with kindness, were inhabited almost exclu sively by Peruvian miners. Silver ore is abundant, but the process and machinery for extracting the metal are described bv Lieut. 11. as so primitive and imperfect, that should ever the rich beds in the hills be oper-1 atedupon by the modern inventions in steam and machinery, the yield will be abundant and thus the treasures in the bowels of the Andes are destined to enrich some future generation. Many of the mountain streams bring down their golden sands, showing that there are 6torcs of that metal in the volcanic , masses of rock. Silver is the chief mineral, yet there are also copper, quicksilver and lead. But our own California is so familiar to every one, that it will hardly be necessa ry here to describe particularly a mining re gion, of the Andes. We have therefore re ferred to it very briefly, but ought not to leave the subject without eaying that in the interior and unexplored parts of Brazil and Peru, east of the Andes, it has been thought for more than two centuries, that the richest mines of gold and gems in the world are to be found. Steam power on the Amazon and its tributaries would 6oon throw these open to mankind. The savages of those regions but seldom see the white man, and they are jealous of him, and even of his Indian allies as theX had the treasures to guard that are so ardently coveted by civilization. Traveling from Lima, which is only 476 miles above the sea; we ascend gradu a a' for forty rriles, and then rapidly for twenty or thirty miles more. We then de scend the eastern slope to San Ramon, which is 2,953 feet above the Atlantic and thus tne mountain region extends lor about 187 . t mi . i i . a!mups. inence, partly Dy canoe navigation, to lingo JUaria, about one hundred and lilty miles further. This town or post is located on the Rio lluallaga, contains a population of only one hundred and forty-eight souls, is delightfully embosomed in a valley with a river in front and a screen of lofty moun tains behind. The productions of the coun try are sugar, rice, cotton, tobacco, indigo, maize, sweet potatoes, &c. The woods are alive with parrots, monkeys, wild turkeys, wild ducks, rattlesnakes, and all kinds of serpents the foliage is rich and varied, here and there vivid with flowers while the puma or American lion roams amid the forest glades. Here, it may be said, the valley of the Amazon, along one of its main tributaries, begins, and here for a time, we will leave Lieutenant Herndon and his greatness yet to come. Pa ""'. preparing to descend the ever-flowing waters to the estuary of the Amazon a voyage of many a weary month, through niay a beauteous and many a wild scene suggestive ul national and commercial The London Fire Brigade. A correspondent of the N. Y. Enquirer gives an interesting history of the Fire De partment in London, from which the follow ing particulars are gathered: The present organization was established in 1853, and so perfect is the arrangement, rinnl,i..lfi c:v, mS M : f ' f fi j estimated at upward s of 458, nnn nnn ' .: t.. , ui mc wines mat numoer oi aoi- inrs . a,1ri i,11u flMa . .. , u. , uuu iiiuiigu nao me 11UI1JL1UU5, blllll ence, is protected by 109 firemen, and 53 : Tl- I. - J? T r . i engine, me vaiue oi nouses, lumnure anu merchandize in London, subject to fherava- tensive and sweeping conflagrations as (lesolate our large cftiel are comparatively very rare. TheSuperintendent o the Bri lKtween Lade says their suces3 in conqueri the Element imilts from their concentrated uuuielforts to prevent its buildings, rather than t tinguish it in the gained the mastery; ( ,, r,f t, TtWa,! district pread into adjoining rom attempts to ex- houses where it has once and thinks that the States do not realize that in their eagerness to preserve a large building which cannot be saved, they ex pend an immense amount of energy and time and water to no purpose. The first object should be to confine the flames to the place of their origin by playing upon sur rounding buildings ; prevent the possibility of their spreading, and then extinguish them if possible. The Brigade, as now organized, consists of one Superintendent and fourteen foremen, each being appointed to a district which he never leaves, except on some pressing occa sion, and who, in the absence of the Super intendent, has the sole command of all en gines or firemen who may come within the There are 12 engineers who get about $7 per week each, and a free house ; seven sub engineers at $6.50 per week 32 senior fire men at 8639 junior firemen at $5, and 14 drivers, who, with the horses to draw the engines, are hired from the cab proprietors by the year. These men live at the several stations, are clothed by the committee, and are always ready when required. Their uniform is serviceable and plain. Only four firemen and one driver go with an. engine when sent to a fire ; the hose is carried on the engine, the men ride upon it, and drive at a furious rate, without ' bells or horns, everything, as if by mutual consent making way for the Brigade. At the fire the levers are manned by the bystanders, each of those working being paid one shilling for the first, and six pence for every succeeding hour, besides refreshments. The foreman of each district makes a minute, daily report of the fires in his depaatment to the chief in office, these are embodied in another made by the Superintendent, and forwarded to each of the Insurance Unices with which the Brigade is connected. Each constable who discovers a fire with out having his attention called to it by an other person, receive $2.50 from the Bri gade. This causes vigilance, and upwards of 4,000 men are on the watch all night for fires. The men who arrived with the first engine receive 30 shillings, the second 20 shillings, and the third 10 shillings 10 shil lings are also given to the first man who turns on water. On the Thames are floating engines for the protection of property on the wharves and docks, and along the river side. The entire annual expense of the Brigade is said not to exceed 30,000 dollars. The Garden. April come, and not a moment is to be lost in preparing the garden. No good farmer will deprive himself and his family of the advantages and comforts of a good garden. A plenty of vegetables, besides be ing a luxury to tempt the fastidious palate of the epicure, is a matter to be thought of on the score of economy. And a little time and labor, judiciously bestowed, will secure to a family a full supply. While referring to this subject, we will venture to suggest that a garden laid out in good taste, writh suitable walks, and some regard to straight lines, is much more easily tended, than one conducted on the haphaz ard principle. Such vegetables as are sown in drills can be kept free from weeds with very little trouble, especially if the proper kind of implements are used. Onions from the small seed a profitable crop by the way, even for field culture can be cultivated with very little more labor than would be required for potatoes. For peas we can recommend the dwarf kinds, as they save the trouble of procuring brush. As a substitute for the common bean poles, drop a kernel or two of corn in the center of each hill, and those unsightly ob jects may be dispensed with. In planting cucumbers and melons, dig a hole for each hill, large enough to receive two or three shovels-full of strong manure cover it to the depth of an inch or two with earth then drop the seed and cover it about an inch. The striped bug will not be likely to trouble you. Ashes are a solvent for Bones. Bones are a valuable manure and should be regu larly thrown into a pile on every farm. But how, asks the farmer and gardner, are they to be dissolved and used T We will tell you. Bones, if placed in a pile and covered with wood ashes, the ashes of fossil coal, leached ashes, or common sand, and left ex posed to the rain and atmosphere will soon crumble into powder. This manure is worth about as much as Guano. Test the matter for yourselves. Western Enterprise. We notice that the Pioneer and the Democrat, published at St. Paul, Minnesota, have both determined to issue daily papers on the first of May. Both of them are capital papers, and we wish them abundant success. In June, 1850, we visited St. Paul, and it was then a' small town some two years old. To require at this time two daily papers, shows great and permanent progress in wealth and popula tion, as well as commendable enterprise on the part of the publishers. Chicago Press. John Mitchell and the Irish. The Cit izen publishes editorially what it calls " A letter to the survivors of the Irish in Ireland under forty vears of age; signed by John Mitchell." the pith of this letter is, that all patriotic Irishmen ought to withhold their sympathies from Great Britain in the war with Russia ; that if Austria and Prussia range themselves against the red cross of St. George,' irishmen ought to pray for the suc cess of their arms. Postage. Messrs. Jones of Tennessee and Houston of Alabama, in the House of Rep resentatives yesterday, declared themselves in favor of raising tne rales of Postage, be cause the Post-Office Department now costs more than it produces. The answer was prompt and conclusive : The conveyance of letters and documents under frank, alone, costs the whole of this excess, if not more. Abolish the franking privilege, and the De partment will instantly pay its way. That, however, does not suit Messrs. Jones and Houston. They prefer to pay nothing for their own letters and for sending their stupid speeches about the country, and to tax every hard-working man to cover the expense. Of course these gentlemen both belong to the slave-driving Democracy. If they could only get slavery into Nebraska and stop-the circulation of letters and newspapers in the free States, they would probably regard the country as safe. Shall they be gratified ? N. Y. Tribune. Earthquake in Calabria. The English newspapers do not sustain the telegraphic report as to the extent of the loss of life by the earthquake at Calabria. A Naples letter states the number of lives lost at 2000. An other account, purporting to be the latest, states that the loss of life was calculated at upwards of 3000. There was, it seems, a succession of earthquakes. At Cosenza, the capital of Calabria Cilra, the castle is said to have been destroyed, and all the garrison buried in the ruins. Cosenza is situate about 12 miles from the Mediterranean, on the mar gin of a valley surrounded by hills, at the confluence of the Citra and Busento rivers, the latter passing directly through the town. The castle mentioned as having been des troyed, was an old castle which had been converted into barracks. It crowned the summit of one of the hills. The city has suffered much from earthquakes, particularly those of 1658 and 1783. Boston Traveler. I , , ,. ,-, The California Filibusters. The U. S. sloop of war Portsmouth was sent by our government to the Pacific to suppress the fillibustering expedition of" President Walk er," in Lower California. Late letters have been received in which it is stated that the ship arrived at Ensinada, at which place Walker and his band had their head quar ters. Instead of attempting to prevent their foray upon the peaceable inhabitants of Cal ifornia, the officers of the ship waited upon Walker, to whom they were introduced bv his adjutant general, and " dined with him on the most friendly terms ;" and this is the. last news we have concerning them. This is certainly a new way of treating out-laws and pirates. . Improve your own Stock. It should be remembered that all the superior varieties of cattle and sheep, for which we are paying the English breeders such enormous prices, are the result of proper crosses upon the once inferior stock of that and other countries, and there is no reason why the American farmer cannot make still greater improve ments on our present stock, with a more perfect adaptation to our climate. Wool Grower. At a late trial, the defendant, who was not familiar with the multitude of words which the law employs to make a trifling charge, after listening awhile1 to the reading of the indictment, jumped up and said, " them "ere allegations is false, and that 'ere alligator knows it !'' We remember being at a conference meet ing once, in Yankee land, ' when one of the deacons came asking the people if they want ed salvation. Near me sat a butcher bov of 19 years old, about as amenable to salvation as a lamb in his hands would have been to mercy. ' " Do you want salvation ?" said the Dea con, looking into his brutal face. "No, darn you I want Sal Skinner, and the sexton won't let me take her out till meet ing's over." A Broaiiside into Nebraska. The N. Y. Mirror understands that the 3.500 New Eng land clergymen who petitioned against th? Nebraska bill, will all preach sermons 'On thi subject on the approaching " fast day."