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1 J i J 1 1 ; .A .1 TELL THEM TO OBEY THE LAWS AND. UPHOLD THE CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES." Last Wokds or Stephen A. Douglas. TOLUME TI.; XO. :31. ' UEBANA, OHIO, "WEDjSTESDA-Y, OCTOBER 23, 1867. WHOLE ffUMBEB 23?. URBAKA UNION w . ii o XT : irriCI: Champaign National Bnr.k Building, f second and third iloors,) VYcsUideNortbMain- atreet, near the Square. TiKMS: 12 00 per annum, invariably in ad vance. 11,25 foroix MoDthe. LAW tf lEWSMPEIt: Liabacribertiriiodo not giveexpressnotice to the contrary, areconsideredae wishingtoci, n tinne their subscriptions to the paper. 2. If subscribers order the iiscontinnance of their periodicals, the publisher may continue to end them antil all arrearages are paid. 3. If subscribers nerlect or refuse totaketheir perlodioalsfrom theolliceto whicbthey weredi rected,ihey art held responsible tilltheybaTe tettledthe bill and ordered tbemdiscontinoed. 4. Ifsabscribersremoveto otberplacea with oot Informing the publisher, and the papers are enttotheformer direction, they are held re annnftihlf 5. The Cocrts have decided that refesingto lake oerJodicalsfrom the office.orremovineand leaving them uncalled for. is primafacie evi dence oi intentional traca. BATIKS. Citizsss National Bank. 3. B. ARMSTRONG, - - PRES'T IS. G. WILEY, CASITR ayatutarest to holders of United States Bonds wlth oat charge ; buvs and sells Coin and Exchange, and, drafts on the principal cities of Europe; and does a ttauaral Banking Business. ' Direrlnrt: ' EDWARD JENNINGS, DANIEL Bl.OSB. wir.u M WILET, JOSEPH HILL. ADAM MOSftROVE, J. H. BLUSE. OLIVER TAYLOR. J. B. ARMSTRONG. -iy- TIIE -Chaapain National Bank ... . OF UIIBANA, United States Depositary AND FINANCIAL AGENT. Directum: r n ROSS JAMES A McLAIN". UKNRY WEAVER. O. T. CUNDIFK. n. f. ssr Prcs"t SlOO'IiEWARI " For a medi.7ie that will ctr INFLUENZA. TICKLING fc: thf THROAT. Wlrt'OI'lNG COrGIT, or relieve , ' ' "' . CONSUMPTIVE qnics as- COE'S'COUGH BALSAM! 1 -'t - T T -I; "I .r-? It ih (nl to erpectornte Ireelv. sa '.: an-Me C - pit Two or tlife dosis "Will Invariably Care Tickling in the Throat ! A half bottle has often completely cured the most Stubborn Ctmgk. and yet, though it is so sure and needy in its operation, it is perfectly harmless, being pnrelv vegetable. It is very areable lolbe taste, and may be administered to children of any age. In cae of CROUP we will guarantee a cure' if taken in season. No Family should be Without It! It Is within the reach of all, U being the cheapest and best medicine extant. C G. CLASS, k CO., Proprietors, . NEW HAVEN, CONN. ri5J-ly. O O E ' S DYSPEPSIA CURE! vr-ITIS GREAT REMEOT FOB ALL DISEASES of tt STOMACH, l the discovery of the inventor of Coe's jaluahle Conth Balsam, while "perimentin? for his own health It cured Cramp In the Stomach Torhim which had before yielded to nothi nc but chloroform . The almost daily testimony from various parts or the country encouraee us to believether,. ,Snodisease eaud by a disordered stomach it will not speedily cure. m Physicians Endorse and Use it I OISTESS GIVE TESTIMONY CF ITS EFFICACY! And from all direetlona we receive tidings of cures performed. JJYSPErSIA! It is sure to cure. HEARTBURN ! On doee will cure. - SICK-HEADA-wilLl . It has cured in hundreds of cases UEADACUlv AND DIZZINESS! It stop. In thirty minute". ACIDITY OF TUB STOMACH! It correct, at once rnm, It tops iintnediately. (DISTRESS AFTKii KA l"iS"! One Jo-e v i 1 1 remove. - - ' ; CK.H.EKA J0EBCS! v.'f? .1'd t f,BW' ' - ill beeh:in:ru wiiii nana . f a bottlr . IS PERFECTLY KAH rXPREC-EUENTl-:!) Sl' i"IS is o-.vi!i? to the t that It Cures by Assisting Nature TO KB-aSSTfltT-TiBR S'VAT 15'TIIK TST3M! Jfearlr cvervde.il.-r hi ihcfn::cd Ru.!.. k?. at ONE FHILLAK I'EIt Bui'TLE. C. G CLA.EK & CO., Proprietors, NEW mVRV. CN. sr,i-iy E.o.w. . - - POTVTVVr. J. W. IIOIjX, Job Printer, Union Office, Wi'l xocnt- a'.'. w-?rl: entrust- c a. awsss and dispatch, in tno iu, witii LatMttitd Most Attractive Styles, rzzoTocnArmc. Z. H. T. AKTHOKY CO., Manufacturers of Photographic Materials ' irnoi.ESALB AT1 RETAIL. 501 BUOADWAT, 17. V. In addition to our main business of PHOTOGRAPH K' MATERIALS we are Headquarters of the follow ing, via. SIIBECSCCFES & STEREOSCOPIC 1117,1 Of American and Foreign Cities ana Landscapes. Groups, Statuary, etc. STEREOSCOPfC VIEWS OF THE WAR, From negatives made in the various campaigns and forming a complete Photographic hietory of the great contest. Stereoeoopio "Views on G-lnsa, Adapted for either the Macic Lantern or the Stereo scope. Onr Catalogue will be sent to any address on receipt of Stamp. PHOOGEAPHIC ALBTJXS. We mannfactnre more larwl v than anvotherhonRC bont SiW varieties from 5o cents to $ V) each. Our Ai-niMS nave the rcpnution of being superior in beamy and duraVlity to any others. Card Photographs of Generals, Statesmen! Actors, etc., etc. Onr CnUlotrne embraces over FTTE THOUSAND different en bjwti.iucludinff reproductions of the moit celebrated EntrravinL's, Paintings, Statues, etc. Cata lopTies sent on receipt of stamp. Photographers and others ordering goods C. O. D., will please remit 35 per cent oi the amount with their order. tTbe prices and qoalityof our goods cannot fai ' to satisfy. n&i7-ly. 1 To Consumptives. THE Advertiser, having been restored to health in a fpw week, bv a very simple remedy, alter hav ing suffered sevrraf years with a severelun affection, and that dread disease. Consumption is anxious to mnke known to his fellow-scffurere the means of cure. To all who denire it. he will send a copy ot the pre scription used, (free oi charge), with the directions for preparing and uins the same, which (hey will find a run Cure for Consumption. A tfhma, Bronchiii. bc. The only object of the advertiser in sending the Pre scription, is to benefit the afflicted, and spread infor mation which he conceives to ie invaluable ; and he hopes every suflerer will try his remedy, as it willcnet thjm nothing, and niayprove a blessing. Parties wishing the" prescription, will please ad drees Rer. EDWARD A. WILSON, WilMameburgh, Kings County, New York. n233-ly. GROCERIES. MMENSE EXCITEMENT!! AND STILL ANOTHER -&,r B JZ TT I H. G. a B. W. HAPPERSETT Rave plscri th Q u ; C .K AND is r VFTo on tbp oTd ticU'-k1. of con- 4 v:'T.Z t''TJ'-r. SALES READY H PAY MOTT O. pioTit? ir til' ' j r : ; i TV .-lllliU. tall a ! eaeu cut a 1 Omc'iiniiti Lartre 3 I M 5 L k direct from the era market, and which, will be iuld lower t'u-.u tiie lowelor cah. Tbey Tve everythine belonging to the stock of a well suppiieaaua wen reuiuica PROVISION STORE, Flour and Meal, Tankee Notions &c. And in fact everything generally kept for sale in a No 1 Grocery and ProviMon store. fjv Butter. Lard. Eetts. Apples, Chickens and v. ..V fhinT of the nrodnce kind tnken in ecbartre fnt Groceries. The HIGHEST MARKET PElCESpaid in all cases. The patronage of aliberai public is solicited. BS-Tinn't Vnrfrpt t.rifi Plfl Pfi' South-east corner of Public Square, Dr bana, Ohio. n-226-tf. H. G.4 D. W . II APPEESETT. BUILDING. JOHN QUFIN. CHAS. ACKERMAN. nnif!rTP rpifil I M?3V QUEiri & ACKERf.1Afl, ArcMects, Contractors ani Builders AND 3f ANTTACTURXBS OF SMI. MilSt IISIS, Window & Door Frames, URBA3VA, O. 0FFICE--At the Old Urbana Machine Shop. With tc ncwept r.nd 3Itst li.iprorcd . Much iuery wo nri rmmrtred to mflTinfirtnrc nv,i pnt nn the nent-el.'tlit- nnt oriiaiufiit.nl an-1 aioi coinplictei Carving :.nnl Vi'""aiilali.s. al-o PLANS OF HOUSES, i -It tiiV !MT,f ?iiittc f r ''pitirr he t stt c: MEAT MARKET! The nndersTfmcd has opened a Meat Market In TJr bnna at Han i C onnor's (irncery, on lie r--r; r.?e; illtd qiril'lv. licit- eft:! 1 .., . . ft-.- Lull ui.ii sic fr join. . .' inihlic putron ;t !,r irutsof the beit 'u'jiKMB CA&sr. j t AGRICULTURE. ADDRESS, Delivered at Champaign County Fair, October 3d, 1867. BY JOHN H. KLIPPART. Agriculture is the law of all civilization. If we read the history of the world care fully and attentively we will find that thcxe nations who directed their attention most largely to agriculture, became the most civilized; in a word ihot-e nations that were good agriculturist's, possessed an eminent depree of civilization, whilst those without agriculture remained barbarians. Eerpt is referred to, by historians as the cradle of civilization. Why? Were the Egyptians a race of people possessing a higher degree of intellectual ability than other races? If so, then, new races must have been created since their day: and we certainly have no record of any such oc currence. But, the Egyptians possessed the invaluable, inexhaustible river ile which annually overflowed its banks, and by this means fertilised their fields, and rendered agriculture very simple its prac tice very productive in results. Because it was simple and rewarded the laborers toil with granaries, which supplied the then known world, the Egyptians attracted to themselves the wisest and best of mankind, and laid a permanent foundation for com merce. This commerce in its turn intro- ical arts; which latter were the basis of J manv of the se ences. rom Je-gytt a from a common centre radiated in all di rections the elemental rays of civilization, science, arts, commerce and agriculture. Wherever these sciences and aits were in dmduced unaccompanied by agriculture, they were soon lost, but on the other hand, wherever they were accompanied by agri culture proper they flourished developed the intellectual abilities of the nations among whom they were introduced, and, in a word civilized them There is an intimate connection between j agriculture and the mechanic arts, and the I one cannot flourish unaided and unas-rsted i the other. So long as Greece and Rome j gave a due share of attention to these I hrwhes of productive industry, so lonz j did thev flourish; so long also were the arts esteemed, and developed to tne greatest degree of excellence of which these nations at that time were susceptible, and theirde velopment of the sciences astonished the world. The success, growth and develop ment of these nations, were much more inti-mafely connected with agriculture than even thev. themclvps supposed. From iw moment that agriculture was entirely con tided r.o their slaves, from that moment !did lh..' iIm'hv mid deeltneof tli'i-eKinpircs ooinmence. Greece pae.l through many set rr ordeals under LveurL'US and other r'tlers, an-! vet flourWied, heeaiiM heratr r! rii'tire b'ui eniUCd in i's lpha'.f the Ivest hrains, :thd rriost -killful hands in Greece. Afier t!e death of Alexander, she rapidly .eei-n-d, c;tu-e agriculture no longer re ceived Mint attention which was aforetime lvetowed on it. When the Romans re tained 'heir prisoner of war as slaves, and entrusted the asriculture of the Empire to their ignorant and unskilled hands, her decay and downfall wa fully assured. So lontr as German freemen tilled thesoil they owned, all Germany flourished, but when thesoil was entrusted to the coinpu'sive labor of the slave, then a Cimmerian dark ness "ettled over the land, and it was only when the proprietor bimselfasrain followed the plow tail that there was a revival of letters, and amonsr the first fruits of the latter was the further step in civilization, the Reformation. To-day Germany has enlisted her best minds and most skillful hands in the pursuit of agriculture and the application to it, of all the treasures of art and science as yet known, and now the agriculture of Germany occupies the front rank in the world, and the time will not soon come when it will bedoubted whether Thaer, Liebig, Mulder, Hoffman, Stoeck hardt, Emil Wolff, and Gronven were myths, or real beings, as many have doubted the existence of King Arthur of England.' The government of any country so far as its prosperity ia concerned is a secondary matter; but its agriculture is of primary, and the very highest and greatest impor tance. Underthe most tyrannic and severe governments Egypt maintained a position challenging a respectful consideration from other nations; she maintained her position so long as she devoted great atten tion to agriculture; but the very moment she neglected her agriculture ard relied upon her other resources, the black waves of ignorance and yet blacker ones of degra dation rolled over her until she was nearly swept into oblivion. In Germany during the feudal aces and feudality was perhaps the mildest form of a tyrannic government, agriculture was neglected and the Empire resolved itself into almost countless petty governments nominally an Empire and ruled by courtesy by an Emperor but in reality governed by an hundred petty tyrants. When the land was divided into small parcels, and the owner cultivated it with his own hands then agriculture as:ain flourished, and Germany becameoneof the most powerful governments on the face r.f the globe. The position of Germany in the sisterhood of nations, her intelligence, her wonderful progress in arts and sciences, due in a much greater degree to the per fection of her agriculture than to any other cause whatever. Sweep away hpr agricul ture, ami tyranny, anarchy, degradation, disohition and oblivion await her. In Franco, a failure of tho crops always in nuL'tinites a revolution from this we can see how government is dependent upon successful agriculture, whilst agiiculture is by no means dependent upon government. To me, for one, it is very clear that pro gress in Htrricultiire cannot be made with out intelligence; hut I must not be under stood as eonfotindins intelligence with "'o'(.- 1rarniiif).n I have known persous who possessed rather more than an average share of intelligence, and had at the same time very little Ivook learning; whilst some the fc-ivfifi st "Look worms" that T ever Knew, had comparatively very nine iinei pi-nce. ilireHivf.! k!. .wl., lej.dv pr. rh ok learning is simplv an aid to ice, whilst intelligence itself is g,-. ".! nervation, experience a .itivreheiion. When we are in-.v,. what, when and where to w hen we are taught how to fit ly experience when we are taught bow to connect what we nave observed wilh what we have experienced, so as to furnish lis with a certain and unerring iruide for future usefulness, then, and not till then, have we become intelligent. The first element of progress in agricul ture is observation; and yet it is a singula- aer, that of all classes of the Industrial nnti ns, the ng'icultnrists of this nation h'tvp profited les by o'.vservation than any other clii-s and hence it is, that so little pr-igrcs na iveen mane ny mem; hence too, a is is eo many experiments attempted by them will not bear renetition. Thev have ob served a port, but not the whole; and the part isolated, is of no more real value than if none at ail had been made. In illustra tion of this we may refer to the very com mon fact that one man applies gypsum or plaster of paiis to his crop and obtains an extraordinary yield, another sees the crops and learns that plaster has been used, and straightway applies plaster to his crops, but with no apparent beneficial result. He should have observed the kind of soil, its mechanical condition, and should have in quired into the previous culture and rota tion of crops. Like causes always produce like results under the same circumstances, but unlike causes under dissimilar circum stances cannot produce the same results. Now, how shall the Ohio farmer be'ome an intelligent observer? You will all admit that more progress has been made in the past twenty-five years, than in the preceeding twenty-five. Within the last twentv-five vears" County Agricultural So cieties and the State Agricultural Society have been called intoexistence. The County Societies have brought agriculturists to gether, where they could compare with the object before them, the products of the several sytems of management and pro cedure. The superior product attracted their attention, because it was a physical thing which they could see and feel; ami therefore made a stronger and deeper im pression on their minds, than if they had received the account at second hand. Year after year improved and new aarrieultural implements were presented at thec annual exhibitions; the practicability of the adop ,ion n attain the end for which they were constructed addressed itself to the eve and the judgment, and gradually the severer labors of the farm were transferred from human bone and muscle to the iron and wood of the agricultural machine. These agricultural exhibitions at our State and County "Fairs have accomplished a purpose or attained an object in twenty-five years, that agricultural newspapers, or agricultur al books would not have accomplished in a century because they have presented the Improvement, in no speculative manner in icaineu ani lecnmcai essay, or elegant discourse, but have simply presented the improvement to the eye and through it ad bv e?se.d thf understanding. The farmerin P1"" hs n"t readme man, and what little np,.d.nt's read, is either news of the day, politics or religion; and not one in one ;" ' i....aui lunaiuicmas; riculture as a physician reads the literature of his profession, or as the lawyer reads mat or uis. mere are in Uluo at Iea 400,000 farmers, arid but a single agricultur al paper, which in its palmist day had less thau 10,000 subscribers, or less than one subscriber among every forty farmers. On the other hand there are 230 political and religious newspapers in the State. Among these is the Cincinnati Gazette which has a weekly circulation of nearly 50,000, a daily circulation of nearly half thatamnunt, ant a semi-weekly of perhaps 10,000; making an aggregate of perhaps 8-,000 subscribers, or an aggregate weekly circulation of 220.000. Now if the Gazette were the only political or nf'paper in the State these ngures would not he surprising, but when we remember that there are '229 more newspapers in the State advocating the same or similar topics, one must be stolid and stupid if he cannot indicate the eetieral tendency of the reading commun ity. If one lawyer in riftv onlv kent him self fully posted on the enactment of new- laws, the repeal or amendment of old ones, and the decisions of the supreme court, and the other forty-nine depended upon their attendance at court to learn what was new in the legal world how much confidence should the public repose in these forty-nine as to tneir competency and amlitv to prac tice successfully? Suppose one physician only in fifty kept himself fully advised of tne progress and niseovenes in medical science, what would be the status of the profession to-day? Simply this, thev would in fevers, prescribe calomel and jalap, and forbid the patient to drink cold water so long as the fever continued, which system in this, our day would kill ten, to where it would cure one. What if one merchant only in fifty subscribed for a Bank Note Detector, or Price Current, is there any certainty that one-half the money he received would not be either counterfeit or wort hless and his buying and selling prices be governed by the merest whims. JSo, in this day of steamships. railroads, and telegraph, reading is indis pensable in the successful prosecution of any Drancn or productive industry, com merce or proiession. uut as i said before these annual Agricultral Fairs have ac complished tnat which books and news papers could not accomplish in the same space ot time, namely: they have awakened deep interest in rgricultural matters, and tne reason is simply this, farmers believe that writers or bookmen know nothino- of agricultural affairs, and this belief is a very serious impediment in the improvement 6f agriculture, i ney iorget that there are several classes of persons in the world; one class, the theoretical men like Liebig, Emil Wolf and Stockhardt. who under stand all about agriculture, but perhaps could not plow a single furrow properly to save uieir uves; tne otners are practical men, who can perform all agricultural operations, but cannot possibly explain why one grain of wheat will sprout and grow whilst the grain lying by its side will not grow. Or in other words, the one class like a man who manufactures locomo tives, but cannot run one on a railroad, and the other class is like the engineer who will run a locomotive sixty miles an hour, but cannot possibly build one. Now when the farmer declares that the oooAtnan can know nothing of agriculture, it is just as if the engineer Kiid that the manufacturer knew nothing of a locomotive notwith standing the latter built it. There is a vat deal more known of ag riculture as a science, than there is prac ticed of it ns an art or handicraft. To im prove and develop our agricultural resour ces, we must bring these two classes of men together; the scientific man must take the practical man by the hand, as a fellow laborer in the same cause, and the practical man must learn to respect the opinions of the scientific man, the same as I he respects the opinions of his lawyer. doctor, or preacher. There is no antagon ism between scientific and practical agri culture; the one is simply a demonstrator the other; science suggests whilst prac tice performs, or practice discovers whilst science explains and records it. But there a jealousy and a mistrust, which has been engendered by a misunderstanding, or absolute ignorance of the relative position which each one occupies. How are these two classes to be harmoniously brought to gether? The annual Fairs present an op portunity, but in a very partial manner. The practical farmer here sees at a glance what some of the natural sciences can fur nish, in the shape or form of scientific principles wrought out and niadu manifest the various kinds of implements and machinery, nice niaeiiines and lmple- meuts he can sec ami feet, and they mani I to in of to to fest themselves and address his judgment as the embodiment of principles of means adapted to secure a certain ohject. The ab stract principles involved he may not re cognize, and because thci do not address themselves to his senses as palpably as the machine!!! do, he doubts perhaps the exis tence of such principles, and almost al ways doubts their efficiency, their reliabil ity, and often sneeringfy terms them "Book farming," or "theoretical farm ing;" and flatters himself, that he has giv en the matter a quietus by an ad captan dum" argument, when iu reality he has only confessed his own utter ignorance. The practical farmer sees here on exhi bition improved breeds of domestic ani mals; they fill his admiring eye. and he points with great pride to their well devel oped and symmetric forms, a3 a great tri umph of the art of agriculture. It does ; not occur to him that this perfection of form and symmetric beauty has been at- l tamed by a rigid and persistent application of scientific principles. He perhaps pur chases a pair of these improved animals and taking no more, or no greater care of them and their progeny than of very or dinary animals, in the course of several generations is surprised tofindfhat they have deteriorated in many respects, and he men perhaps becomes disgusted and pro nounces them a cheat and a humbug. The truth is, simply, that he has omitted the application of those scientific or physiolog ical iaws and principles, which, originally, secured the improvement. In order to demonstrate that the position assumed is correct, it is only necessary to refer to the fact, that the domestic animals which 25 years ago triumphantly bore away the first premium, would at present scarcely re ceive any consideration at the hands of our intelligent awarding committees. Just as much as the domestic animals of Ohio are superior at present, as compared with those of 25 years ago, just precisely so much progress has been made in the recog nition and practical application of physi- uiwgiciii, or scieiimie iaws ana principles whether acknowledged by these names or terms, or not. And this recognition and practical application is due to the labors of the County and State Agricultural Socie ties rather than to any other cause what ever. However many things these Societies may have done which they should not have done, and however many things they have not done which they should have done, they have nevertheless accom plished one very important object: they have awakened an interest in agricultural and mechanical pursuits, and developed many sources of productive industry. They have enlisted the sympathy of think ing minds, and secured the attention of Ivenefactors of the human race; and more than all have made labor and industry re spectable and honorable. If you require proof of this statement, I refer you to one phae in our social life which fully demon strates it, viz: 2 years arro there was very little more than one half the population there is at present in the State, and yet at every term of Common Fleas Court ten times the idler and spectators were in at tendance that there is nt present; people have learned that it does not "pay" to drop the ordinary farm lalvors and work shop to attend the court; in fact those only go there now who have business there, and instead of making the court room their pieasurauie resort, nicy now go there un der compulsion. Twenty-five years ago it was considered a post ot honor to be oi. the "jury;" at present our brst citizens avoid the position as if it were fraught with pestilence, and that class of people wno "nang arouna tne uourr. House," and are professional jurymen, have lost the cast of their former social status. Now that an interest in agricultural af fairs has been awakened, it becomes us se riously to consider how this interest may be directed so as to produce the most bene ficial and practical results. These agreul- tural societies may very properly be regar- led as agricultural primary schools, thedi rectors or managers occupying the posi tion or teacner and the public constituting the school or scholars, it the teacher competent and efficient, then the school will flourish; if, on the contrary, he is in competent and indifferent, everything will be tardy and irregular. The directors should be gentlemen, not only in their manners and address, hut persons in whose ability and integrity thepublicshould have entire c uihdence, because there is a heavy moral responsi unity resting upon them. If for the sake of a few dollars th?v will prostitute the purposes of the society, and convert the annual exhibition of industri al protlucts into a circus, or place of prof itless amusement, they may vitiate the taste of the entire community by a persist ent course of this kind of conduct, may re tard the progress which otherwise would certainly have been made, and bring agri culture and its progress into local disre pute. The judgment of the board of direc tors should have ns much weight in agri cultural matters, in the county in which hey reside, as the decision of the Judge on the bench has in the county in which he delivers his opinion on a case tried before him. Tn order that the directors may at tain to this prospective desirable influence, nwnj reforms now practical are not only lesirable but essentially necessary. 'he listory which the county agricultural so cieties in Ohio present, 13 very similar to the history of a child: first a period of ab solute helpless infancy, then a period of teething, then measles, then croup, then chicken-pox, then whooping cough, &c In many instances the societies succumbed the maladies, and passed out of exis tence; others, more robust, struggled stout- y lived through the difficulties and are now on the high way of success, reioicinc. The directois however must inaugurate a new system as the societies are approach-1 ingmatunty.and must deal more earnestly with the mission they have undertaken. and do something more than simply con duct an exhibition. Almost every society in the State owns fee simple, the grounds on which these exhibitions are held. So far as agriculture concerned, these grounds lie idle from one years end to the other, except the week the fair. The society should erect on the grounds a comfortable dwelling house. which should be a model for convenience and comfort, and within the means of persons of moderate means to imitate; then they should secure a compe tent and in evert) xenxr. trust vvorthy tenant reside in it. Whenever any agricultur al tool, implement, or machine, is brought before the board for commendation, it should be presented by the introducer as a gift or donation to the society, and the offi cers of the board should place it in the hands of the tenant for thorough trial and report tipon, either written or orally to the board, after a thorough test has been made. The decision of the board will then be of intrinsic value, not only to the manufactmer, but to the agricultural com munity; lieeause if the tool ot Implement doe not, tiivoir trial, prove to lie its was nvrtsented, then of euunw tint Uuui J will is it a as in use of no of the the a ing, and for tact ness A all a to the of 110 up field; sense of there bets ?5t) the is he This of lar Fair State pelled to of not recommend It for general introduction. On the other hand, should it prove merito rious, the board will not hesitate to give it tneir Highest ana most earnest sanction and commendation. The tenant should have at his command some 6 or 8 acres of land to be used as an experimental tract. On this tract experi ments should be carefully conducted in every respect, so far as plant culture is concerned. He should make experiments in underdraining should underdrain at various depths, and at various distances apart; should make experiments with dif ferent plows, and should plow at various depths from four inches to a foot should make experiments in thick and thin sow ing shallow and deep sowing, broadcast and drill sowing; for there are many things connected with all these conditions which we do not yet understand. He should 1 allowed several acres for experiments in gardening and small fruits, and a nursery in fact there is no good reason why the en tire nursery business of the county might not be transferred into the hands of the county agricultural society. In the gar den he should make experiments on the culture and varieties of strawberries, cur rants, grapes, raspberries, blackberries, Ac., as well as upon all manner of vegetables. Under proper direction, and with judicious management, the gardening and nursery portions may be made the source of a handsome revenue to the society; for, if they pay in private hands, what good reas on is there for supposing that they would not be equally remunerative in the hands of the society? Then the grounds should be properly and tastefully laid out there should be a flower garden, and a green house well filled with choice plants and cuttings; boquct", and floral ornaments for pic-nics, parties, balls, weddings and even funerals, would yield a remunerative rev enue, and the fair grounds would become the most delightful, interesting and desir able resort in the county. 80 far as the nursery part is concerned, the public would' feel that everything supplied from it would be true to the name. I assert without any fear of successful contradiction, that there more money expended on worthless trees and plants brought in, and hawked about by tree peddlars, than would pay all the expenses of the proposed nursery portion; should by all means bo at once institu ted as a matter of safety and economy. Good and fine apples will always command dollar more per barrel than poor ones in the city markets, and it casts no more to crow a good apple, pear, or peach, than it does to grow a poor one. At the time of the Fair every visitor will a deeply interested student, and the anaconda, fat woman, giant, and monkey show will attract no attention, even If ad mitted on the grounds. Every visitor will noting the improvement, order and ar rangement; the example will be conta gious, and in a few years many rural homes will present such attractions and beautified appearances that those who are too indifferent or too indolent to follow suit will justly be stigmatized as -wanting in good taste. It may lie urged that all this will cost money, time and labor. If they aid not cost these, you undoubtedly would already have them. Did your Jail cost nothing? It is a county institution as well the Agricultural tvieiety. Is it not bet ter to prevent crime than to punish those who commit crimes, and by giving encour agement to industry and refined taste do not certainly make a grand step toward preventing crime? Did those who were taxed to build the jail expect to be confined it? No indeed! It was built for com mon protection, and the Agricultural So ciety should be sustained for the common benefit. Your County Infirmary cost money, time and labor; did those who were taxed to pay for it expect to become inmates? Is it any more a public or county institution than your Board of Agriculture? Ornament your Fair Grounds; have your tenant make practical and desirable exper iments; sell, or distribute and exchange seeds, cuttings, fe. and you will have less for jails and infirmiries t han you now have. And, by adopting this plan, your county grounds become the primary sc hool Agriculture and Horticulture. I have doubt that many parents would willing ly place a son under the care and tulordiir the tenant to learn from him many of methods, systems and processes piac ticed by him on the grounds. Every im provement in the culture of farm crops will radiate over the county from the Fair Grounds as from a common een're. In spring time a hundred young m3n, for sma 1 fee, might spend a week there under the instruction of the tenant to learn g'afting, budding, inoculating, underdrain planting trees, trimming grapes, fcc, There should be a tilery on the grounds. tile furnished at prime cost to farmers underdraining. I do not dispute the that the horse is a noble animal, not noble, hut intelligent and one of in valuable service to mankind; his useful is freely and fully admitted by every grculturist. But. our agriculture is not horse; there are many other intcre-ting proluctions relating to and closely con nected with agriculture, whic'i equally merit our Attention and consideration. There is no necessity for giving the horse ring spread over ten or twelve acres, and uniting an tne agricultural and industrial products to five acres. For myself I love- see a norse "go" as well ns anv other person does like Henry Ward Beecher, I think "he was made to go" but I see 110 propriety in converting these industrial ex hibitions into a horse, and making the ring central point of attraction of the entire exhibition. A few weeks ago there were famous races at Cincinnati; now as trials speed these races were well enough, but farmer present would give $50 for '-Lancaster" or "Extra", to be by him harnessed and hitched to a plow, to break a sod in a word, the farmer, in the true of the term, has no use for a "nice horse," and a test of speed is not a trial strength, or of any of those qualities which a practical farmer deems indispens ible in a good farm horse. Then, too, U that miserably vicious system of betting always accompanying a race. A $50 that "Lancaster" will win; 1! bets that "Extra" will win. Now what is moral of this? It is simply that A is willing to pay S50 to be convinced that he mistaken in his judgment, or rather that is villian euntigh to take B's Soil with out giving him anything in return for it? habit of receiving money without rendering an equivalent, is the basis of the greater portion of the crimes now com mitted. If Agricultural Societies generally throughout the State, or it even ft uHloritv them will adopt a plan somewhat simi 10 me one imiicaieii, 01 niatung me Grounds an experimental tract, the will in a tew years find Itself com to locate and establish the Agricul tmal College. It in a vers difficult matter convince the Legislature of the necessity a College before we have common schools. If the Agricultural Societies will tmituta the t'stein w h'xb. I bave brieUy1 to outlined, these Societies trill not only eS cure a self-sustaining revenue from th products of the experimental tract, bat will gain for themselves the honor and rep utation of being real and absolute promo ters of agricultural progress and -Its allied, industrial pursuits a reputation and posi tion much more honorable and desirabla than can possibly be conferred by the di charge of the duties enjoined by any polit ical organization or association. As a rule we do not love farming well enough to settle down in young manhood and make it a vocation for life. We farra because we must necessity demands It at; our hands it thus becomes an irksome and laborious duty, and every one flees from it! to some more apparently elegant occupa tion. Even farmers themselves encourage their sons and daughters to think that; there are more honorable, pleasant and easier ways of gaining a livelihood thao that of farming. This same class of farm. ere, however, set 110 example of learning themselves, or teaching their sons the whys and wherefores of agricultural opera tions; and surely it is by no means snrpris iDg to find young men disgusted with art . avocation which promises nothing else than unremitting care and a dull -routine of continued and evere labor, whilst irt truth agriculture intelligently interpreted is one of the most interesting and soul inspiring occupations underthe canopy of heaven. The parents are opposed to book farming, and if the son manifests a taste for reading and acquiring information, the parents, in nine cases out of ten, direct h& energies to the acquirement of a profession raiher than to learn to apply science trt agriculture. Hence it is that our -most successful agriculturists are as a rule gen tlemen who have been engaged in active town or city life, where much thought, energy, activity and enterprise aie requir ed; they have been taught cystem, orderr prudence and economy in the adaptation of means to ends to do everything well, and to do it at the proper time. Hence, too, it is that so many of the young men who have left the quiet farm in the country for the noise, din and bustle of city life, srt often become first the victims of the vic ious and demoralized in the city, and then fallen in the footsteps of those who have deceived, betrayed and ruined them. I have made careful inquiry, and I make the statement upon reliable authority that, of the vicious and criminal young men under 25 years of age, convicted of crimes committed in the city, a greater proportion of those born and reared on the farm until 15 to 18 years of age convicted than those born and reared in the city. Parents must have a very slight appreciation of the dan gers and hazards to which they are expos ing their children when they permit therrt during their minority to exchange the quiet rural home for the busy and ever active one of the city. If farmers' homes can be made pleasant and attractive if they can be adorned and beautified If thev can be made desirable to such a degree that the farmers' children shall feel that "There's no place like home," a very great step in advance will have been secured. When the farmers' sons learn that there is jut as much science and skill required in curing a disease in the horse a there is in the human subject, he perhaps will not object to studying veterinary sur gery and medicine; but so long as we re gard the noble horse as an absolute brute, and the horse doctor as a cross between a quack and a loafer, no intelligent young ruan will for a moment think of embark ing in such a career. At Berlin, in Ger many, and at Alfort in France, I found the sons of the nobility, the wealthy, and the sons of the learned and highly honorerl as students of the veterinary science; there the veterinarian or J'horse doctor" is sure, if competent, of a position in the.armv. and from the army of promotion to the higher ranks of official life. This prospect ive promotion may re tne inducement in those countries for the pursuit of this course, but in this country there is nothing In the form of professional life which oirers so wide a field of practice or such certain re munerative reward as the practice of vet erinary surgery and medicine. Many farmers themselves 6eem to be aver.-e to these educational movements, but the tide i3 rolling onward and will not be stayed; and the sooner each one resolves to mingle with the onward current, the sooner win our agriculture be more remu nerative, better ordered, and become a jver manent and fixed avocation and no longer be the haphazard, amateur handicraft that it now is.- I cannot better close this address than by reading an extract from a letter from Geo. Sumner to Prof. AaAssrz, on the project of a "Conservatory of Science and Art;" "A Museum like this would, I believe, aid most powerfully in creating a greater in terest in the Mother Art would tend to retain on their paternal acres those crowds of young men who now Hock to our great cities, there to drag out a trivial existence, useless to others, or even to themselves---would aid also, in taking away the false mantle of 'respectability' in which the un productive drones of society a-rfln ilwim- selvea would aid in destroying that la; 9 remnant of feudal barbarism, the for labor and would tend to give intelli- imt i.Ka. ;o r 1-. 1 11. lauui iia 11 uc j."W1UOII Ul liiglieSt IKI10rV If I seem to speak strongly. I ma v here ap peal to the experience of other ooimrries and especially to that one, in the govern ment ih which uie aristocratic element finds a larger place than in any other. "Some eight or nine vears wlien. visiting a landed proprietor iu England, ho remarked to me, that all his estate, excel 1 the park and the garden, was let out to fai mers. Of his three sons, two were then pursuing their University studies, one to become an hereditary legislator, one to be come a clergyman, jerh;ips a Bishop. The youngest son was destined for the army. Not long since, I acain visited this snmo estate, and was somewhat surprised to find the future Bishop and the future General hard nt work as good farmers. Alluding this chancre in their eareer, the father said: 'Farming Is quite a different affair now from what It was n few years ago. Lawks & Likuki have changed all that." When it was found that there was as much room for science and intelligence in culti vating the soil, ns in making sermons or moving soldiers, farming Ivecamo quite a fashionable occupation, and for me, I ana glad of it.' His two-manly sons hetwtrtv responded to this. Similar example 1 oi ten saw ou other estates. "If the sons of English noHrmen, stimu lated by interest in the development of Agricultural Chemistry, find as much hon or in tilling the soil as holding Conimi wniis m the Army, perhaps, under similar1 influence, some of the voung men of Massa chusetts may consider it quite as 'aspect able' to hold the plow as to handle the yardstick, and find it quite ns worthy nn exercise of thelractive intelligence In mak ing a Chemical analysis of the soil they cultivate, as in ciphering out in a counting bouse U moil perplexing trial balance."