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The Democratic pioneer. [volume] (Upper Sandusky, Ohio) 1845-1853, December 24, 1847, Image 1

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vol. :j. no. li.
BY W. T. GILES.!
UPPER SANDUSKY, WYANDOT, O., FRIDAY, DEC. 24,1817.
I''.
MOD
President's Message. '
: '. ..' ,) ; '-i "" ' ' '
"FWoto Citisent of the Senate 4' ., , .;...;
'' ,: widiflhr'lfuiise of 'jitpretetOaliwft, ;
These were the lending considerations
which induced me to authorize the terms
of peace whicli were proposed -to Mexico,
They were rrjttcted aud jegotiat.ituit be
jog al an end, hostilities were renewed.
,Arr, assault was made by our gallant army,
jiip.no thestrongly fortified palaces near (ho
,;ates of the city of Mexico, and M tnB
city i'self. After several days of severe
.conflict, the Mexican force, vastly mperi
or in numbers to our. - own, .were- driven
from the City, and it was occupied by our
(roups,.;? in d ('?.:& : :-r
? , immediately after informal ioii was res
ceiv.edj vf Ibe unfavorable result of nego
iiationa.it believinar than his v continued
t
presence could .be productive of no good,
I determined 10 recall ourCommissionefi
A despatch lb this effect was 'transmitted
tuhimon the 6lh of October last. The
Mexican government will be 'informed of
hit recall, d that, In the existing J state
of things, I shall dot -deem it 'proper tr
make any further overtures of peace, but
shall be at all times ready to receive end
Consider' any proposals which' shall be
made by Mexico.' ' V '' . " 'J
Since the "liberal propositions of the
United States was authorised to be made j
in ' Aprif last "targe' expenditures have
been incurred, and the precious blood ol
many of our fellow citizens has been shed
in "the prosecutiofi of this war. , I his con.
sideralioh, and the obstinate perseverance
of Mexico in protracting the war, joust
innuence tlie terms 01 peaoe wmu n ;
be deemed proper hereafter to accept.
Our arms having been every where vic-
lorious having suhjecied to our military
occupation a large portion of the enemy's
country, including his cipilol and nego
tiations for peace liavinfailed, the im
portant question arose, iu what manner
- the war ought to be prosecuted, and what
' sluinldVbe our futiire policy, l.camuit
doubt that we should secure and render
available the conquests we have, already
made; and for'lhis purpose, we should hold
and occupy, by our naval and military
forces' all the porta,, towns, cities ; and
provioce8 now iii our occupation, or
whicli Vnay .hereafier fll ioio 6ur passes.
! aioui-tliat we aiioulil. f.presa' for a rdr liijt
military operations,. and levy aucb mil
tary cooi.ribiiliens on (he enemy ,'. as may ,
as far s practicable, defray the future ex
'penses of the war. , . ',;-.'-
,-v Had the governineut of .Mexico acceuea
to the favorable and liberal lertns propos
ed', that mode of adjns'tmeirt would have
beeil preferred. ' Mexico having declined
to do this, and failed to offtr1 any other
terms'w hich could Le acct pled by . the
United Slates, the national honor, no less
than the public' interests, . requires .that
the war should, be, prusacuted with in
oreascd eoeigj and power, uni il a just aod
SBiisf'aclory peace can be obtained.
lnjhe,,nieau time, as Mexico refuses al)
indeiniiity , w.S aliuufii, adopt measures lu
indemnify .oiiirselv.es, by app.rvpi.iatiiig
permanent I'j" a'porlion o her Jerrilory
Early after the commencenieut of , the
war.'IS'ew ..Mexico, and the .Oaliforiiias
were taken, posse asivnrof by our . forces.
Our MilitarjHod Naval (Uommanders were
ordered to conquer add hold them, subject
to be.dltp.oeed of by a t reat j; of peace.. : .
Thesis provinces are now in our uudis
puted pcciipation", aud have been so for
many months; all resistance on the part of
Mexico-having ceased withiu.their Jiiuits.
I ainsatisfied.that they .should, uever be
surrendered to Mexico. Should Cougrcss
concur with me in this opinion, and thai,
they sbould.bf retained by the . United.
Stales, as iudeuiiuly 1. can.r perceive no
good reason why the civil jurisdiction and
laws of'the Uoited .5tane should; not at i
once be extended over them. t. j ,.
To wait for a treaty of peace, such- as
we are willing to make, by which out re
la lionsto. thein woidd , not be , changed,
cannot be good policy ; whilst our inter
estsj andf .tbatlv of tthe people jjiliabiling
them, require that a stable, responsible,
aud free goverinueut, under our. authori
ty, sho-uld be, assooD as possible.establish,
d oyer lhemN. Should Congress, theie
foredeteruiioe to bold rtbese provinces
permaoenlll. aod that they shall, bereaf ,
tr, be considered constituent parts of our
coinU,,be' early establishment of terrt
toiiat goveroment over them will ie; im
portaBt for the iiiore perfect., protections
of persons aud property -and J lecuiu
snend .tba sMcb territorial goveroiueots
ut established. , 1 1 w til promote peace auii
iranqyiliiloionof the .inhabit ants, by al-.
Isyiog all ppreheusions - ihav ,lbey. ina.v
ntecaio, ef being subjected.agaia to the
jorisdicliou qf Mexiqy- J iuvua tha early
od faforale.coaaideratioa ' of Cougress
to this important sunjeci-i - ... ;
Beside New Mexico aod the California, ;
(bar ara oiber Msxcao provinoes which j
Lava beea redupad to, our poat,essiou :bj j
conquest, t hese other Mexican proviocos
ara noiv governed by our naval and mill-
tarv couiinaiiders, uuder the general au
thority which is conferred upon oon-
queror hy the laws of war. They should"
continue to he held n a ineint of coercing
Mexico to accede to just terms of peace.
Civil as well as militaryoffioers are re
quired to conduct such a government.-
Adequate compensation, to be drawn from
kcont.ribtitioqa. levied upon . (lie '.enomt
should be fixed by Jaw; for such officer as
may be thus employed. What further moy
hecome necessary, and what final disposi
tion it may. be proper Jo make of them,
mint, depend on the future progress of tha
war, and tlm course, Mexico, Bias thiuk
proper hereafter pursue.. - , . ., . ' , -With
the views I entertain, I . cannot
favor the policy which has been suggested,
either to withdraw our army altogether,
or to retire to a designated line, auJ sim
ply hold and defend it. To withdraw nur
army altogether from the cunqoests they
have made, by deeds of unparalleled bra
very j and al the expense ot. so much blood
and treasure, in a war just n our pail,
and one which, by the net of the enemy;
ive could not , honorably have avoided,
would be to degrade the nation iu its own
estimation, an. 1 in that of the world. .To
ret ire to a line ,, and simply hold and de
fend il, would not terminate, the war
On the contrary, it would encourage Mex
ico In persevere, and teud to protract it
indefinitely. . . ,t. ....
Il is not to bo expected . that Mexico,
i.aftel. refusing to establish such a line, as
n permanent boundary when our victor
ous armies are in possession of her capilul,,
and heart of her country, would permit us
to hold it without resistance. Thai she
would continue it, and that iu the most
uai rassmg aau annoying loruis, uieru oao
be no doubt, A border warfare, of a most
savage character, extending over a long
I ine, would be unceasingly .waged It
would require a large army, to , bo kept
cnntjuually in tho field, stationed at posts
and garrisons along such a line, to protect
aud defend it. The enemy , relieved from
the presence of our armies, on his coasts,
aud in the populous parts of the iuteiior,
would direct, and selcciing an isolated
post for attack, would concenlrata his
forces upon it. , , ;.; , '
...-This would be a condition of affairs
which the Mexicans, pursuing I heir lavor
ile system of guerrilla warfare, would
probably prefer to any otber, Wt'ip we
to asronte a.'defenpive. a.liijid,"on sech a
line, air the advantages of such a stale, of
war, woiiid be. no the side of. the enemy.
We could levy no eonl i ibutions upon him
or in any other way make him feel- the
pressure of the war; but must remain in
active, and (.wait his approach, being in
constant "uncertainty at what point of the
line, or 'at what time he may make the as:
saiill. lie may astunblo and organize au
overwhelming force in the interior, or his
own side of the linr; and,' concealing- his
purpose, make a sudden assault upon tome
one of our posts, so distant from any other
as to prevent the . possibility iOf. timely
succour or reinforcement, and, in this
way, our pliant army would be exposed
.tu. tha danger of being cut, oft in detail,
or it", . by . their unrivalled ..bravery , and,
pruwesv every - where,. exhibited., during,
this war, they .shun Id repel .the eneuijr,
their ulimbfirs, stationed at, any one point
may be tiio small to pursue iim. , 1 f ; the
enem be .repulsed ju aq attack, we will
have nothing else to do but retreat to his
own side of the line, and, bejng in no fear
of a pursuing enemy may reinforce him
self at leisure Jo another attack -on' the
same, or sooier other point. He may; too,
cross the line between enr posts-, mske
incursions into the country which we hold.
murder the inhabitants thereof and then
retreat, to the interior, before a sufficient
force can be concentrated, to pursue hiui.
Such-would, probably,; be th? harrassing
character, of a mere defensive war oo .our
part. Ifoiir forces, when attacked, or
Ihreatenedwitb attack, be permitted to
cross the line drive back, the enemy, and
conquer biin Ibis would be sgain to in
vade the enemy 'a oouolryi' alter .having
lost alt the advantages of the - conquests
we have already iinade, by having Volun
tarily abandoned them. , To hold such a
line successfully, and in security, it is far
from being certain that it would: not re
quire as .large an army as would ba neces
sary to hold all the conquests we have aK
ready made, and to continue the prosecn
lion of.lha war- in lhaheart of th enemy s
country. ';Jl is also-fir from being Certain
that, the expenses of tha war would' ba di
minished by such a policy. '.: '' '
' I am persuaded that the best means of
vindicating ihe: national honor and inter
ests, and of bringing the war to an honor
able close, will be to prosecute' it,' with
increased energy and power, io the yitl
pari of tba euemy.s country, t In toy an
nual mesisge torUangress I declared, that
the warjiad not been waged with a viw
to conqnest; but baring been commenced
by .Mexica, it bss been carried into ' tl.e
enemy's couatry, and will be vigorously
prosecuted there, wiifc a iew: to otiain
an honorable peaeeaad-itbereby-aeciire
ample indciniiy for the expense oflba war
as well as lo our umcii injured citijuius,
wbo fioid a large ' pecuniary demand
against Mexioo. Saic.li, In my judgment,
continues le be our true policy; indeed
tW cnty policy which will probably secure
a permanent peace. ' ;"' "'."''
' It has never been contemplated by me,
a o object tof the war, to make a perma-
nent conquest of the Republic of .Mexico; :
or to annihilate her separate existence as
no indVnendAtit nniion."'. On rnuir:irr. '
;it has ever been mv desire that she bhould
maintain her nationality;, and under! a
good government, adapted to her' condl ;
tion, be a prosperous and free iepubl'10.
The "United Statas were the first, among
(he natious',- la1 recognize" her indtpen
de nee; and lias always desired to be on
terms tif auiSiy'and good neighborhood'
u i h her. This she would not sufTor. lit
her own Conduct ne have been compelled i ation and prfiperil y: indeed it ia impos
ti engage iu the present war: and in its sihle, that, with a just regard to. our own
pt'rset iition we seek 'only to obtain ro- ; safety, we can become iiidifTerent to her
dres for the wrongs she has done us, and j fate. , It iinvy.he that tin Mexioan goveru
indemnit y for our just demands against ' men t and people, have iniscomceived-, or
her. We demand an honoral.le peaoe :
- " i
and that peace must bring with it indom.
niVy for the past , and security for the fit -
lure. Hitherto Mexico has rol'uM'J . all
accommodation by which such a peace
could be obtained.
Whilst our armies hare advanced from
viciory to victory, from the commence
ment, of the war, it has always been with
the olive branch of peace in their baud;
aud it has been in the power of Mex cu,
at every step, to arrest hostilities by uc
cepiiiig it.
One great objection to the obtainiiienl
of peace has undoubtedly arisen from the
fact that Mexico has been so long held in
subjection by one fact ion of mill I ary usur
pers after another; and such has been the
ciiudiiioii of insecurity in which their sue
cessive governments have been placed,
dial each has been deterred from making
peace, lest from that very caifse, a fival
faction might expel it from power.
Such was the fate of 'resident llerrern's
administration in 1645, for being dispose I
even to listen to the overtures ol the Uni
ted States, to pi event the war: as is fully
confirmed by an official correspondence
which took place in "(he -month -of 'August
last, between him aud his -government-,
a copy of, which is herewith cnmnuiniua
led. For thia cause alone, a revolution
which displaced him tram power,, was Set
unroot by Geiioraf T'a redes;-'' Such '"may
be the condition of insecurity of the pre
sent government,- ; , i - ' '
There can be no dmbt that the peacea
ble and well disposed iuhobitanta of Mex
ico are convinced that it is the true in
terest of their country to conclude an hon
orable peace with the United States; but
the apprehension of becoming the victims
of soiiu) military faction or usurper, may
have prevented them from manifesting
their feelings by any public act.
. The removal of any such apprehensions,
would p roll ably cause them to speak their
icut.imenla,aud to adopt the means neces
sa.rv for-the restorattan of peace. With
j a-peopla-distracted and divided by con
rending laci ions, and a goveruinenl sub-',
jact to constant -: Cliiing'es, -''bjv successive
reiolutions, tile contiuiied successes of'
'Our aritia may fail1 to seciire a satisfactory
peace:' In1 siicb eveu t, il ' may ' be coin i '
proper fbr Ortf5' command ing : generals in
the liold to give' eb'coYirageniehi.'hnd 'as
surance of protection to the friends of
peace in Mexiuo, iu. the establishing, and
maintenance of a ree Republican Gov-
erntVieut Ojf their, own cjiy ice ;, always will? j
ing to conclude a peace, which would be
just to tie iu, aud, secure io ua.llie indein
iiity we deii)ud. .. , ; t u ,
" 't'his inay become ( he ouly inada of ob ,
(ainiiigsuch a peace- ;SiMild such be .the
result of this war w hicb Mexico Unenfor
ced upon u,, it would thus be converted
into an enduring blessiug to herself .Af
ler finding her torn and dis1 racted by fac-.
lions, aud ruled by military usurpers, we
should then leave her, with, a republican
government, in the enjoymen of real ill:
dependence, and .domestic.,, peace and
pri'sperit) periofmiiig all her relative
duties in the great family of nations, and
promoting her . ow n bappiuess by wise
law., and their faiihful execution. .
If after affording ,tbis encouragement
and protection, aflerall the persever ¬
ing aud ijneere effjrla we have made,
from the iiioiiienl, Mexico continence J the
war, aud prior lo that jiuie, lo.ailjusi our
differences with her,, we shall " ultimate, I)
fail, then we shall have exhausted all hon
orable means io pursuit .of peace, and
must continue, lo occupy bor territory
with our, troops, -taking the lull measure
of iiide-ioiiit j with our own bands;.. a.nd
must; enforce tho term wkic.b. our. lunor
demands, , . ., ; , ;..s - ; , ,J v , 5,1;
' 'To act otherwise, iq the existing stale
of things iu .Mexico, and t withdraw, our
army without a peace: would not, only
leave all (be wrongs of n Licb.we complain
unredressed,, but would be Ue signal, fw
lievv aod. fierce civil desseosiwas, and ssa
revolutions, alf along' boelile to peaceful
t . - ...m. ,u !i.;rJii.i.'. "It. ii.fJ.''
r, 31 i . ... ,r i.i , . . , t v .. - - - - - i
, ; .i...i.i ,
llier ia an6.-r,... . - ." -
willnirawn befoie the peace should ba
Concluded, ' that the Mexican people,
wearied with successive revolutions, and
deprived' of protect ion for their person,
and 'property, might be inclined to yield
to foreign influence, and to cast them
selves upon torn1 European Monarchy for
protection from llio anarchy find suffering
which would ensue. . This, for tmr own
safety , and ,in 'pursiiaiiou of established
policy, ive. should be. compelled to rraiul
Wo could never oonsent that .Mexico
should be tli converted into a munarchy r
ffoverned by .a foreign' prince..;. .i L
lexico 13 oitf next neighbor, ood. her
botindarios nr cotci tninous with our ow n,
tfirongh the Whole extent across the North
American coninent from neean to oceau.
yorn .polUii;aMy' and. commercially', we
hal'i the deepest interest, in her regener.
uiiacuiiatrued, our. forbearance, and our
objects in diuiring to oolicjude'nn. amiea
ble adjijhtuu'iil uf the existing dKiiouliics
between lln two .'countries. She Inify
have supposed that we should Hubuiit- to
terms dtgrnuing to the nation; or they
may have dcawu false inferences from the
supposed iljvitiion of opinion in the United
Statcp, on tfte subject of the war; and may
hhve'calciilaled to gain much by protrac
ting it, and indeed, tbat we might ul
timately abandon it altogether, without
any indemnity -territorial Or otherwise.
Whatever may be the false impiessions
under n biob they have acted, tiro adop
tion and prosecution' i f the energetic poll
cy proposed, must undeceive 'them.
. In the future prosecution of the war.
the enemy must be made to feci its pres
sure more than they have done. At its
comuieiiceuienr, it was deemed proper to
conduct it in a spirit 'of forbearance and
liberality W ith this end In view, early
measures were adopted, to couciliate as
far as a stale of war would permit,, the
mass of the Mexican population; to con
vince them that the war was waged not
against the peaceful inliabi i ants of Mex
ico, but against their fail bless govern
merit', which had commenced hostilities;
to remove from their minus fal.e iiu
pressings- which "their interested jnleis
had C'rf!i"'cuipte4 to make, that the
wff 6 u ou!ffar t w as one uf conquest,-
that it was a war against their religion
and their churches, which were to bo de
stroyed and overthrown, and, that rights
of persons and private property would be
violated. To remove theae false impres
sions our commanders in the field wore
directed scrupulously to respect their re
ligion, their churches, and their church
properly, which were in no manner to be
violated. They were directed also to. re
spect the rights of persons and properly,
of all who should not lake up arms against
118. .. v x ' . ' - '' .'
Assurances In this effect were given to
the Mexicans by M"j"r tieneral Taylor,
in a proclamation, Uaucd-in pursuance of
iiiet ructi oil a from the Secretary of W ar.
in the month ef.lune, 1S46; and aguin',' by
Major General Scott, who acted upon bis
own cotifictioiiB of propriet y of issuing it-,
in a proclamation of the Uth of May-, 147.
1 In this spirit of liberality and concilia
tiou, and wiih a view to prevent the body
of the Mex ican population from 'taking tip
arms against us, was the ' war conducted
on our part. Provisions and other siip-
fu'mished 'to our nrttiv by Mexican
citizenswere paid for at fair anil liberal
nri.ea nir'd undn-b'f tlie part ies. After
the lapse of a few months, it became ap
parent tfiat these ' ai-'surrances, and this
mild treatment have failed to produce the
desired effect upon the Mexican' 'popula
tion. The war has been conducted, upon
our part', "according to the5 most hti'niVno
and liberal principles, observed by civ
ilized nations.: It was waged, in a far dif
ferent spirit on the part of .Mexico. Nut
apprecia ing our foi bearance, t tie Mex i
can" people generally 'become hostile to
the iliiiied'Slates, and availed .themselves
of tlie ' "opportunity " to commit the most
savage excesses upon our 'troops. Large
numbers of the population took up arms,
andengaging in guerrilla Warfare,, rob
bed and murdered , In the most cruel ma li
ner, individual soldiers, or small 'parties,
whom accideul'or olhcr caiises tiaj sepe
rated from the main body of our army.
Uandi'of'tt.e guerilla,, and robbers.iufest
ed the roads, barra-sed our trains, and
whenever it'was in their" power, cut off
our supplies
The Mexican having tlius shown themselyps
to-be Wholly incapable, of .appreciating our
forbearance mid liberality.' it waa deemed
oroDer to chanro tho manner of conducting,
the war, making ftom feel its pressure accord-
inj to the esajre. observed under similar cr-J
cuiitances, in all other civibxed, nations.-
Accordingly, early as tbeJ of fcemT ,
bcr 18lCvlntructious were given by the .Sec- "
ofV'tw Ifr Gem Taylor, todraw;
supplies for oitr army fnu. (be e.ieuw, payii i ,
- ' r , i '. .' ".- r
for them, ancf to require contriouiioa ior in
1 '
... .fin iht he waa ailisfied he
"ri . .. . i
could jet abundam auppliea tor bia torcca. j
In directing the execution of theso instruc:
tions ntucli was necessarily left to the discre
tion of the cotmnnndin"; officer, who was best
acquainted with the circumstances by which
he wns aurrotinded the wants of tlie army
and the practicability of enforciiiff tlie meas
ure. Gon, Taylor, , on the 2t3tli of October,
I8 l(i, -replied from Monterey, that it would
have been impossible hitherto, and is so now,
to mistnin the army by forced contributions ov
supplier. For reaeona rssifrncd by him, bn
did tint adobt the policy of his instructionr,
but declared bis readiness to do Roahould the
army in ita future operations reach a portion
o; tho country which may bo made to supply
the troops with odvantDcre.
He continued to pay for tlie articles of sup
ply, which were drawn from the encmyV
country. ... .
Similar instructions were iswied to Maj. Gen
eral Scott, on the 3d of April, itl47, that if it
bo expected Unit the army is to Support itself
by forced contributions levied upon the coun
try, wo may ruin and exasperate the inhabi
tant?, nml starve 'UiirselveH. The.-bams dis
cretion was jftven to him that had been given
to Gun. Taylur, in this respect. General
Scott, for the reason assigned by him,. still
continued to pity for articles otaipply for the
army, which were drawn from the, enemy. .
After the army had reiichcdlhe heart ofthe
most wealthy portion of Mexice, it was sup
posed that the obstacles which had before
that time, prevented, would not be such as to
render impracticable the levy of forced con
tributions for its support; and on the first of
September, and on lie (Sth of October, 1847,
the order w ns .repeated in despatches, tiddrea-
sed by the Secretary of War lo General Scott;
and his attention whs nguin called to tho im-
poritinco of mailing tho enemy bear the bur-.
dens of the war, by requiring them to furnish
tho mo.ir.8cf supporting our army: and ho was
directed to adopt this policy, unless by doing
so there was danger of depriving tho army, of.
necessary supplies. Copies of these qpatch-.
es were forwardoS 'to General Tuylpr, for his
government. 1 , , ... ..
On the 31st of March last, t caused an or
der to be issued to tmr military and naval
cbhiinmders, to levy and collect a' military
contribution upon rill vessels and merchandize
which might enter any of the ports of Mexi
co in our military occupations towards defray
i 1 1 ; r the expenses of the war By virtue ofthe
right of conquest, and the laws of war, the
conqueror, consulting his own safety or con
venience, tuny either exclude foreign coin
nierce ..altogether from nil such port", or per
mit it upon such terms and conditions aa he
may 'prescribe. Before the principal ports of
Mexico were blockaded by our navy, the rev
enues derived from import untied, under the
luws ofMexico, were paid into tho Mexican
treasury. " After these ports 'had fallen into
our military ' possession, .the blockade was
raised, and commerce w ith them, permitted,
upon prescribed terms and Conditions. .. They
were open to 'tho trade oTall nation?', upon the
payment of duties, more moderate in their
amount, than those which hud been previous
Iv levied by Mexico; and the revenue which
was formerly paid into the Mexican treasury,
was directed to be ccltcctod by our military
and naval officers and applied to the use of
our annj arid navy. Care was taken that offi
cers, soldiers,"' and sailors of our army and
navy, should be exempted from the operations
of this order, und as the merchandize import
ed , upon which the crrder operated, must con
sumed by Mexican citizens, the contributions
were, in eft'ect, the sei.ufeof the public reve
nues uf Mexico, and the 'application of them
to eur own use. : In directing this "measure,
the object was to compel the enemy to cun;
tribute, as far as practicable, toward the ex
penses of the war. """' ' "'''-'"'
. 1' or the amount of cent ri but ions which
have boea levied In lhi9 form, I 'refer you
to the accompanying ieporls'oi the Secre
tary of N ar, and the .Sec re tary 'of the JS'a
V),' by " which ' it appears that a sum' ex
ceeding half a Htifliufu of dollars has been
collected. ; . -! ','-'-:
Tlie amount ' would "undoubtedly have
been much'larger, but for the difficulty of
keeping open com in no icat iuu between the
ooast and tho 'Interior, so as lo enable the
owners of llio' merchandize imported to
transport' and vend il to tlio inuauuaul
of the conutry. '
-- It is confidently expected that this dif
ficulty will. lo a great extont, be soon re
moved, by our increased forces which have
been sent' lb the field . ' ,. ,
; Measures have recently been adopted,
bv which internal, as well as external
revcriitts, in aYl; places,' iu our military
possession, w iir be' received, " and appro
priaied to the use ofou'r army and navy,
The poiicy of the levyingnpun the enemy,
contributions in every lorin , consistent
wilb tha laws of naliuas, which it may be
praciicahle lor our miu.iary uumuimuvi,
.i . . '.l'.,.'..!.! Ka riiitlv fnfarced. aud
. i ea h.,0 acCordi ng beon
I ' . . "1?L. . . . I i - tr al iLai Attllia I Mil
fc - ni h. rUii.
. ( ' j,,,, pep)w
. made llUeel t;. Uurtben.-of tba
caains ,',,. r. m.ere.ts,
V . rt?4ily ,
) . .. ' r . - .
3 ' '
f "cr -'f
I'nneTui events translated. :n tut
. , .
. - C . '. v w l..rli in mi
prosecution
.. j .r.ir number of
- imeus, --i'
trncps in the field than bad been antioipa
ed. The strength of the army was ac
cord ingli increased, by accepting the sera
vices of all the Volunteer forces author
ized by the act of t)ie 18th of May, 1846;
without putting a construction on that
act, the correctness qjf which was serious
ly questioned. The volunteer forces D0
in i li a fieldwith those which abd been
accepted, , lo servo twelve months, anil
were discharged at the cad of their terms
of sen ice, exhausts the fifty thousand men ,f
autlioi iznd by that act. Had it been cleat
that a proper construction of the act war 4
ranted the services of an addition num
ber, they would havo been called, and aC
ccpted; but doubts existing upon this
point, the power was not exercised, ' .
It is deemed important that Congress
should, at ao early period of their session
confer authority to raise an additional
tegular force to serve during the war with
Mexico, aud to be discharged . upon th6
conclusion aud ratification of a treaty-of
peace. I in v ite the attention of Congress
to the views presented by tho Secretary
of War, in bis report upon this subject,
I recummend that authority be given, by
law, to call for and accept, aa additional
number of volunteers, to ba exercised at
such limes, and In such an extent, aa the
emergency may require.
In prosecuting tho war with Mexico
whilst the utmost care h r3 been taken to
avoid every just cause of complaint, on the -part
of neutral nations, and none has been
given, liberal privileges have been grant
ed to their commerce in the ports of the
eneriiy in our military occupation. ;, ,,
The difficulty, with the Brazilian (or
eminent, which, at that time, threatened
to interrupt the friendly relations be
tween the two countries, will, I trust, be
speedily adjusted , 1 have recoived Infor
mation that a milliliter extraordinary and
and plenipotentiary )ias...b6cn appointed
by li is Imperial Majesty; and it is hoped
he will OfJtiio, prepai ed to adjust all re
maining differences between the two gov
erqmeqts, in a manner aoceptable and
hoiiorablelo both. a the meantime t
have every reason to believe that nothing
will occur lo interrupt our amicable re
lations with brazil., : ... il-
It has be en my constant effort to maia
tain and cultivate the, most intimate ro
I; tions of friend ship with all the indepen-;
dent power's of South America) and tbia
policy has been , .all ended wi'.lj the happi
est results. It is true lhat the settle-
incuts and payjneut of many just claims
agairst Iheso nations bos long been delay,
ed. The peculiar position in which thoy
have been placed, and the desire on tha
pari of my predecessor as well as myself,.'
to grant them the tit most indulgence, baa
hitherto prevented these claims from be
ing urged in a manner strict justice de-
mauds.'. The lime has arrived when they t
ought to be finally adjusted , liquidated, ...
and enforced; and efforts are now making
for that purpose., . ; - i
If proper lo inform yoq that the govern .,
ment of Peru has, "in good faith paid the
first instalments of the indemnity of thirty
' thousand dollars each, and ,tba greater.:
portion oT the interest due thereon, in ex
eculioii b'f the Convention between that , .
government and the United States, the rat-
ilicatinns of which were exchanged at Li-M
nta,'"n ihedl of Oc?tob'e'r,19-I6"Tbe Attor,'.
l,ey (ieucr'al. of the United States, early in ,
August last, completed the adjudication
of the claims tinder convention, and made
tits re'poit thereon, in 'pursuance of ther Jl
act of tlio 7th bf Aujirst, t84d. ., The anmi.
to which the claimants are "respectively
"entitled will be paid j on demand, at the j.
Treasury.. ;" " .... .-.,....' :':"
I invite the early attention ofCongresi ,
io the present condilion of our citizens
in China.- 'Under our'jreaty ;wiib that ,,
power, American citizens are withdraw
from the giirisdiction, ivbelber civil or
criminal, tif iha Chinese Government'. .,
and placed under that" of bur public func
lionrieS in that co'lintry for by these
alone can cur citizens be tried aud pun
ished for the commission of auy crime.-- i
By these alone eao questions be decided ,
between them, iiirolriog the rights of per- " '
soil and property j and by these atone can
contracts be enforced, into wbich ibey
may have entered, with' the' citizens of
subjects of foreign powers. Tbo merchant ;
vessels of the United Siates, lying in the 1
waters ofthe fiva porta of China, open to '.
foreign commerce, are under tbe exclusive '
jtirhdiotion of officers of heifNoro gov v" -.
ernment. ., Until Congress shall nslablish ; ' ?
competent tribunals,' to try aad punish J'
crimes, aod to exercise jurisdiction' in V5
CJiina, American citizens there are sub ".,
jeel to uo Uw whtevT and orimea majr .
be cotuimtteJ ,r. iih .iwpuoMyf. afd dab ti . !,t
Ann t rac led without an means to eoforco- .".t
their payment. locouraniences have al.': i.fe
ready resulted from tlie omission of Con. , j
gress to legilaie qpon the subject., and i '..
(till g;ealer are apprehended- The Urifisbi ;.!
auttioritict jii Chmi, Uavo. already '?on.,.v '.-
(,'la'ined that this geromeat bas not pre
viJed fur the ftuiuhmeDt of crimes, or tbe
enforcement i f eonlracts. against Ameri
can citixeoa, in tbat country, wbilo their

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