OCR Interpretation

The Democratic pioneer. [volume] (Upper Sandusky, Ohio) 1845-1853, December 24, 1847, Image 2

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government ha established tribunal by
which, en Americau citizen can , racuver
dobte dit froiiiBriiih subject. ,
Accustomed, ai theChinete are, to lim
ine ry jutlloe, they could not U made to
comprehend why criminal, who are ciu-
fcans ofthe United Stales, should escape
with impunity, in violation of treaty ob
ligations: whilst lb puuibment cf
Chines, who have committed any crime
sgalntt our American cilizent, would be
rigorously exacted. Iodeed Ilia come
rjuances might be fatal lo American citi
zens in China, should a flagrant crime be
1 committed by any one of ibem 'upon
'(.'hinese, anil pmiisliment not follow, ac
1 cording to the requisition of the treaty.
"Thi might disturb," if not destroy, our
' Iriendly relation wilb tliat Empire, and
cautn interruption toourvaluable coin
' iiierc. ' , V ';
Our treaties with Ibe Subiime Porte,
Tripoli, Tunis, Morocco, and Muscat, al
.' require the legislation of Congress In
carry tbeni Into execution, though the tie-j-cessity
for immediate action may not be
so urgent at in regard to China.
f The Secretary of Slate has submitted
an estimate to defray the expenses of
opening diplomatic relations will) the
Papal States. The Interesting pdi tical
relations in progress in those Slates, us
well as our commercial interests, have
"' rendered inch a measure highly expedient.
Estimates hare also been 111 bin it ted of out
fits of Charges d 'affairs to the republics
of Ilolivla, Guatemala and Equador. The
manifest importance of cultivating the
most friendly relations with all the inde
pendent Stales of this continent, has in
. duced me to recommend appropriations
necessary to the maiolanaoce of these
mission. '
I recommend lo Congress that an ap
propriation be made to be paid Ilia Spau
ish (i uverninent , to he distributed aiming
. the oltiiinants in the Amislad case. 1 en
terlain the opinion that this is due to
- jpain, under the treaty of 20lh of October,
1705, and moreover, from the earncs'
manner io which the. claim continues l
' be urged. So long as it remains und
jusled, it will be a source of irritation be
tween th two countries, which may prove
highly prejudicial lo the ihleieats of the
Uuited Slates. Oood policy, no lets than
s faithful compliance with our treaty ob
ligations, require that the tnoonaideratle
appropriation should be made.
1 A detailed statement of the oondilion
ofthe finances will be presented in the
annual report of the Secretary of the
Treasury. The imports for the fiscal year
ending 00 the 8O1I1 June, 1847, wer $140
645,6138, of which the amount- exported
wa $8,0U, 159, leaving $138,534,430 iu
the country, for dometio use. The value
of the exporl fur the mine period, was
$158,648,632,, of which $150,637,504 con-
aisled of domestic productions, and $8,
011,158 of foreigo articles,
The receipts into the Treasury amount
ed to $26,346,700,37; of which there was
derived from customs $23,747,864.66
from sales of public lands, $2,408,335,211'
tod from incidental and miscellaneous
sources; $100,570,51. The last fiscal
year, during which this amount was re
ceived, embraced five months under the
tariff act of 1342, and seven mouths dur
ing which the tariff act' of 1840 was in
; force. ' During the five months under the
operation of the (arifT act of 1842, the
amount received from customs was $7,
842,306,00, and during the seven months
under the act of 1846, the amount re
ceived was "$17,005,557,76.
The net 1 revenue from customs in the
year ending on the 1st of December, 1840,
being the last yearof the tariff act of 1342,
was $22,071,403,10; aud the nett revenue
from customs, during the year eodlog
December 1st, 1S47, being the first year
under the operation of the tariff act of
1840, of more than $8,500,000, over that
tif the last year over the tariff of 1842.
The expenditure during the fiscal year
ending on the 30lh of June last, are $59,
451,177 65; of which $3,552,032 37 was
on account of payment of principal and
interest of the public debt, including
treasury notes redeemed and not funded.
The expenditures, exclusive of payment
of publio debt, were $55,029,005 23,
It isesliinalod that the receipt into
the treasury fur the fiscal year ending 30th
June, 1848, including balance in the treas
ury on the 1st of July last, will amount to
$42,886,545 60; of which $31,000,000, it
is estimated, will be derived from cua
toms, $3,500,000 from the sale of the
publio land. $400,000 from incidental
source, including sales mad by the So
licitor of the treasury, and $3,285,204,
95 from lotos already authorized by law;
tvuicn, wuo ibe balance id tha treasury,
on the first of July last make lb turn e
timaled. .. . ; ; , .. . , .
1 he expenditures fir the tame period;
if peac with Mexico shall not be con
cluded, aod th army shall be increased as
proposed, will amount, including th ne
ceessry payments, 00 account of priocipal
and Interest of the publi debt, sod treasu
ry notes to $58,615,660 07.
Oath first of the present month the
amount of lb public debt actually incur
red, including tretsury notes, wa $45,
659,660,40. ' The public debt due 'on the
4ih March, 1845, Including treasury notes,
wa $V7,7S7.-9,62;aBj consequently lb
addition mad t lb cnbtio bl ic
tbat tlm. is $27,870,869.78. Of tb loan
f t23,O0O,0fO authorized by tb act f
28th f Janoary , 1947, tb sum of $5,C00,
000 was paid out to the publio creditors,
or exchanged at par for epecji, The re
maining $H,0()0,000 was offered' fur spe
cie 'to the highest bidder, not below par,
by so advei tiiemenl issued' by llm Secre
lafy of the Treasury, and published from
the Oib ef February to ibe IU1I1 of April,
1847, when it wasawardod lo the several
highest bidders, at a premium ranging
from one-eighth of one per cent, to two
per cent, above par. The premium has
been paid into the treasury, and the sums
warded, deposited iu speeie in the trea
sury, as fast as it was ueeded by the wants
of the government.
To meet the expenditures for the re
mainder of the present, aod for the next
fiscal year, ending on the 30th of June,
1840, a further loan, iu aid of (lie ord ina
ry revenue, will be necessary, Retaining
a sufficient surplus in the Ircasucy, the
luan required for the remainder of the
pre-enl fiscal year will be above $18,500,
000. : If the duty on tea and Coffee be im
posed, and Ibe graduation of the public
lauds shall be made at an early period of
your session, as recommended, the loan
for the fiscal year may be reduced to $17,
000,000. This may be further reduced,
whatever amount of expenditures can be
saved by the military contributions col
lected in Mexico, The most vigorous
measure Tor (lie augmentation of these
contributions have been directed: and a
very considerable turn is expected from
I list source. I Is amount Cannot, however,
he calculated with any . certainty. It is
recommended that the loans (0 bo made
be authorized upon the same term!, which
was authorized under the provisions of the
act ofthe C8lh of January, 1847.
Should thorwar with Mexico be continued
till the 30tli of June, 1840 it is estimated that
a further loan of $20,500,000 will be required,
for the fiscal year ending on that day, in enso
no duty be imposed on tea and coffee, and the
public lamia bo not reduced and graduated
in price, and no military contribution shall
bo collected in Mexico. If the duty oil tea
and coffee be imposed, and the lands reduced
and graduated, in price, as proposed, the loan
may be reduced to $17,000,000; and will be
subject to bo still further reduced by the
amount of the military contributions which
may be collected in Mexico. It is not pro
posed, however, to oak Congress for authority
to negotiate the loans for the next fiscul yoar;
as it is Imped that the loans, asked for the
remainder of tha present fiscul years, aided
by military contributions, which may be col
lected in Mexico, may he sufficient. If, con
trary to my expectations, there shull be a ne
cessity for it, the fact will be communiciited
to Congress in time, for their action, during
their present session. In no event will a sum
exceeding $60,000,000 of this amount be
needed before the meeting of the session of
Congress of 1P48.
The net of July 184G, reducing the duties
on imports, hns been in force einco the first of
December last; and I am gratified to state
that all the beneficial effects which were an
ticipated from its operations have been fully
realized. The public revenue derived from
customs during the year ending 1st of De
comber 1817, exceeds by more than $8,000,
0' 0, the amount received in the preceding
year, under the act of 1842, and which was
superceded dy it. Its effect are visible in
the great and almost unexampled prosperity
which prevails in almost every branch of bus
iness. While the repeal ofthe prohibitory and re
strictive duties of the act of 1812, and the
substitution, in their place, of reasonable rev
enue rates, levied 011 articles imported, ac
cording to their actual value, has increased
the revenue, and augmented our foreign trade,
all tho great interests of tha country have
been advanced and promoted.
The great and important interests of agri
culture, which had been Dot only too much
neglected, but actually taxed under the pro
tective policy for the benefit of other inter
ests, have been relieved ofthe burdens which
that policy imposed on them: and onr farmers
and planters, under a more just and liberal
commercial policy, are finding new and profit
able markets aboard for their augmented pro
ducts. Our commerce is rapidly increasing, and is
extending more widely the circle of interna
tional exchanges. Great as has been the in
crease of our imports during the past year, our
exports of domestic products sold in foreign
markets have been etill greater-
Our navigation interest is ominenlly pros
perous. The number of vessels built in the
United State has been greater than during
any preceding period of equal length. Large
profits have been derived by those who have
constructed as well as by those who have nav
igated them. Should the ratio of increase in
the number of our merchant vessels be pro
gressive, and be as great for the future as dur
ing the past year, th time is not distant when
our tonnage and commercial marine will be
larger than that of any other nation in the
Whilst the interests of agriculture, of com
merce, and of navigation have been enlarged
and invigorated, it is highly gratifying to ob
serve that our manufactures are also in a pros
perous condition, None of the ruinous effects
upon this interests, which were apprehended
by some, as the result of the operation of ibe
revenue system established by the act of 1846,
have been experienced. On the contrary, the
number of manufactories, and the amount of
capital invested in (hem, is steadily and rapid
ly increasing, affording gratifying proof that
American enterprise and skill employed in
in this branch of domestic industry, with no
other advantages than those fairly and inci
dentally accruing trom a just system of reve
nue duties, are abundantly able to meet suc
cessfully all competition from abroad, and till
uenve lair ana remunerating profits.
."':, While capital invested in manufactures is
yielding adequate Vnd "fair profits under the
new system, the "wages of labor, whether em
ployed in manufactures, agriculture, com
merce, or navigation, have been augmented.
The toiling millions, whose daily labor furn
ishes the supply of food and raiment, and all
the necessaries and comforts' of life, are re
ceiving higher wages, end, more steady and
permanent employment than in any other
country, or at any previous period of our own
history. ,
So successful have been all branches of our
industry, that a foreign war, which generally
diminishes the resources' of a nation, has in
no essential degree retarded our onward pro
gress, or checked our general prosperity.
With such gratifying evidences of prosper
ity, and of the successful operation of the
revenue act of 1846, every connideration of
public policy recommends that it shall re
main unchanged. - It is hoped that the system
of impost duties which it established maybe
regarded as the permanent policy ofthe coun
try, and that the great interests affected by it
may not again be subject to be injuriously dis
turbed, as they have heretofore been, by fre
quent and sometimes sudden changes.
For the purpose of increasing the revenue,
and without changing or modifying the rates
imposed by the act of 1846 on the dutiable
articles embraced by its provisions, I again
recommend "to your favorable consideration
the expediency of levying a revenue duty on
tea and coffee. The policy which exempted
these articles from duty during peace, and
when the revenue to be derived from them
was not needed, ceases to exist when the
country is engaged in war, and requires tho
use of all its available resources. It is a tax
which would be so generally diffused among
the people, that it would be felt oppressively
by none, and be complained of by none. It
is believed thut there are not, in the list of
imported articles, any which are more proper
ly the subject of war duties than tea and cof
fee. - '
It is estimated that three millions of dol
lars would be derived annually by a moderate,
duty imposed on these articles.
Should Congress avail itself of this addi
tional source of revenue, not only would the
amount of the public loan rendered necessary
by the war with Mexico be diminished to that
extent, but the public credit, and the public
confidence in the ability and determination
of the government to meet all its engagements
promptly, would be more firmly established
and the reduced amount of the loan which it
may be necessary to negotiate could probably
be obtained at cheapor rates. ,.
Congress if, therefore, called upon to de
termine whether it is wiser to impose'tho war
duties recommeded, or, by omitting to do so,
increase the public debt annually three mil
lions 0 dollars so long as loan shall be re
quired to prosecute the war, and afterwards
provide, in some other form, to pay tho semi
annual interest upon it, and ultimately to ex
tinguish the principal.' If, in addition to these
duties, Congress should gradualfljnd reduce
the price of such of the pub)icifcs eat
perience has proved will not command the
price placed upon them by tho government,
an additional annual income to the treasury of
between half a million and a million of dol
lars, it is estimated, would be derived from
this source. Should both ' measures receive
the sanction of Congress, the annual amount
of public debt necessary to be contracted
during the continuance of the war would be
reduced near four millions of dollars. Tho
duties recommended to bo levied on tea and
coffee, it is proposed shall be limited in their
duration to the end of the war, and until the
public debt rendered necessary to be con
tracted by it shall be discharged. The amount
of the public debt to be contracted should be
limited lo tho lowest proticable sum, and
should ho extinguished as early after tho con
clusion of the war as the means of the treas
ury will permit.
With this view, it U recommended that, as
soon as tho war shall be over, all the surplus
in the treasury, not needed for other indispen
sable objects, shall constitute a sinking fund,
and be applied to the purchase of the funded
debt, and that authority be conferred by law
for that purpose. .. .
The act of the sixth of August, 1846, 'to
establish a warehousing system,' has been in
operation more than a year, and has proved
to be an important auxiliary to the tariff
act of 1846, in augmenting the revenue, and
extending the commerce of tho country.
Whilst it has tended to enlarge commerce, it
has been beneficial to our manufactures, by
diminishing forced sales at auction of foreign
goods at low prices, to raiso the duties to be
advanced on them, and by checking fluctua
tions in the market. The system, although
sanctioned by the experience of oilier coun
tries, was entirely new in the United States,
and is susceptible of improvement in some of
its provisions. The Secretary of the Treas
ury, upon whom were devolved large discre
tionary powers in carrying this measure into
effect, has collected, and is now collating, the
practical results of the system in other coun
trie, where it has long been established, and
will report at an early period of your session
such further regulations suggested by the
investigation as may render it still more ef
fective and beneficial.
By the act to 'provide for the better organ
ization of the treasury, and for the collection,
safe keeping, and disbursement of the public
revenue,' all banks were discontinued as fia
cal agents of the government, and the paper
currency issued by them was no longer per
mined to be received in payment of public
Th constitutional treasury created by this
act went into operation on the first of January
last. Under the system established by it, the
public money bave been collected, safely
kept, and disbursed by th direct agency of
officer of the government in gold and silver
and transfers of large amounts have been
made from points of collection to points of
disbursement, without loss to the treasury, or
injury or inconvenience to the trade of the
country:"; '; i , ; ',', ;-; i-V- ' ,
Whilst the fiscal operations of the gov.
eminent have been conducted with regu
larity and ease, under Ibis system, it has
had a salutary effect in checking and pre
venting aft undue inflation of ilia paper
currency issued by the banks which exist
understate charters. Requiring, as it
does, all dues to- the government to be
paid in gold and silver, it effect is lo re
strain excessive issues of baok paper by
the banks dieproportioned to the specie
in their vaults, for the reason that they
are at all limes liable to ba called on by
the holders of their notes for their redemp
tion, io order to obtain specie for the
pa) ment of duties and other publio due.
The banks, therefore, must keep (heir
business within prudent limits, and be al
ways in a condition to meet such calls, or
run the hazard of being compelled to aus
pend specie payments, and be thereby dis
credited. The amount of specie import
ed into the United States during the last
GsohI year was twenty-four million ooe
hundred and twenty-one ' thousand two
hundred and eighty-nine dollars; of which
there was retained in the country twenty
two million two hundred and seventy six
thousand ooe hundred and seventy dollars,
Had the former financial system prevail.
ed, and the public moneys been placed on
aeposite in banks, nearly the whole of this
amount would have gone into their vaults,
not to be thrown into circulation by them,
but to be withheld from the bauds of the
poeple as a currency, and made the basis
of new and enormous issue of bank pa
per. A larger proportion of the specie
imported has been paid into the treasury
fur public dues; and after having been, to
a great extent, recoined at the mini, has
been paid out lo the publio creditors, and
gone into circulation as a currency among
tho people. The amount of gold and sil
ver coin now in circulation in tho country
is larger than at any former period.
The financial system established by the
constitutional treasury has been, thus far,
eminently successful in its ope rat ions; and
I recommend and adherence to all its es
sential provisions, an especially to that
vital provision which wholly seperates the
government from ail connexion with
banks, and excludes bank paper from all
revenue receipts.
In some of its details, not involving its
general principles, the system isdefective.
and will require modification. These
defects, and such amendments as are
deemed important, were set forth in the
Inst annual report of the Secretary ofthe
Treasury. These amendments are again
recommended to the early and favorable
consideration of Congress.
During the past year, the coinnge al the
mint and its branches has exceeded twen
ty millions of dollars. This bat consisted
chiefly 'in converting the coin of foreign
countries into American coin.
The largest amount offoreign coin im
ported has been received at New Tork;
and if a branch mint were established at
that city, all the foreign coin received at
thai port could at once ba converted into
our own coin, without the expense, risk,
and delay of transporting it to Ihe mint
for that purpose, and Ihe amount recoin
ed would be much larger.
Experiences has proved that foreign
coin, and especially foreign gold coin,
will not-circulate extensively as a cur
rency among the people. The important
measure of extending our specie circula
tion, both of gold and silver, and of dif
fusing it among the people, can only be
effectedby converting such foreign coin
into American coin. Irepeat Ihe recom
mendation containedin , my last annual
message for Ihe eitahlisbment of a branch
the mint of theUnited State at the city
of New York.
All the publio lands which had been
surveyed and were ready for market have
been proclaimed for sale during the past
year. The quantity offered and to be of
fered for sale, under proclamations issued
since the first of January last, amounts to
nine million on hundred and thirty-eight
thousand five hundred and thirty-one a
ere. The prosperity of the western
Stales and Territories in which these
lands lie will be advanced by theirspeedy
sale. By withholding them form market,
their growth and increase of population
would be retarded, while thousands of our
cnterprising'and meritorious frontier pop
ulation would be deprived of the oppor
tunity of securing feeholds for themselves
and their families. Dul in addition to the
geseral considerations which rendered
the early sale of these land proper, it is
a leading object at this time to derive as
large sum a possible from this source,
and thus diminish, by that amount, the
public loan rendered necessary by the
existence of a foreign war.
It is estimated that not less than ten
million of acres of the public lands will
ba surveyed aud be in a condition to ba
proclamed for sal during tha year 1848.
In my last annual message I presented
the reason which, in my judgment, rend
ered it proper lo gradual and reduce
th price of such of th publio land as
have remained untold for long period af
ter they bid been offrd for tal at pub
lio auction. . ' ,' .-
Many million of acre of publio Sand
lying wiiliin lb limit of several of th
waster Slates ba hen offered in th
market, aod been subject to ala at pri
vat entry for more (ban twenty year,
'and large quantities for more than thirty
years; at Ihe lowest pric prescribed by
ke existing laws,' aud, it has been found
that' they will out coininaod that price.
They must remain unsold and nncultiva
ted for . an indefinite period,' unlea the
price demanded for them by the govern
ment shall be reduced. No satisfactory
reason is perceived why they, shoul'd be
longer held at rales above their real val
ue. At the present! period an additional
reason exist for adopting the measure re
commended. When the country i en
gaged iu a foreign war, and we must 'ne
cessarily retort to loans, it would seem to
belli dictate of wisdom that we should
avail ourselves of all our resources, and
thus limit the amount of the public in
debtedness to the lowest possible sum
I recommend that "the existing laws on J
me sunjeci 01 pre-empnon riguis oe
amended and modified so a to operate
prospectively, and to embrace all who
may settle upon the public lands and make
improvements upon them before they are
surveyed, ' as well as afterwards,' in all
cases where such settlements may be
made after the Indian title shall have been
If the right of pre emption be ikus ex
tended, it will embrace a large and mer
itorious class of onr citizens. It will in
crease the number of small freeholders
upon our borders, who will be enabled
thereby to educate their children , and
otherwise improve their condition, while
they will be found at all times, as they
have ever proved themselves to be in the
hour of danger to their country, among
our hardiest and best volunteer soldiers,
ever ready to tender tbeir services in
case of emergency; and among the last to
leave the field as long as an enemy remains
to be encountered. Such a policy will
also impress these patriotic pioneer emi
grants with deeper feelings of gratitude
for the parental care of their government,
when they find their dearest interests se
cured to them by the permanent laws of
the land, and th it they are no longer in
danger of losing their homes and hard
earned improvements by being brought
into competition with a more wealthy
class of purchasers at the land sales.
The attention of Congress was invited,
at their last aod the preceding session, to
the importance of establishing a Territo
rial government over our possessions in
Oregon; and it is lo be regretted that
there was no legislation on the subject.
Our citizens who inhabit that distant re
gion of country are still left without the
protection of our taws, or any - regularly
organized government. Before 1 lie ques
lion of limits and boundaries of lie terri
tory of Oregon was definitely settled,
from the necessity of their condition, the
inhabitants had established a temporart
government of their own. Besides the
want of legal authority for continuing
such a government, it is wholly inade,
qtiate to protect them in (heir rights of
person and property, or to seem e to them
ihe enjoyment of the privilege of other
citizens, to which they are entitled under
the constitution of the United States.
They should have the right of suffrage,
be represented in a Territorial legisla
ture, and by delegate in Congress; and
possess all the rights and privileges which
citizens of other portions ofthe Territo
ries of the United States have heretofore
enjoved, or may now enjoy.
Our judicial system, revenue laws, laws
regulating trade and intercourse with the
Indian tribes, and the protection of onr
laws generally, should be extended over
them. , . -
In addition to the inhabitant in that
territory who had previously emigrated
lo it, large numbers of our citizens have
followed them during Ihe present year;
and it is not doubted that during the next
and subsequent year' tbeir number will
be greatly increased.
Congress, af its last session, established
post-route leading to Oregon, and be
tweeo different points within that lerri
tory, and authorized the establishment of
poal offices at "Astoria and such other
places en the coast ofthe Picifio, within
the territory of the United State, a the
public interest may require." - Post offi
ces have accordingly been established,
deputy postmaster appointed, and pro
vision made lor the transportation of the
The preservation of peace with th In
dian tribes residing west of the Rocky
mountains will render il proper tbat au
thority should be given by law for the ap
pomtment of an adequate number of In
dian agent lo reaid ainoog them. .
1 recommend that a surveyor general'
office b established io that territory, and
that lb publio land be surveyed and
brought into market at an early period.
,1 recommend, also, that grant, upon
liberal term, of limited quanlitie of the
public laods be made to all citisen of th
United Stale who bave emigrated, or
may hereafter within a prescribed period
emigrat, to Oregon, and settle upon
them- Thet bardy and adventurous cil
izens, wbo bav encountered tb dangers
and privation of a long aod toilsome jour
ney, and btv at length found an abiding
plac for tbemslvs aod -their families up
on th utmost verge of our western limits,
should b secured is th home which I hey
bave improved by tkir Ubort
, I refer yon Io tb accompanying re
port of lb Secretary of War for a detailed
account of th operation of th various
branche of th public service coaoected
with tb department bav been uoutually
onerous and responsible during the patt
year, and have been discharged with abili
ty and ncoe;,Vv--.-,-'.;:.
Pacific relations continue to exist with the
various Indian tribes, and moet of them man
ifest a strong friendship for the United States.
Some depredations were committed during
the past year upon our train transporting
supplies for the army, on the road between
the western border of Missouri and Santa Fe.
These depredations, which are snppoeed to
have been committed by band from the re
gion of New Mexico, have been arrested by
the presence of a military force,' ordered eet
for that purpose. Some outrage have bee
perpetrated by a portion of the northwestern
bands upon the weaker and comparatively
defenceless neighboring tribes. Prompt meas
ures were taken to prevent such occurrences
in future. ' ' ' ' '
Between one and two thousand Indians,
belonging to several tribes, have been re
moved during the year from the east of the
Missippi to the country alloted to them west
of that river, as their permanent home; and
arrangements have been made for others to
follow.- ' '.;" 1 :;" " .-'-''-" : '
Since the treaty of 1846 with the Chero
kees, the feuds among them appear to have
subsided, and they have become more united
and contented than they have been for many
years past. The commissioners, appointed
in pursuance of the act of June 27th, 1846, to
settle claims arising under the treaty of 1835
36 with that tribe, bave executed their
duties; and after a patient investigation, and
a full and fair examination of all the cases
brought before them, closed their labors in
the month of July last. This ia the fourth
board of commissioners which has been or
ganized under this treaty. Ample opportuni
ty has been afforded to all those interested to
bring forward their claims. No doubt is en
tertained that impartial justice has been done
by the late board, and that all valid claims
embraced by tho treaty have been considered
and allowed. This result, and the final set
tlement to be made with this tribe, under tho
treaty of 1 840, which will be completed and
laid before you during your session, will ad
just all questions of controversy between
them and the United States, and produce a
state of relations with them simple, well-defined,
and satisfactory.
Under this discretionary authority con
ferred by the act of 3d March last, the -annuities
due to various tribes have been
puid during the present year, to the heads
uf families, instead ot to the chiefs, or to
such persons as they might designate, ex
cept as by the law previously existing, ,
This mode of payment has given general
satisfaction to the great body of the In."
dians justice has been done lo tbeni and
they are grateful to the government for it.
A few chiefs and interested peisons may
object to this mode of payment, but it is
believed to be ihe only mode of prevent-
illO- ll-nilil Hnil itnnriKII Kin frtim haini n.nA.
0 - - - , " r ,
tised upon the great body of the common '
Indians, constituting a majority of all tb ' '
tribes. - '' '"'' . ', '' -
It is gratifying (o perceive that a ntim- ' '
ber of the tutors have recently manifested
an interest iu the establishment of schools
among ihem, and are making rapid ad
vances in agriculture; some of them pro-
ducing a sufficient ' quantity of food for
their support , and a surplus to dispose of '
to their neighbors. " The comforts bv
which those who have received even a very
limited education and have engaged in
agriculture, aro surrounded, tend gradu- '
ally to draw off tha less civilized brethren
from the precarious means of subsistence,
by the chase, to habits of labor and civil- '
ization, - ' ' '
The accompanying report of the Secre
tary of the Navy present a alisfactory
account of the service during the last year.
Our commerce ha been punned with in-' '
creased activity, and with safety and suc
cess in every quarter of the globe " under
lha protection of our fiagi whick the Nary '
has caused to be respected itfnhe most '
distant aeas. ' ' ' ' ' . '
In the Gulf of Mexico and the Pacific,
the oflicei and men of our squadron bave
displayed distinguished gallantry, and
have performed valuable services. '"'
In the early stage of the war with Mex- '
ico, her ports on both coasts were block- ' '
aded, and more recently many of them -have
been captured and held by tbe Navy." J
Whear acting 10 co-operatloo with the
land'forces, the-Naval officer and men- '
bave performed gallant and distinguished '
service on land as well a on water, and 1
deserve the high commendation of th '
country. - ; . - - -.
While other maratime power ar ad- '
ding to their navie large number of war
steainars, it is a wise policy on our part,
to make similar additions lo our navy.
The four war steamers authorized by lb '
3d of May, 1637, are in course ofcoostiuc- ''
tion. " '.;-! ' " ;'"-' -w';' '' - ,:
In addition to tbe four war alcanaer"-
authorized by this act, the Secretary lias, '''''
in puisuance of its provision, entered in- " '
to contract for the foiir'sletmert to ba ' ''
employed in Ihe transportation of the '
United Slate Mail front New York to-'""
New Orleans, touching at Savanak and':' '
llavanna, anj from Havacna t Chagres;
for three steamer to be employed lit ' - '
like manner from Panama to Oregon, o ' ' ;
a lo connect with the mail to Cbsgre
acros the Iitl.mm. and fur five steamer '
10- be employed in like manner I 'Liver '
pool. : These steamer will be th proper-'
ly of ceotractsrs, but ia b built' oodar ' "''"
tb mperinteudants aod direction f CJ
oaval constructor, in the employ of th ''
oavy department, and to b so constructed -l '' ' 1
a to reader them convertible at th least
possible expense into war laineiof the ' J
, -

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