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11 CO-OPERATIVE DEPARTMENT Tn oharM nf FL H. Ellcworth. EntenrtS6. Kin n&a. to whom all crmmunlcattoni In rez&rd to this depart ment mut be addrrxed. WHAT THE NINETEENTH CENTURY GIVES US. It gives us men whose sole purpose in life la either money getting, or pleasure It gives us bard, hypocritical, smooth, smiling knaves, who can without a twinge of conscience, rob widows and orphans it gives us weak, indolent, corrupt young men, -devoid of a single noble Impulse, who, as parasites, Infest social life Is their insatiate love of ease and bodily pleasure;it giveB us rogues and gamblers, men who trade and live upon the neces sities of the poor and weak; it gives us in all our large cities armies of fallen women, from whom every vestige of purity has departed, and who sell themselves body and soul to minister to the depraved ap petites of men; it gives us a still larger army of women who herd in dens called rooms, and who live on the dregs of life, and into whose existence a ray of the sunlight of hope or happiness never en ters. These are the sewing women of the great cities. It gives us little child ren with deformed minds and bodies, chained to the task of feeding and tend ing the iron meohanlsm of trade. It gives us, in one word, poverty, that reaches from cne part of the civilization to the other, and has outworked itself in these terrible loathsome forms of social life. For there is a more deadly poverty than that which General Booth in his "Darkest Days of England" de scribes. It is the poverty of the soul, from which all that is great and good and noble and heroic have departed; of a . 1 - ... 1l alAlf nie oarren or rigoi reauiis. Ana mis is what the nineteenth century, with all its mrflr;.;nrn Hnieni.infr nmnnvnnM Hnn in' tellectual progress has given us. The poverty, Buttering, and physical and moral degradation of the people are the witnesses, the visible expression of the deeper and blacker poverty of soul that nearly everywhere exists. It Is time that the angel of discontent stirred the stagnant waters of social life; it Is time that the John the Baptist of a new social order preached in the wilder ness of human affairs that their la some thing higher, something nobler than money getting, eating and drinkl&g, and their train of sensual pleasures. I. C. Fales. THE CAUSES OF POVERTY. The causes of poverty and of our continuous labor troubles are at present being widely discussed. Quite anum berare given here and there, in the pa pers of the day, but they seem to fall short of the bottom cause the parent of all the others. The great tap-root of the luxuriant evil growths appears to be in vincible to most writers on the subject, and the following view is submitted to the consideration of the reader: "Order is heaven's first law." This Is a truth often quoted. The universe is governed by the ceaseless operation of law, and when any of these natural laws are violated by sentient beings, more or lees suffering Is the inevitable conse quence. If a person abuses his stomach he is troubled with dyspepsia. If he is exposed long enough to cold and damp, he reaps rheumatism or pneumonia or some other trouble. The gourmand and and wine bibber will have his twinges of gout, etc, eta In all these cases the law of bodily health have been broken and the penalty follows, and there is no puzzle about it. Now poverty and these labor troubles arise from precisely a like cause, viz the violation of natural law by men col lectively. All nations, especially civil Ized ones, have all along through the ages and up to the present moment, been flying right in the face of the great law of universal order, that is the source of nature's harmony in all her kingdoms. This is the law of combination or asso elation, and of co-operation in aasocia tlon, of many very different parts, each contributing its own function or product, to bring about a common result This law of co-operation is seen at work every where. It is seen in the starry clusters. in the solar systems; in the co-operation of forces and elements that thus only ren der a globe habitable; in the harmonic forms of crystlllzation, in the oo opera tion of the diversified organs of a plant, of an animal and of the human body, to effect Important results Impossible with out such co-operation. Under the con trolling influence of the life force all the organs of the human being co-operate to sustain and manifest the conditions of iife, each contributing its own labor or product, and thus the person enjoys health and power to act. Passing now from the co-operation of the many organs whioh Bustain the life of the individual, the next higher step is the Co-operation of the individual mem bers of the family olrole. Here each works for all and all for each the father In farm or shop, the mother in the house hold, the boys help the father, the girls the mother until, the children being grown, they go forth to raise families for themselves. Now what is the next natural step under the law of harmonic co-operation and united and common interests and labors? Evidently it is the union of in terests and labors, or co-operation among each other of a number of families form ing the co-operative town or city, with all the land, the buildings, the tools, the machinery and the other appliances needed to furnish them by their united labors, with every necessary of life. In all the progress made by our civilization, however, we have never yet, with a few exceptions, reached this higher step of co-operative life, owing to causes which need not here be enumerated. It is simply the fact that when we leave the family the true family circle where mutual love and helpfulness reigns under this law of universal order or co-operation that we at once turn our backs upon this great law, and' plunge headlong into an In tense and false individualism, where every one goes his own way, In quest of the means of life. And whereamulti tude do this, each following his own fancy, is it not plain that there must un avoidably be a perpetual crossing of each others paths, and collision, conten tlon, scramble and struggle for the right of way and for access to the means of wealth? In such a free fight for all, of course the strong in purse, pluck and push, thrust aside the weaker, and se cure the largest share of good things, while the masses must fare as they can and do with less and less, down to the absolute pauper. Man is driven to asso ciate with his fellows, both by his social Impulses and by his need of others to help him to live, by exchange of services or products of labor. But when men come together in communities whether crowded into cities or settled upon farms, is it not as plain as possible that If there is no nnlon of Interests, no co operation, no orderly union or organ izatin of their many and diverse industries, no working together for a common end, viz., the en richment of all by the labors of all, if, in fine, there is no internal harmony among them and their pursuits, but each person and each company and firm pur sues Its own course, contending and com peting with others, and even in the effort to get ahead of all competitors that ibis Is a confusion worse confounded, and that as the Internal order of a co-operative life is absent an external order must be preserved by force, by rigid laws, by magistrates, by police, by courts to settle endless disputes as to private rights and wrongs, and safe prisons for offenders? Who can fall to see this? This universal confusion of industrial and business life this everyone-for-him-self and the "devil take the hindmost" pursuit of wealth this following as the rule the unspoken motto, "He mast get wh has the power, And he mutt keep who can." This has brought our republic, at the close of the first centuay of its existence, to a condition which is now causing great alarm to those who are at the pains to look at the facts. Here are a very few only: The enor mous wealth of the country $60,000,- 000,000, equal to $1,000 for each person of 60,000,000 of population is so piled up on one side that 1 per cent of this population own one-half of this wealth, or 130,000,000,000, and this startling con centration of wealth in the hands of a few thousand persons has been going on rapidly for the last thirty years, and con tinues at that rate; so that it is estima ted that in thirty years more the entire wealth of the country will be in the hands of a very small fraction of it, and the nearly 60,000,000 of others will live at the suffrence of the few thousand. (See the article in the Forum for September and October, 1889, by Mr. Thomas O. Shearman.) Next, this business confusion results in between 200 and 800 failures each week in the United States, or 12,000 a a year, or 60,000 persons obliged each year to try the world over again. Next, in this false individualistic syi tern it is impossible for all those who want employment to find It A million of persons or more are said to be in search of It all the time, and 100,000 In New York alone, in winter, according to the World's statement, in the Sunday is sue of March 16, 1890. Next, it Is impossible that all children, at all times and in all places can be given the constant, watchful care and training In virtuous and industrious habits up to puberty, which they need as much as food and clothing, to grow up noble men and women. Hence, our cities abound in Idlers and Incapables, as well as in young roughs and gangs of thieving boys, who grow up as drunkards, tramps, criminals Insane, fill our prisons and asylums and load the publio with taxes for the cost of their trial and sup port while In confinement Then in this free fight for all the op portunities and facilities for wealth get ting are seizM by those who have the power and skill to do so. The land, the mines, the machinery, the mills, the fac tories, the street car lines, telegraph, telephone, electrio light plants and the control of all the necessaries of life are being bought up by multiplying syndi cates and trusts, who swell their millions at the expense of the wage workers, as well as of the people who must use or purchase these things at greatly in creased prices. There can be no doubt that the bottom cause of poverty of the great and appal ling contrasts of condition between peo ple of the same locality, and of the dally widening gulf between the rich and the poor is our orderless Individualism in Industry, which is simply a universal and collective defiance by men of the natural law of harmonic association everywhere viz., of association In co operation among many dissimilar parts and powers, to produce a common result the defiance of a law of order, which springs from and reflects the harmony of the Divine nature itself there can be, we say, no more doubt that poverty has its roots in the violation of this great law than we can doubt that the sun shines or the globe revolves. From such viola tion what can civilization expect but that In time it should result in just these industrial troubles and the wide spread poverty and unrest and agitation that we have lived to witness? But these are the forerunners of great change for the better. This tangled up, false Individualism (the only true individualism will be found in co-operation, which will enable each to live his own life) Is the bottom cause, the parent cause of all the super ficial causes given by correspondents in the Sunday World of March 16tb, viz: ignorance, drunkenness, idle habits, in capacity, want of land and its natural op portunities want of thrift, bad legisla tion, wretched marriages, want of money, unequal distribution of wealth, usury (see the respective letters.) All of these are themselves only the natural out births the children of our struggling, competing Individualism, giving the strong and lucky ail the prizes. But when people unite their interests and labors In communities (not com munistic communities) or cities of some thousands each, and each as a joint stock company, conducts all its Industries un under the single management of a chosen directorship, utilizing its sur rounding lands, which It will at first own, and In the near future lease from the state or the national government (the na tion having become sole owner of all its land) and not only by farming, but by manufactures of all kinds supplying its own citizens first and foremost with what they all want and exchanging Its surplus for different surplus of other co-operative cities; and when these cities unite in each state and the co-operative states are linked together industriously under a national industrial administration and all Industry has thus become nationalized, as it is sure to be in the near future, ai d our republio has also in this way be come a full, true and complete republic (It is only partially one now) as compared to these numerous cooperative cities, each of necessity a republic la miniature than each person cannot fall to have enough of what he needs aud poverty will be abolished, as It is abolished now at the present moment in several locali ties. Then, too, chlM ren will be fully euuuaieu aau property irninea; no aaurt, male or female, will ever lack employ ment and Its full reward: woman will be the perfect social equal of man in every respect will be, free, as air to live her own life; marriage will cease to be mer cenary, but solely the outcome of mu tual attachment, and under these rational conditions of human life, and through heredity, a new race of men and women will arise, and ' reveal to an astonished world the marvelous capacities inherent In the nature of man; for in our present semi-civlllzatlon it is the selfish part of that hnman nature that Is constantly ap pealed to and spurred into ceaseless and abnormal activity by our dally and hourly surroundings. All this is not Utopian. It Is now and has been In practical embodiment at the "Famlllitere" of the late lamented M. Godin, at Guise, France, some 100 miles north of Paris, for twenty-five years. Here, poverty Is banished has been . for the above period. Hre some 2,000 peo ple, workmen, with their families, live in comfort and peace. They occupy splen did buildings and are showing In a most striking manner the actual results of co-' operative life, and are showing, too, that lor anyone to believe and teach that poverty must always be the lot of the masses, is to lgnorantly or obstinately fly in the face of established and present facts to the contrary. W. II. MuUer in Jfer$onian.