Newspaper Page Text
DON'T BE IN THE "CANT DO IT" CLASS,
BUT KEEP TAB ON EACH COW IN HERD Provide Yourself With a Proper Milk Pail, a Pair of Spring Balances and a Milk Sheet, and Then Proceed to Find Out By Observation What Each Cow Is Doing For You. ! V ' ' ' J ts&C7& Iw :zjm : J I i HE greatest anti-fly crusade that the world has known Is now get ting under way In a multitude of American cities and smaller com munities, reaching from Seattle and San Francisco to Boston. During recent years physicians, bacteriologists, sanitary engineers, and others concerned with ques tions of public health, have made ceaseless effort to arouse the American people concerning disease and death traveling in the tracks of the common housefly, or "typhoid fly," s the United States government does not hesi tate to call it In its official printed documents. Little by little the country has become ac quainted with the danger, and now entire com munitieshamlets, villages, cities alike are un dertaking systematic and complete extermination of the Insect The fly has been recognized as a carrier of disease for' many generations, and some authorities, like Jean Dawson, the Cleve land biologist, feel satisfied that It was so recog nized even In Bible times. But never before has practically an entire great nation awakened to the absolute necessity of fighting the fly to the death; of driving It out of existence. Moreover, it was left for a New Tork patholo gist, Dr. Ferdinand M. Jeffreys of the Polyclinic Medical school and hospital, to formulate a reply to the old question, "Of what use Is the fly?" According to Dr, Jeffreys It has a very important use In acting as a danger signal which cannot be disregarded with Impunity. "Wherever you find the fly," he says, "you also find filth. And where you find filth, you find dis ease." Not merely typhoid, but other highly danger ous Intestinal diseases are now known to be spread by files, and germs of tuberculosis, chol era Infantum, spinal meningitis, infantile paraly sis, are likewise carried far and wide by the same little pests. State boards of health, county com missions, municipal health departments, private organizations of men and women In all stations of life are printing and distributing pamphlets on the subject, having lectures delivered before audiences of children as well as of adults, ex plaining various methods of poisoning, trapping, and "swatting" flies. In many cities prizes of money have been offered for the largest number of flies killed in a given period. In other cities and towns prizes are offered for the best essays written by school children as to the dangers of flies and how to get rid of them. North Dakota has Issued two Important health department bulletins, spread broadcast through out the state, one entitled "Fly Habits" and the other "A Fly Catechism," In which are answered In simple language questions concerning flies which the youngest child may understand. The United States government, through Its Farmer's Bulletin No. 412, makes out a complete case against what It terms "the typhoid or house fly." , Virginia's state board of health has Issued at least three bulletins and circulars devoted wholly or in part to the subject. In addition to quarterly publications, one well Illustrated, Iowa Issues shorter folders telling " Just how to deal with the fly nuisance. The Chicago board of health, through its school of sanitary Instruction, publishes and distributes articles and cartoons on the subject, as well as a concise list of "Hints to Householders." The Ohio state board of health has also been busy In the matter and has reprinted large num bers of Dr. C. O. Probst's practical paper, "The Fly as a Disease Carrier." i Michigan's state board has come out with an Important quarterly document on "The Anti-Fly Crusade." Pennsylvania devotes an entire issue of its large Health Bulletin to an essay easily under stood, which is called "The Common Fly: How It Develops, Why It Must Be Destroyed, and How to Destroy It." South Carolina, Texas, and almost all the other , states In the Union have been doing thelr'utmost to educate the public concerning the dangers of permitting flies to exist But with the exception of a single four-page circular the state of New Tork has done nothing in the matter that has been pressed so vigorously by the country gen erally. This circular Is a brief document entitled "The Filthy Fly.", and Is issued by the Publicity and Education Department of the State Board of Health. It is said that by means of a red powder scat tared over plies of garbage and other filth flies have been traced in many cases directly into sick rooms, as well as to markets and fruit stalls where foodstuffs were displayed, without being screened. By such means as this flies were traced during an outbreak of typhoid fever in Plattsburgh, N. Y. The local authorities thought that drinking water, or milk, or some like sup ply was infected, but an Investigator from New York went to the Saranac river, into which the sewage of Plattsburgh was carried, and from there he traced flies as they went into a. moving picture show attended by a large audience, and he traced the flies as they went from the "mov ies" back to the river. Countless Instances of the spread of various diseases have been recorded all over the country, and as a result, Instead of being regarded merely as a harmless, though annoying little pest, the house fly Is today considered one of the dead liest enemies man has to contend with. Far more dangerous than war, for the fly is every where every summer, excepting In enlightened communities, like Cleveland, Ohio, which is rap Idly becoming pretty nearly a flyless city. Last year experiments were undertaken in a number of places to exterminate flies. Newspa pers of Worcester, Mass., offered money prizes for the largest quantity of flies caught, and the results were astonishing. One enterprising lad of twelve years won the first prize of $100 when he delivered ninety-flve quarts of flies. But it was found out later that In order to succeed he had actually gone Into the business of breeding flies In heaps of flBh offal. Altogether the city of Worcester caught and killed forty bushels of files in a few weeks. For obvious reasons those Interested In fly extermination are not ' offering prizes in the same way this year for dead flies. In a good many communities prizes are offered for flyless blocks of houses or for farms or barns that have no files on or in them. Organizations like the Woman's Municipal League of Boston are paying for steroptlcon lec tures delivered before all sorts of audiences, and are getting Boy Scouts, District Nursing as sociations, school children, and others at work in the effort One of the scientists most actively Interested is C. F. Hodge, professor of biology at Clark university, who has accomplished, re markable results by screening houses to keep flies on the outside, by killing winter flies when they awake in early spring and crawl out of cracks,' picture moldings, and other dark places where they spend the cold weather, and by catch ing in traps of his own design millions of young flies before they can get to kitchen, dining-room or restaurant One of the most effective steps taken in the campaign of education is due to Mr. Hatch, who sent a man to London, at his own expense, and there had made microscopic photographs of flies and their dangerous activities from which a mov ing picture film was constructed. The film, shown all over the country, is believed to have done more than any other one thing to bring millions of people to realize how great Is the danger from flies, and how necessary to remove It. One of the most ingenious methods for teach ing children facts regarding flies is-seen in a small pamphlet prepared by Jean Dawson of the Cleveland Normal school, who has adopted the question and answer plan of Instruction. After explaining. In this way. why files are dangerous, how they spread dlseaee, where they spend the winter and what they do In spring, the little book tells about their breeding, their food, and how they carry dirt as well as disease. The "closing questions and answers -re as fol lows: 20. Can a family escape the dangers from flies by screening them out of the house? No, not if they use food over which files have swarmed or fallen into. 21. Do flies carry sickness and death to many people In the United States? There are nearly five hundred thousand cases of typhoid fever yearly in the United States, and nearly 50,000 deaths. Much of this distributed by flies. Forty-nine thousand infants die an nually of enteritis or summer- complaint, the germs of which are probably all carried to the milk by flies. Flies are now known to be the most deadly enemy of man. They kill more neo- pie than all the Hons, tigers, snakes, and even wars. 22. Have flies always been such an enemy to mankind? Yes, but a great many have died. About four out of five children In Cleveland live to be five years old. Many of these deaths are due to flies carying disease germs to their food. 24. How is it possible to protect ourselves more from flies than we already have? When we thought flies were merely annoying, we could afford to hide ourselves behind screens; now that they have been proved to be our deadly ' enemy, we must come out and fight them In the open. 25. How can this be done? In three ways: (a) By killing all the winder files that have been hiding In buildings as fast as they come out (b) By cleaning up all manure and filth in which flies may breed. (c) By keeping traps set in covers of garbage cans and on porches where the flies are thickest to catch them before they can enter our homes. 26. What particular good would come from killing winter files? Killing the files that live over winter means killing the mother flies before they can lay eggs in the spring. 27. If we did clean up all the manure and filth from the neighborhood would not files swarm in from other parts? A fly seldom travels over 500 yards from lts breeding place. 28. With what are the traps baited? If used in the cover of a garbage can the garbage is the bait. If used otherwise, bread and milk Is an attractive bait. 29. Will all the flies go Into the trap? Yes, if there is no other food about 30. Has any one ever succeeded in keeping his house free from fllies without screens? Yes, a number of people have used the method above Indicated, and have done away with screen windows and doors. 31. Will the city of Cleveland ever be free from flies? Yes, Just as soon as every one does his part in his own house and yard Cleveland will be a city of flyless stores, markets and homes. One of the most Interesting experiments made last summer was a highly successful effort to teach children the truth about the necessity of exterminating the typhoid fly. Among those furthering this specific plan of education was Mr. Hatch, who offered two sets of prizes in each of a number of cities, including New York, Milwaukee, Kalamazoo, 8alem, Mass.; Wichita, Kansas City, Kan.; Memphis and St. Louis. To children In the seventh and eighth grades of public schools he . offered a prize of $10 and to pupils In the fifth and six grades he offered a first prize of $5 and a second prize of $3. In "the aggregate he spent In this way some $700, many thousands competing. One result is that an army of children have acquainted them selves with the fly and what it does to man. This, of course, was the main object sought. Secondly, the fact that a New Yorker was offer ing his own money In this campaign, and suc ceeded in arousing the spirit manifested among children all over the country, caused local news papers, health bodies, educational institutions, and other Individuals in many places to go Into the matter on their own responsibility. This year It is not necessary for Mr. Hatch or any one else to offer prizes to the country in general. The leaders of public opinion and public spirit in one "city after another are offering prizes themselves. , As a result of all the agitation, this year sees a fly crusade throughout the land such as was probably never seen before In the history of ths world. , DON'T LET anyone talk you Into the idea that you can't keep records of what your cows are doing. Thousands are doing it every day and making money at it. Don't be in the "Can't Do It," class. That class doesn't stand one-two-three any more in this busy world. Get a great big move on you and know your busi ness. The whole country is talking about you and your methods, Show the world that your ears and your hands and your brains are A-l. Not long ago a tarmer visited the agricultural college to see things for himself. The man who showed him around chanced to have on his Sunday clothes so the visitor believed him to -M, iSliiilf! f M llilfili if I jiliilil r.-.jw''--T,y'.''',f'" li -4 r ( Ififi ... j ftft .: i Eta fcit -'jMmM Complete Outfit for Keeping Milk Records. be "one of them professors." So when he went home he began to talk no; It wasn't talk; It was knock, with a capital K. The first man he met was the president of the biggest bank in his little town. He met him first be cause he the farmer had entered the bank to renew a note and get a little more money. And the way he did knock was a caution. It would have driven out an ' anvil chorus. "Why," said he, putting on his oldest Bneer and laughing so that the inter est oa his old note went up two notches, "they wore white when they milked the cows. And tbey weighed the milk and entered It on a sheet. They talked a lot about a cow testing association." And a lot more of the same k!nfl. The banker listened patiently, like a judge who lets a condemned man have his full say before sentencing him. Then, when the farmer seemed about run down, the banker said "We'll have to call that loan in next winter, Wil liam. It's getting larger every year, and you don't seem to be picking up any in your ways. Farmers nowadays have to spurt up, William. They have . to listen and learn. Now If you didn't laugh so much at things you'vo never tried you might get this noto paid off." Don't be in the William class. Think over a few modern tuoughts. Take on a few new methods. Weigh the milk. Test it every week or ten days. Don't be stubborn, like the farmer whd said "they ain't no sech animal,", when he saw his first giraffe. While the type or form of the cow Is an indication of her value as a dairy animal, this should not be taken as final proof of her ability as an econom ical producer. After the cows are in the herd, there is no excuse for rec ords of production not being known. Such records can be kept and used to distinguish between the prolitable and uuprolitable animals in the herd. To dispose of the latter and raise- the heifer calves from the best cows, U sure to increase the productiveness and profits of the herd. Seud to the dairy department of the. agricultural college for some milk sheets. They won't cost you a cent. Get a proper milk palL Buy a pair of spring balance scales. Put the milk sheet on the wall of the barn; fasten a pencil nearby on a string. Suspend the scales from th!e 'celling. There you are, all ready. Keep a complete record of the milk from each cow from the time she freshens until she is dry. Figure up the total amount of milk given during the milking period and calculate the Income from each -cow, figuring the milk sold at the current market prices. If the milk Is sold by the gallon, as certain the number of gallons of milk given In a year; a gallou of milk weighs 8.G6 pounds. A cow must make un income of at least $35 per year be fore she pays for her food and care. The exact cost of her feed can be ob tained by keeping a record of the grain and hay she eats, and figuring the cost at the market prices of the feed. Where the milk Is separated and the cream sold ou the butter-fat baBls, one must keep a record of the pounds of butter fat produced by each cow. To do this, the milk must be weighed each day as described and tested by the Babcock test. Testing a sample of milk once a month Is sufficient for this record. To get a sample of milk for testing, take a small sample (about three tablespoonsfull) of milk from the milk of each cow for each milking for two days. The milk should be thoroughly mixed before sampling. Place this milk from each cow in a separate bbttle and label the sample from (each cow. Test each sample for butter fat by the Babcock test as described below. To find the amount of butter fat pro duced by each cow for the month, And the total amount of milk given during the month and use the test as ob tained from the two days sample as the average test for the month. SWEET CLOVER ADAPTED TO KANSAS SOIL By C. C. Cunningham, Assist Sweet clover Is a crop that Is well adapted for growing on all soils In the state except those that are poorly drained. For certain purposes and for growing where alfalfa and red clover cannot be successfully produced it has considerable value. For quick results In Improving soils It is superior to most other crops. It may be pastured by. cattle with little danger of bloating and for this pur pose Is to be preferred to alfalfa. For other purposes, if either red cloverr or alfalfa can be grown successfully they will be found to be more desirable. If, however, these crops cannot be grown because of climatic soil condi tions, then the use of sweet clover is advised as the most valuable substi tute. Of the various kinds of sweet clover the white flowered variety Is best. To seed sweet clover successfully a thoroughly compacted seed bed Is necessary, with Just enough loose soil on top to enable the seed to be cov ered. The lack of a solid seed bed is probably the chief reason why sweet clover so often falls when seeded upon cultivated fields. If It Is necessary to plow the ground in preparing it for sweet clover, the plowing should be done several months before seeding. It Is usually best to seed on corn ground or after some other intertilled crop and depend on implements that merely stir the surface of the soil to prepare the seed bed. The best time to sow Is In the late summer or early fall, although good results can be obtained by early spring seeding. There is no danger of seed ing it too early in the spring. About 20 to 30 pounds of the hulled seed and at least five pounds more of the un hulled seed per acre 1b required. Best results can be obtained by seeding with a grain drill that 1b equipped with grass seeder and press wheel attach ments. Care should be taken not to seed too deeply. Where sweet ciaver is not growing naturally iu he locality It may be necessary to lnnoculate the soil in order to establish a stand. This can be done by scattering over the field two or three hundred pounds of ant in Farm Demonstrations. moist soil obtained from the ground where sweet clover or alfalfa la grow ing. This soil should be harrowed la Immediately. No treatment is required the first season unless it is necessary to cut back weeds which threaten to choke out the clover plants. This clipping should be at a height of five or six inches. The clover may be pastured during the late summer and fall, or a hay crop may be obtained. The second year a crop of bay and one of seed or two crops of hay can be obtained. For hay the crop should be cut about the time the first bloom buds appear. Care should be taken to cut the Btubble rather high. When the production of seed Is desired best re sults can be obtained if no hay crops are cut, although satisfactory crops of seed can often be secured after a crop of bay has been removed. For best results in pasturing sweet clover it must not be allowed to become coarse and woody. A tender succulent growth should be maintained by clip ping it back occasionally or by pastur ing heavy enough to keep it ,down , fairly close. , Farmer's Bulletin No. 485 on sweet clover may be obtained free upon re quest of the Secretary of Agriculture, Washington, D. C. Kafir for seed should be fanned and sacked as soon as It Is threshed. The fanning mill should be equipped with a sheet-metal sieve, having a long, narrow slot Instead of a round hole. The slot should be wide enough to let cracked grains through, but not whole grains. The Kafir also may be cleaned by sifting the cracked grain through a screen. When the world looks a bit blue, don't start for the pin box. Start for bed, and rest. You are too tired. An hour or two of sleep will smooth o it the kinks of life, and leave you in far better condition than If you had taken some drug which would do nothing except irritate your tender body and shorten your days.