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MEADE COUNTY NEWS, MEADE. KANSAS..
I How Famous Declaration - Was Adopted (V t OF AMERICA,' Ct .wXO s . c i V V.:" ' i-ttv '.-' v. m f lew A QINCE first our sires stood beside the stream, ' And fired the shot that echoed 'round the world, Has come to pass the epoch of their dream ; When to the April breeze their flag unfurled. w I ODAV where floats the Stars and Stripes, we deem Each star defiance at the tyrant hurled; Each stripe a bar 'gainst despots, ;tpo, would seem To interpose for human rights imperiled. ,-v Against a: crimen sky -across .the $ea,: 'fe???rIefs bane iftbm but the land has wrung s- 13 dnful toll. It promises to free : j'ch nation, and to hurtifeer each among51 ; -MKt Neri. Carbffiia X:? .' II ' V ' ''f-V v., . 4 if ;i fiV H ..:-,; . . . .. ... .. ... wr l?tapopularl fcBippos(dtnt;the t fneepfentfttate pf tjie United Stnteji ,,v : a.lphlftut down in the Old -...ortlL-Sbits a community that threw iff the British yoke moretfhan a yfetorS the " :. '.i ?j .t ... 1 t. Tumult in the city, ' " . " ' " ' In the quaint old Quaked town . v ' I ... ... .announced, the first generar tteff to- ... ward the freedom of the colonics. - ,"' 'ln'-1e!Prte British parMaraent ppssd " ;" ' the' stamp'net. When the first sloen, $f , r 4 ' . , .?,war. arrivea on uape ii ear irora ung-u-.'... i . y .carrying stamped paper ,the peo- - terrprized the captafti'Tihtil he' was (rni to lan'tfhls stuff, and Hten they . -.v -, ptur64 Btafflp'.ef&cer. frni..4he governor and made .the. officer take oath that he tepip- t;enfoye the use oi lathlsstnirip' act was "repealed. But North" Carb- lina had , found that she had ' a power when the people arose, and the.' English crown was neref. again, jsure.'ttf-We ground iathe cpi ony." '-- ' 1 1be peo'p'14 as jBerted the right bt- free assera blage after that, ..and, the assump tlon led to numetC' ous Washes with fSj j. A. the. .governor un ' ' JP 1 til In May, 1771, ' . the governor, with soldiers," proceeded against -a band of men calling them- . , selves Regulators; and a- few- miles north of Southern' Pines a buttle was (ought in which more than 100. casual- lies occurred on both sides, nearly two- '" "score being killed. This was the first bloodshed In, the Revolutions The fn Iddlclous governor, whose force was victorious, aroused further hatred on the part of the people by hanging a lumber . of his prisoners. Herman Husbands, the leader of the Regular tors, escaped and went to Pittsburgh, tfhere he settled, dying later at Phtla- ;: - Jeiphia.'.. iv, - v : Xhe filing was fanned by the er---nnctio-aeh slda,ntiL tvatate ' ' -HARLOWE R. HOYX . i:. convention was held at Newbern in Au '17T4: Tti meeting of the colonial teglslatjir;' yhlch followed, practicably enaorsed .the tptycal views of. the con vention, .vyiich'iwas proclaimed by the governor t,o be'onarchy.TBs result was ihartlteMeglslature wa dSjiplved and. tne- gorernor took rerueoa.a. snip or :wtf 'in Ofrpe Vekr river. ' In-Ma,-,177,5i the people of Mebklen b;Ur.g. county hgad a convention, and they took occasion, neariy'l.nyjnyis before the Declaration of Independence was issued: at Philadelphia, to say thaM' '.. -- ' . Ringing Declaration. , "We. ,decUu;e (ourselves a 'tree ahd independent:' people; are and of right ought to be-a sovereign and Indepen- .dciit setf-goVernlng association,' under- not powqr, tlaa . that of our God and the, gen.wal. government of congress.; To the mainte - nance ofwhichin dependence. yeJ, solemnly pledge to each other our mutual co-opera tion, our ( Hvfst) our iortunes ana oflr most sacred' honor." The convention' that adopted such startling resWiK tlons of Indepen dence uadertook to lay the foundat tlon for a govern ment for JJorth Carolina until, a suitable , and .star ble form, could be provided, by . con gress, and from that da the au thority, of the British crown was exhib ited only durlpg those few times when Cornwallls mnde his ventures with' more or less varying, success on the territory of the colony. ' " North Carolina was the first of the coJpnlys to have an English settlement, the 'first to shed blood In the war for Independence, and the first to give ut terance Jn explicit form to that inde pendence. Nor was the declaration of the people of Mecklenburg the sole manifestation of. the sentiment in the matter.. At Fayeiteville, on Cape Fear river -below Southern Pines, another Declaration of Independence ante dated that of Philadelphia. The peo ple In -Cumberland county, of which Fayetteville is the capital, Issued their statement in June of 1775, insisting that resort to arms was justified,, and pledging each other to' sacrifice' life and fortune to the freedom and safety of an oppressed people. In April, 1776, still before the Philadelphia Deciara--tion . of... Independence' thejprovlcial congress of0North Carolina appointed ... a tan a cbrrtmtttee to prepare a civU const!' tutton, and it was d,one so well that the document served sQQSv 60 years rfs -the brganic law of the state. And sd It was that North Carolina opened- the road that led ub to the creation of the ,n0g.t. proKreRHlvjnatlon on the face of 4l)9tejirth, aud.the one whose influence hq done most for the advancement of mankind.' " . iSome Tory Sentiment ."TV ': ' ; . All of this section of North.arollna ijas. no. enthusiastic in f haOecfa ration fX(Klependence. A poiftiorf bf the set tlers were ardent JTorle's-so ardent, In .fact, that it was not until the war of 1812 that the Scotch of Cape Fear t1 rfxr flnnllw' riinnA1 nmo iKa1iif o1 Yrorn the royal standard. , . ' The story Is one of singular misffeft-f thne. The Cap Fear valley was set tled largely by f the adhefsnts of the Stuart family, which met with" such disaster at Culloden ,that many, of Jhe fol lowers of the Pre tender were ban ished to America' for . taking f up arms agalrlst the British crown. Be fore these people were permitted to sail ther were sworn on a bind ing oath to be loyal henceforth to the English king. . When the settlers around' them in North Carolina were ris ing against the royal governor, declaring Indepen dence, refusing to pay stamp taxes, making new constitutions and fighting against the king, the Scotch settlers were in arms under the British flag. Their 6ath and their bitter experience before migrating to America prompted them to keep away from any further rebellious acts. Greene's Memory Worthy of Honor. ' - Next" to Washington,- Nathanael Greene was the most potent force in pur struggle for national Independence, He was born on May 27, 1742, In a lib tie farmhouse In Rhode Island. His boyhood was spent like that of the other youth of the neighborhood. Prob ably It was a little less exciting, fot his father was a strict Quaker and Ilastor of a church at East Greenwich, He" was also a "captain of Industry! at that period. With his five brothers, ht owned A forge, a grist mlil.-a sawmill, as well, as a store for the sale of geb eral merchandise - ' ... 5 1 t- Ml INDEPENDENCE day this year witnesses the unique spectacle of the Stars and Stripes and the flag of Great Britain Intertwined In a bond of friendship, the United States allied with her old mother country in fighting- the world battles of democ racy. In that memorable document which was proclaimed to the inhabi tants of the original thirteen colonies 142 years ago is a sentence which seems fitting now. as an indictment of the European monarch against whom America is at war. It is this : Our repeated petitions have been an swered only by repeated Injury. And then follows this severe arraign ment of George ni, the last of the Eng lish kings who maintained the divine right of rule: - ; ' A prince whose charactnrfe thui mark Id by every act which may define a ty rant la unfit to be thv ruler ot a free people. ' Prior to the Revolutionary struggle the sentiment Jn all the colonies for ten years and more from the time of the first Stamp Act troubles was strongly ' against a severance of rela tlons with the parent country. Paul ReVere's fide and the battles of Lexing ton and Concord In April, 1775, memo rable as those events are as the fore runners of the great conflict, failed to arouse any widespread enthusiasm for IndVpehdenctv It Is even significant to noWthat Just a year before the Dec laration " of Independence was unani mously approved by all of the thirteen colonies the Cqntlnrntal congress that had appointed Washington comman der in chief of the army, drew up, July 6, 177fC"a' declaration of the causes for taking up arms In which It was said : we mean not to dissolve that union which-f .so tong- and so 'happily eub iBted .between us and whtqtrwe sincere ly, wish .to see restored. .K;-. ... ) Even Thomas Jefferson, the author of the Declaration of Independence., two mpjiths after the bntlja-of Bunk'er HIUtwrote that he was "looking with fondness toward a reconciliation with' Great Britain." A few far-sighted leaders like 'Ben jamin Franklin, SnnAiel and . John Adhms-Jid Patrick Henryhnd felt at a,CQmparat!vely early" ' date that a, .break vens inevitable, -v The historic declaruttmrof the citi zens (of . Mecklenburg- county, North Carolina, in May, 1775, wasjpne of sev eral local events Indlca.tJ4Ht.that public opinion was tending toward Independ-' euoe,. but tno until the appearance of Thonwis' Palne's stffrljjg pamphlet,' L'jCommon Sense," early' in JuiSuary, Urowas there any appreciable public sentiment in Its fhvorf" In the plain 'liingnoge-of 4he-- day It presenJe. tJje ftfets" o simply that all could under-, stand. This "phenomenon," as Jjilifl Adams styled Paine, suilflenly found himself transformed from obscurity to ftjne.4 The' Pennsylvania legislature voted him $2,500, and V Southern legls- Thomas Jefferson. lator suggested that a statue of Paine In. gold would not be too high an honor. Richard Henry Lee's Resolution. ' Tilings moved rapidly in the colonies after that, and Richard Henry Lee of Virginia 'rose in the Continental con gress at Philadelphia, June 7, 1776, and presented his famous resolutions which led po the Declaration of Independence. The resolutions, In Lee's handwriting, and now one of the treasured papers in the library of congress, were : ' Resolved, That these United Colonies are and of right ought to be free and. independent states; that they are ab solved from all sllegiance to the British crown, and that all political connection between them and the state of Oreat Britain la and ought to be totally dis solved; -That It Is expedient forthwith to take l-the - most effectual measures for form ing- foreign alliances; That a plan or confederation be pre pared and transmitted to the respective I colonies for thwir consideration and ap - probation. Here, in fact, was the Declaration of Independence in a nutshell, proposed by one of the most eminent men of the most influential colony at that time' and promptly seconded by John Adams of Massachusetts. It was deem- fid lse fo order the aemtaiy to omit their names from the Journal. The next ffity const 689 went into a Committee Of ';M lii. J v. ."rr4' MfHtC Ikmm, tm MKtC.t.M, . ftmA-lj L LUtf p fC pmr- f Ufjn; tEUu jtumL S.f,m UlrmmyX ( IwMwttV wo wv fmju nww frrm q ttt j-Vrj2 ttlt msmm, mmmj JU 4 vXVWwvX Drft of the First Words of the Declaration of Independence, In Thomas Jef ferson's Handwriting, Which Established Democracy In America. the whole to discuss the resolutions. The delegates from Pennsylvania, New York and one or two other colonies ob jected on the ground that the middle colonies were not yet ready for so radi cal a step, although personally express ing a friendly attitude. Delegates Hesitated. Unanimous action by nil the colonies on so momentous a question was re garded by congress as of paramount Importance. Some of the delegates had nof been instructed to go so far as vot ing' for independence, New York and New Jersey being among them. " The majority had teert authorized to take any action that might be deemed wise, Virginia having gone so far as actual ly to Instruct her delegates to propose .a declaration ;of Independence to con gress, .ana Kiciinni Henry Lee was simply obeying, the legislative voice of his colony when He presented his reso lutions. June -.10 coiigYess postponed final consideration for three weeks, nnd-ort the following (lay appointed a commit tee Of five to draw up the declaratlop. Richard Henry LPs, as the propose? of the plan, would surely have been on the committee jand,. possibly, its chairman," had he. not In the meantime been Tfnr .rledly summoned home by the HlaTfcs .of his wife. But' for thnt Lea .nrfjait have been the author of the declara tion' instead of his younger Virginia colleague, Thnmns Jefferson, then but thirty-three yenrs; old. . Jefferson had brought to congress the - reputation .ior wielding a facile pep. apd in the balloting for the com mittee be. received h majority of vote nnpjeame its chairman. The others Were John (Jn ms of Massachusetts, rrpnj'amln Franklin of Pennsylvania, Roger Shennnn of Connecticut nnd RoltoTt R Livingston of New York. Hortor Glven Jefferson. How did. Jefferson come to be se lected "to write the Declaration, "the ongjAmerlca'n state paper, as has been snhl, that has' reached to supreme dls tVnctlon'.ln the world and that seems likely to last ns tong as American civi lization lasts"? Ttie.moKt Interesting account is giv en by John Adams, who says that he and Thomas Jefferson were designated by the committee to prepare the rough mlputes In a proper form. Mr. Jeffer son first proposed that Adams prepare the draft of the Declaration. Adams declined, giving, as he says in his au tobiography, thp following reasons: 'Ifl) That lie waa a Virginian and I a (a,sachuaetterilan. (2) That he was a Southern man' and I a Northern one. (8) That I had been so obnoxious tor my earlSr and constant seal In promoting- the 'xnensure that every draft of mine would ormergb a more severe scrutiny and criti cism in tortr"ss than one of his composi tion. M) And fustly. and that would ba rea son enough if there were no other, I had a grfat opinion of the elegance of his pen ana none ftt'aU-of my own. I therefore Insisted that no hesitation should be made on his part. He accordingly took the minutes and In a day or two produced to me his draft. As Jefferson Wrote It Jefferson snys thnt the entire com mittee urged' him to make the draft. .He showed it first to Franklin and Adams "because they were the two members of whose Judgments and amendments I wished most to have the benefit,'' They made a few minor al terations In their handwriting. This original draft was given by Jefferson to'Rltfhart nenry Lee, the dean of the. Virginia delegation, and in 1825 his grandson presented it to the Amer ican Philosophical society of Pbllsdel phla. .. ' Jefferson, having made another copy, wUh the changes suggested, presented it to the committee, which reported It unaltered to congress. July 1 Phila delphia was oo the qui vlve of expects tloti;' and contemporary accounts have left us- a stirring picture of the eager ness with which the citizens awaited definite" news of the most important act which the colonists had been called ppon tot decide in the long chain of disputes with the mother country. On the following day, when the formal vote of congress was. taken, the reso lutions were' approved by twelve col oniesall except New York. The orig inal colonies, therefore, became the United States of America on July 2, 1776. The next two days were spent In discussing the draft of the Declara tion as drawn by Jefferson. The debate i Was animated, but When it was all 0Ver the draft was adopted with sur prisingly few changes, a tribute to the ability with which the author had ex. pressed to the world the causes which ' had made It necessary for "one people to dissolve the political bands which 'have connected them with another." Unanimously Adopted, j '".The Declaration of Independence I was then unanimously adopted by the tweirr colonies," whdse delegates were 1 "roapQMccpaaHimiisti M4.il fi 1 tjUXmr C , ibt-p,ifmZ Instructed to vote in Its favor, on July 4, which thenceforth became the recog nlzed birthday of the new nation. . The old bell ringer of Philadelphia, who had been patiently waiting for the news In the steeple of the historic stntehouse, was the first to peal out the message of American independence on the bell ever since honored as the Liberty Bell. No longer was there any ' doubt that public opinion was ready . for the step, for, as the news spread, ; It was everywhere received with ex-; ultatlon. Word came to George Washington July 0, at his headquarters in New York, that the Declaration was ratified, and it was at once tea d to the sol diers and citizens. On, the same day the tfew York assembly, in session at Whjte Plains, gave Its formal vote for Independence, and the thlrteen'colontes were then united In' 'their common cause' John Hancock, president of the con gress, was the only member who signed the declaration on July 4. An engross-! ed copy on parchment wad ordered for all the delegates to sign.' This waa pompleted August 2 and signed by S4 John Adams. delegates. Two others ' signed later, Thomas McKean of Delaware, who waa absent with'' his regiment in August, and Matthew Thornton of New Hamp shire, who was not elected to congress1 until the fall, but was permitted to sigh' the document in November, mak-. lng the total number of the -famous "signers'" 6a - The Two Most Famous Signers. . . .' "Of all the signers, Jefferson and Adams bear a deeper personal, ration to the declaration than any others., Adams was its most vigorous supporter In congress and Jefferson bears testi mony to his valuable aid. In after years both received the hlglresfhonors that the citizens could bestow. They were permitted to witness the growth of their country for half a century from the first Independence day. The day of their death, July 4, 1826, was the fiftieth anniversary .of the memor able Fourth of July. It was the most remarkable coincidence ever recorded In.) American history. Jefferson was .' eighty-three years old and John Adama ninety-one years. The 66 signers were distributed among the 13 states in the following proportion: Pennsylvania,' 9 Virginia, 7; Massachusetts, 5; New Jersey, 5; Connecticut 4; Maryland, 4; New York, 4; South Carolina, 4; New Hampshire, 8; Delaware, 8; Georgia, 8; North Carolina, 8; Rhode Island, 2. Jefferson's draft of the declaration presented to congress and the signed copy on parchment are in the depart ment of state at Washington, (he lat ter having been replaced for public ex hibition several years ago by a fac simile. French People Our True Friends. The true and controlling reason why the government of Louis XVI Inter vened in our war of Independence was the enthusiasm of the French peopla for the cause of liberty. Considera tions f material advantage were en tirely secondary. Public opinion forced the hand of an unwilling and hesitat ing government, and placed at, , our ; disposal the economic, military an4 naval resources tt U coontnr. (?' w S 1 7 1 W 1 '