Newspaper Page Text
HOW FLOWERS GROW.
PUSH THEIR WAY THROUGH SHEETS OF ICE. The Soldanella, a Fragile Alpine Beauty, Lays by Stored of Fuel In Summer, With Which to "Heat Us Way" the Following Spring. (Special Letter.) F you have ever visited the Alps in early spring, you will know well by Bight the dainty little nodding bells of the alpine eol danella twin flow ers on one stalk, like fairy tocsins, which push their heads boldly through the ice and form a border of blue blossoms on the edge of the snow- sheet, This adventurous little plant does not wait for the melting of the snow, but, vastly daring, begins to grow under the surface of the Ice sheet.and melts a way up for Itself by internal heat, liko a vegetable furnace. It may fairly be called a slow combustion stove, not fig uratively, but literally. It burns Itself up In order to melt the Ice above it This wonderful plant opens its fringed and pensile blue blossoms in the very midst of the snow, often showing Its slender head above a thin layer of Ice where It fearlessly displays Its two sis ter bells among the frozen sheet which still surrounds its stem in the most ln- creditable fashion rnmnflrjitiveiv few observers have noticed that the soldanella, fragile as it is, actually forces itself up through a solid coat of ice, not exactly by hewing Its wav. but by melting a path for it self In the crystal sheet above it. Yet such is really the case, warms the Ice as It goes. The bud begins to grow on the frozen soil before the ground Is bare under the hardened and compressed snow which at Its edge is always Ice llke in texture. They then bore their way up by Internal heat (liko that of an animal) throuuh the sheet tnat cov ers them; and they often expand their delicate blue or white blossoms, witn the scalloped edges, In a sup-shaped hollow above.whlle a sheet of re-frozen ice. throuch which they have warmed a tunnel or canal for themselves, still surrounds their stems and hides their roots and their flattened foliage, inis in on ntranp-o a miracle of nature that It demands some explanation; the method by which the soldanella obtains its results is no less marvelous tnan the results themselves which it pro duces. The canny plant lays its plans deep and begins well beforehand. It has made preparations. All the previous Bu-nmer it has been spreading its round leaves to the mountain sun, and laying by iif.terial for next year's flowering season. Leaves are the mouths and stomachs of plants, and the soldanella has a style of leaves admirably adapted to its Deculiar purposes, mxpanaea in the sunliuht. they eat carbon and hy drogen all summer, and by the time winter comes they are thick and leath ery, filled with fuel for the spring, and, of course, evergreen. The material thus laid by consists of starch, proto plasm, and other rich foodstuffs. All winter the plant is hidden under the snow and ice, but as soon as the spring sun begins to melt the surface at the lower edge of the sheets water trickles down through cracks In the ice, and sets the root-stock budding. It produces the very same effect as the water that is poured upon melting barley In order to make it terminate. And the same result follows. The soldanella absorbs oxvKen from the air below the snow, evolves heat from their combination, and combines with it the fuels In Its own substance, through the icy sheets that spread above It. The warmth the plant obtains by this curious process of slow internal cnmhiistlon it first employs to melt a little round hole in the ice for its arched flower-buds. At the beginning the hollow which is found above each pair of buds is dome-shaped; the stem pushes its way up through a dome of air inclosed in the Ice; and the water it liberates trickles down to the root, thus helping to supply moisture for PROTRUDING THROUGH ICE. further growth with Its consequent heating. But by-and-by the stem lengthens, and the bud is raised to a considerable height by its continuous growth. Still, so slight is the total quantity of heat the poor little plaut can evolve with all its efforts that by the time the stem is an Inch or two long, the lower part of the tunnsl has curiously frozen again. In this stage, then, the melted space Is no longer a dome; is assumes the lorm of a little balloon or round bubble of air. sur rounding the flower-bud. At the same time, the Ice beneath, having frozen again, almost touches the stem, so that the bud seems to occupy a small, clear area of Its own In the midst of the sheet, with ice above, below, and all round it Gradually In this way, the litfle buds. 1 manage to bore their way to the sur face and to the sunshine on the ouN side of the ice-sheet. At last the stall) melts its path out, and a flower ap pears on the top, In the center of a small cup-shaped or saucer-shaped de pression. The exquisite blue bells art thus seen blooming in profusion, ap parently out of the Ice Itself, or as 11 stuck into It. Unless you looked close, and noticed that their stems came from tho ground beneath, you might even imagine they were rooted in the crys tal mass of ice. The edge of the snow field In early spring Is often pierced and riddled by hundreds of such sold anella borings; others above are In process of formation; and If you cut a piece open you will see Inside how each Is produced, with its narrow tunnel below, its balloon in the center, oi later, Its saucer-shaped depression op the surface. TO DREDGE THE YUKON. St. Louis Capitalists Will Send a Boat Up lu the Spring. A St. Louis company has been or ganized with the avowed purpose of taking up tho bottom of the Yukon river. They expect to put It carefully back when they get through with It, but by that time it will be no more attractive than the bottom of the Miss issippi, for tho company will have all tho gold there was In It. Already a mining engineer Is at Chllkoot Pass, en route to the golden waters, and as socn as his report is received work will be commenced on a dredgeboat of spe cial design which it Is believed will get everything worth having out of the river in no time. The boat will draw about 20 inches of water, and will be about 110 feet long .large enough for the purpose of this expedition. It will be equipped with a sand pump, which will handle 200 tons per hour. Patent sluice boxes will be placed on each side of the boat, running Its entire length, and so arranged that all gold will be saved, however fine. During the season, the dredge will operate 24 hours a day. In sand which runs but $50 a ton, which Is a conservative es timate, it will be seen that the boat will have a capacity of $240,000 a day. The boat will be built of cedar and steel, braced every 10 feet with water tight bulk-heads, separating the boat into air chambers, making it impos sible to founder or become easily wrecked. The expedition will be pro visioned for two years, and a gasoline launch will act as a tender, making regular trips to the mouth of the Yukon, thus keeping connection with the base of supplies, bringing in pro visions and taking out the output. The THE YUKON GOLD DREDGE. party will include physician and sur geon, and complete medical stores; also, assayer, mining engineer, mechanical engineer, electrician, etc. Nobody can join the expedition without money, and each member must have life and acci dent Insurance in favor of the com pany. The boat will De completed and delivered to the mouth of the Yukon, ready to move, as soon as the Ice leaves the river. now to sit. What the man and woman of todaj need most is not so much athletics In a gymnasium but plenty of fresh air in the lungs. Instead of a quantity of vio lent exercise that leaves one weak for several hours afterward, it is above all necessary to learn to breathe properly, stand properly and sit properly. As regards the latter, it is by no means such an unimportant question as some seem to imagine. A proper sitting posl tlon requires that the spine shall be kept straight, and that the support needed for the upper part of the body shall be felt in the right place. It is therefore advislble to sit as far back as possible in the chair, so that the lower end of the spine shall be braced against the back of the seat. If this back is straight, the shoulders will also rest against it; if not, they will have no point of support, and it will be found that they do not need It. This position makes no strain upon the liga ments of the spine. It allows a proper position for the shoulders, consequently of the chest and lungs, stomach and every other organ of the body. Their work is carried on naturally and com fortably, as is also the circulation of the blood, which, in a wrong sitting position, Is seriously interfered with. With the feet resting squarely upon the floor, the hands resting easily upon the lap, perfect equilibrium and, con sequently, perfect rest of the body is secured. There is no strain upon any part of the body; no muscle or organ Is required to do more than Its legiti mate amount of work. The arms should never be folded, for that posi tion not only causes a strain upon the spine, and all the other evils already referred to, but, in addition, places thi weight of the arms upon the stomach nnd the diaphragm. A Golden Cannon. A cannon made of solid gold, mount ed upon a carriage of rosewood, and Inlaid with costly gems, Is the unique bauble of warfare that has come Into the possession of the imperial army of Berlin. This singular gun was pre sented to the Berlin army by the man agers of the Hamburg museum. In whose keeping It has been for two cen turies. It is valued at $25,000. The vrlse man profits by experience- but he Is still wiser who profits by the experience of others. THE FRENCH BEAUTY. GIRL WHO' HAS SET NEW YORK TO TALKING. Cleo de Merodo, Reputed to Be the Most Perfect Woman In I'urls, Is Said to Be the Daughter of a French Comte Only 80 Years Old. LEO DE MERODE, the newly Imported Paris sen satlon, who has set New York wild with her beauty and er charming coiffure la reported to be the most beautiful young woman of Paris. She has vel v e t v b r o wn eyes n in m and hair, dazzling teeth, and a tall, Bllm figure, with broad shoulders, low, small bust and tiny waist a figure im possible on any but a Frenchwoman. It is not the beauty of her features which attracts universal attention, so much as the saint-like expression of eyes and mouth. This appearance of simplicity and purity Is wonderful, and when put into the setting of the most gorgeous and striking costumes that Paris modistes can evolve the com bination Is irresistible. Mile. Merodo Is said to be the daugh ter of Comte de Merode. Her mother, a Viennese actress, secured her adnils Bon to the operatic corps de ballet In Paris at the age of 13, and never Gtirred from her side till she was 15. Cleo then appeared In a quadrille, blazing with diamonds profusely used In shoulder knots, on corsage and neck, as if they cost no more than glass beads. The mother ceased to shadow her and be came her housekeeper in a sumptuous flat. Mile. Merode, though only 20, is of the class of women who set tho fash ions in Paris. She affects bebe waists, ehort eleeves, long gloves, belts and cashes, very high, plain chokers and picture hats. Doucet recently built her a neglige girdle with exquisite pink cameos, set In gold and rhlnestone frames and links. The stuff of the gown was pale pink mousseline de chenoise, as much finer than moussel ine de sole as cobweb is finer than lace. It was embroidered by hand a border about the bottom to the knees and (was dotted over tho rest of the surface with gold, silk and seed pearls. It was high in the neck, but cut straight across the shoulders like a mediaeval gown, CLEO DE hung straight, in front, fitted behind, and with very large drooping sleeves, gathered into the wrists, half bishop and half angel fashion. Why People Forget Names. Many persons are especially forget ful with regard to names. They are embarrassed to find that they cannot, on the spur of the moment, recall the name of an acquaintance, or that of some familiar object, although, In other respects, their memory is not treacher ous. Doctor Bastian, in discussing such defects, recently quoted, with ap proval, this explanation: "The more concrete the Idea the more readily Is the word used to designate It forgot ten when the memory fails. We easily represent persons and things to our selves without their names. More ab stract conceptions, on the contrary, are attained only with the aid of words, which alone give them their exact shape in our minds." Hence verbs, adjectives, pronouns, adverbs, preposi tions and conjunctions are more Inti mately related to thought than nouns are, and can be remembered when nouns, or names, slip from the mind. Build with "Tuff." Artificial tuff Is the name given to a new German product for building pur poses. It is composed of fossil meal and plaster, crossed with reeds or wires, and the number of dwellings and other buildings constructed entirely of this a n M IMP material Is Increasing very rapidly. It is proof against heat, cold and moist-, ure, and Is especially adapted to facto ries and for covering roofs, protecting wooden casings against frost and ooz ing, and makes an admirable cover for boilers. It can be mado in any shape, and bricks made of this material can be used for building in th coldest weather, being protected by the paste, and tho houses may be occupied im mediately without Injury from damp ness. It is economical, durable and in combustible, which renders it peculiar ly desirable for hotels, theaters, churches, schoolhouses and other pub lic buildings. GETS A BIG PRIZE. A Famous Russian Fainter Rewarded for Ills Genius. Vassili Verestchagin, the famous Russian painter, has been made the re cipient of the great prize of $60,000 awarded on the Nobel foundation. The prize was awarded by the Etorthlng, the Norwegian parliament. According to the terms of Nobel's will five prizes were to be given for the greatest discoveries VASSILI VERESTCHAGIN. during the year in natural science, in physics, in chemistry and physiology, for the best work in literature and for the best idea for teaching or procuring disarmament in Europe and promoting general peace. The award in the first of these fields was to be made by the storthing, and it is the one that has fallen to Verestchagin. The grounds of the award have not been made pub lic, and much speculation has been MERODE. aroused in regard to them. Verest chagin is known as a great painter, especially of war scenes, and It may bo that the horrors of famine and death depicted n these are held to be one of the greatest lessons possible against war. It has been suggested, however, that the award has been made on polit ical grounds of another nature, perhaps because Nobel made a great part of his fortune in the Russian oil fields at Baku. England's Eight-Hour Movement. As the eight-hour day Is so proinin ently before the public just now, spe cial Interest attaches to the Informa tion just given by Mr. Llewellyn Smith, the commissioner for labor, to the board of trade. In his annual report on changes In wages and hours of labor. He has exhibited in a table the prog ress of the eight-hour movement during the four years lS93-'94-'95-'96. This shows that the eight-hour day has in these four years been adopted for 56,223 workpeople; but not all of them stuck to the eight-hour day. A small per-centage-7the number being 1,121 re verted to their former hours of labor. By far the greater number of eight hour employes are In the service of the public authorities. Of the 56,000 who had their hours reduced to eight la the four years ending December, 1S96, less than 11,000. were employed In prlvatt establishments. London Dally News. , fwwfmMk WmM3m Russia has bought the Sebastopol ihip-buildintr yard. The Historical Christians is the name of a new political party in Holland. They are moderate Culvinists, who fa vor secular rather than religious edu cation in the public schools. Spanish and French women of the higher class are usually expert Bwords women. Tliey are taught to fence as carefully and accurately as their broth ers, and there are numerous schools in the two countries where young women are taught not' only to fence, but to handle the broadsword. Have pity on tho people between 30 and 50 years of nge; they are traveling a hard road lying between the enjoy ment of youth and the philosophy of old age. Left In-stltute! Not of worldly goods, but of nil earthly comfort, Is the poor wretch tormented by malaria. Tho fell scourge is, however, thorn of its thong in ad vance by Hostottcr's Stomach Bitters, its only suro preventative anil remedy. UyBet'SiB, bil iousness, constipation, rheumatism, nervousness and kidney complaints are also aiminc the bodily afllictions which this uom-fleent medicine over comes with certainty. Use it systematically. General Booth of the Salvation Army will visit this country and Canada next January. Baron William Kothchild has all his food prepared according to the strict est Jewist laws and takes his own cooking utensils with him wherever he goes. The country is in serious danp-er: if , the Lord Rnswers the prayers of all the faithful, there will be another flood. A French savant says loye is a dis ease. And we might add, it is contag ious. It's worth remembering that the friskiest colt doesn't always make the best plow horse. Potatoes are getting so hijfh that they'll be growing them on trees next season. A man makes a life time friend out of a woman if he ever happens to rec ognize her as her younger sister in a crowd. Those twelve Missouri women who have kept a secret for seven years could meet occasionally and tell the tale to one another. It isn't like a real secret which must be kept under lock and key. Educate Tour Bowels With Cnscsrotc Candy Cathartic, cure constlnation forever. 10c, 25c. If C. O. C.fail, druggists ret und money. When a man's head is swelled the barber ought to charge more for cut ting his hair. Everybody Says So. Cascarets Candy Cathartic, the most won derful medical discovery of the ape, pleas ant and refreshing to the taste, act gently and positively on kidneys, liver and bowels, cleansing the entire system, dispel colds, cure headache, fever, habitual constipation and biliousness. Please buy and try a box of C. C. C. to-day; 10, &, 50 cents, boldand guaranteed to cure by all druggists. IIow the people pick at a strange bride, and say her husband could have done better at home. No-To-Bao fop Fifty Cents. Guaranteed tobacco habit euro, makes weak men strong, blood pure. 60c, SI. Ail druggists. Mexico exported to the United States last year four million pounds of chicle, and exudation of thesapota tree, which is used for chewing gum. I know that mv lifo was saved bv Tiso's Cure for Consumption. John A. Miller, Au Sable, Michigan, April 21, 1895. Guerritta, the famous bull fighter of Spain, receives about sixty thousand dollars for his labors. For each ap pearance in the arena he gets twelve thousand fiye hundred dollars. AN OPEN LETTER To MOTHERS. i WE ARE ASSERTING IN THE COURTS OUR RIGHT TO THE . EXCLUSIVE USE OP THE WORD " CASTORIA," AND " PITCHER'S CASTORIA," AS OUR trade MARK. I, DR. SAMUEL PITCHER, of By'annis, Massachusetts, was the originator of "PITCHER'S CASTORIA," the same that has borne and does now yd? s 071 every hear the facsimile signature of Cua ccc4A wrapper. This is the original "PITCHER'S CASTORIA," which has l&en used in the homes of tlie mothers of America for over thirty years. LOOK CAREFULLY at the wrapper and see that it is the kind you, have always bought Sip on the and has the signature ovl wrap per. No one has authority from me to use my name except The Centaur Company of which Chas. H. Fletcher ii President. ; x . March 8, 18971 QUjL 4--T,,;r, Do Not Be Deceived. Do not endanger the life of your child by accepting a cheap substitute which some druggist may offer you (because he makes a few more pennies on it), the ingredients of which even he does not know. "The Kind You Have Always Bought" BEARS THE FAC-SIMILE SIGNATURE OF Insist pn Having The Kind That Never Failed You CANDY CATHARTIC CURE CONSTIPATION 25c 50c The largest amount of gold coin and bullion in circulation in the United States was in 185)0. The most silver was in circulation in 1801. In the old fairy tales the hero's ene mies had a way of making themselves invisible. The southern doctors are just now having a similar experience with tho yellow fever microbe. When a man is married his eyesight' Is very clear in picking out girls who; would make good wives, but when he( is single and in the market, his eye-j sight is no clearer than any other man's. ' Don't Tobacco Bpit and Smoke Tocr Lifo Awsy. If vou want to quit tobacco usiDg eaoily and forever, be made well, stronp, magnetic, full of new lifo and vigor, tako No-To-Bac, : tho wonder-worker, that makes weak men ' stroni?. Many Rain ten pounds in ten days. Over 400,00( cured. Buy No-To-Bao of your drutrgist, under guarantee to cure, 50o or' $1.00. Booklet nnd sample mailed free. Ad. ; LberlicK Remedy Co., (Juicueo or New York. When a boy has a tooth pulled hej carries it around at least a month to; show to people. J Scrofula Cured j Face and Head Covered with Sores, I but Hood's Has Cured Them. j " My face and head were a mass of sores, but since taking Hood's Sarsaparilla tt ese sores have all disappeared. I believe) Hood's Sarsaparilla has no equal for scro!- ( ula." Ida A. Weavef, Palermo, 111. I i 1 HS S2rsa- : a U V3 b7 Jaiiiia Is the best in fact the One True Blood Purifier, j j j) jjjii curellverllls.easytotake, ; nOOU S rlllS easy t operate. 25cHits. ; II I D.m't be fooled with a mackintosh tl VJtf or rubber coat. If you want a coat that will keep you dry in the hard est storm buy the Fish Brand Slicker. If not for sale In your Jf'fif I town, write for catalogue to SSiftS1' A. J. TOWER. Boston. Mass. Something entirely new A better Scale forlexH money than hn ever been offered. JoneHof IiitiKhamton Biughauiton, X. Y. .QUARTER OF CENTfTR OT.W, sS-GWATERPROOFrr No Kl'ST nor It ATTI.K. ontlnnit tin or ron. (i Durable nlslienle for Plnteron walln. V'afer Proof .Nhentliinfr nf name materiul.tho bout A rhcupest in t he innrk-!. Write forKanipleateto. the FAY MA.M1.LA KOOI'l.Nli CO., tAMUt.N, JU. be at IV SflJ home hv making Por traits. Any one can learn. Write us on postal card for particulars COM'L PORTRAIT 4 ART CO.. 88 State St., Chicago PENSIONS, PATENTS, CLAIMS. 'JOHN W. MORRIS, WASHINGTON, D. C Lata Princlual Examiner II. S. Peniion Bureau.. ' 3yrs.inluAlwar)15uUjiuliuatinclaiuiaauy atuce. ' flIB I Cfeeee ami Duck Kent her 11 II own, Uedn, Holsters anil Cunhfoni. Write for prices. Kan wis City Feather Co., 12UQ Walnut St.. buitta uncut all uar. raiLo. i t)Ok.h Syrup. Tastes Good. Use I m time. Bold by drwirMs. 5? ALL DRUGGISTS I WILL KEEP YOU DRY. i ISsM SCALES IF