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THE ADVOCATE. PBEPAKING FOB SUFFRAGE. The Representative From the Kitchen Has the Floor. NO. x. BY CON HEALY. "I have been reading a great deal lately on the subject of railroads, Cicero. My attention was called to it by the great strike this summer, when our friends from California were de layed so long on the road on account of the roads being unable to run trains. Don't you think that it is the duty of the government to interfere and settle this matter in some way so as to pre vent such things from happening?" "Well, Sophia, if you had been read ing as much as you think you have, you would see that the government did step in and settle the matter." "How was that? I hadn't heard of it yet." "Why, Cleveland sent the soldiers and a few gatling guns to the scene of the difficulties, and that soon settled matters." "Oh, yes. I read of that; but I wouldn't call that settling a question of this kind. That might do in case of an outbreak by the Sioux Indians, but In a case where there were several thousand loyal American citizens con cerned directly, and all the people con cerned indirectly, it looks like rather a queer way to settle it." "But remember that this was a plain case. Those strikers were regular out laws; they were as bad as train rob bers. They were interfering with the United States mail and destroying pri vate property. It was plainly the duty of the government to send soldiers to suppress them." "What did the government do with them ? Were they arrested and sent to the penitentiary?" "JNo. Alter tnings quieted down, most of them went back to work for the companies." "It won't be very safe to travel then, will it, if the railroad companies have train robbers and outlaws in their em ploy? But perhaps they put them under bonds to behave themselves." "Yes, very likely. You have strange ideas about things." "Well, if something of that kind wasn't done, how do we know that there won't be another outbreak by these outlaws and we will have another strike next year, or even next week? Now, to be honest about it, you don't really think that those men struck without good cause, and you don't be lieve that they destroyed property, if they did it at all, just for the sake of being mean? Don't you think that it might be found, if the matter was looked into, that the other side was to blame?" "No, I don't. If the wages those men were getting didn't suit them, why didn't they quit and let some other men have their places? There were plenty of men who were willing and anxious to do the work at even less wages than those men were get ting. They were entirely wrong, and were outlaws in every sense of the word when they attempted to destroy property or to interfere with the mov ing of trains." "IIow does it happen that the labor ing men in such cases are always the outlaws? Are the corporations com posed of a better class of citizens, or do the laws suit them better than they do the laborers? Perhaps the corporations have some way of breaking laws and wrecking property without causing a riot." "Yes, perhaps they do. Maybe you could tell us how it is done." "I think I can give a few examples of how it is done, and so can you. You know of that nice little town west of here which the railroad company de stroyed by moving its depot and side, tracks away and starting a town of its own a little farther west; and you know of the two mills that are standing idle and worthless in this town be cause the railroad is charging more freight on coal and material to this point than they are to other places where the distance is the same or greater, and you know that your own brother broke up in the wholesale busi ness on account of unjust discrimina tion in freight rates." "That will do. Those are simply matters of business. There is no law against that, consequently no law breaking. What we want is more com petition." "But I want to call your attention to the fact that in states where there are laws against such things they are broken every day, and it is generally understood that the interstate com merce law is a failure because it cannot be enforced. What is that but law breaking?" "That is an entirely different thing. That interstate commerce law is a good thing if it could only be en forced." "I have no doubt of that, and it would be enforced if the railroad com panies were not law-breakers." "It is a very difficult matter to con trol railroads; in fact, every attempt so far in this country has proven a fail ure." "What do you think of the plan of the government owning the railroads ?" "Where did you get that idea into your head? Have you been talking with some more tramps, or have you been reading Populist literature?" "ven, i got tne idea from several sources. In the first place, I used to hear you advocating it several years ago; in the second place, I have been reading some on the subject, and now, in the third place, I have just heard you say that government control has proven a failure, so I don't see any other way out of the difficulty. If the railroads have grown so big that they can't be controlled, the only thing that is left for the government to do is to either own the roads or resign in their favor and let them run the govern ment." "Yes, that sounds very nice. But there are a great many people talking about the government owning the rail roads who haven't the least idea of what a big undertaking that would be. Besides, if it were practical, it is no part of the duty of a government." "Why, governments owning and op erating railroads is no new thing, it is no experiment. At present there are only ten governments in the world that have not government ownership or control to some extent. The United States is one of those ten. France, Germany, Russia, Australia, Belgium, Austria-Hungary, Sweden, Norway, Denmark, India, Brazil and several other smaller countries are giving it a trial, and it is proving successful, and is better than private ownership in many ways." "What are some of the ways in which it is better? The people of the United States have the best railroad service of any people in the world." "That depends on what you call the best. They have not got the cheapest nor the safest nor the most Impartial. Perhaps the fact that you ride on a pass makes you bias in your opinion. Let me give you a few facts which I get by comparing the workings of rail roads where they have government control or ownership with the same in this country where railroads do about as they please. In France one person is killed out of every 25 million who ride one mile on the railroads, and in Germany one person out of every 9 million, while in the United States one person is killed out of every 2,800,000. J ust think of that, the chance of being killed on a corporation road in this country is nine times as great as it is on a government road in France. Why, I would sooner pay my way and be safe than to ride on a pass and be nine times as apt to be killed. Wouldn't you?" "Yes, go on." "Just think of it! In one year the railroads in this country killed 6,400 peopb, and wounded nearly 30,000. If we had as good railroad service as the people of France, eight-ninths, or 5,C00 of those lives might have been saved, and 26,500 of the wounded might have been saved from injury. Why, we had a war with England one time for impressing a few of our sea men into the British navy, and we were going to eat up poor little Chili for kill ing or wounding a few of our citizens who had gotten into a brawl down in Valpariso, and yet our own railroads carry on wholesale slaughter to save the expense of employing men enough to operate the roads properly, and the government is powerless to do any thing about it." "Go it! The representative from the kitchen has the floor." "Thank you. We have had wars in this country that were not as destruc tive of life and property as the rail roads under the present management, and I should think that a humane con sideration ought to be enough to de cide this question in favor of govern ment ownership." "Yes, but under government owner ship how would a person recover dam ages for an injury received on the road? You can't sue the govern ment." "Well, in the first place, there would be only one-ninth as many claims to settle, and I suppose that it would be safe to say that at least one-ninth of the people who receive injuries now on railroads fail to recover damages. As to how the claims for damages would be settled I can't say, but the govern ment pays all just claims, does it not?" "I don't know. You are furnishing all the information on this subject. You are getting to be a regular John Davis on facts and figures. Go on with your speech. I see that you are loaded for me this evening." "Very well. Germany owns the rail roads of that country and employs 1,316 men for every 100 miles of road, while in the United States the com panies employ 480 men for every 100 miles. Now, if the work i3 done as well on the railroads in this country as it is in Germany, one man has to do three men's work. But it is not done as well and the result is the loss of the lives of three times as many pas sengers. Besides that, the carelessness in the management and the failure to use the best safety appliances results in the killing or injuring of one em ploye out of thirty in this country, while in Germany with the best appli ances and government control the number of employes killed or injured is only one in 138." "Permit me to remind the speaker that the railroads in this country are not making money enough to pay the hands they now employ to say nothing about putting on three times as many. If the government owned the roads it couldn't afford to do so either." "But it is estimated that in the hands of the government the expenses would be 160 million dollars less than under the ownership and control of corpora tions. This saving would be made by using shortest routes and no parallel lines, by consolidating depots, by doing away with attorney's fees and big salaries to officers, by not issuing passes, by abolishing the present ex pensive system of advertising and nu merous other expenses which the com petition of the different roads now makes necessary. Besides this, there would be saved 214 million dollars which the companies expend in politics and in rebates to favored institutions and in paying dividends. This makes a total of 374 million dollars, out of which saving alone the government could pay all the men now employed on the road." "I don't believe the government could operate the roads as cheaply as it is being done now." "Of course not. The actual expense would be greater than it is now, be cause we would expect better work done. But when we consider the cut ting off of all those unnecessary ex penses, the cost would be ever so much cheaper; 374 million dollars taken off a single year's- expenses is quite an item." "It seems to figure out all right, but I doubt very much if an actual test would show such results." "I find that in Victoria, a little county in Australia about the size of Kansas, with 2,500 miles of railroads, there was a profit in one year of 35 million dollars to the government from owning the railroads and telegraph and postal systems. And I also find that in India the roads are profitably oper ated by the government even with passenger fare at 1 cent a mile, on the average. In most every place where government ownership has been tried it is giving satisfaction." "I guess, Sophia, we will have to postpone this discussion on railroads. You are having everything your own way this evening. I'll have to ask for a little time to post up. We are not making railroads an issue this year and I haven't been paying much attention to the subject." "All right. If you want some good reading on the subject 1 can tell you where to find it." (To be continued.) Morrill' Record. "I am veil satisfied with the message. I am glad the president has overlooked the tariff question long enough to pay some at tention to money matters. It shows that TBI PB18IDINT IS IN IAVOB 09 HON1ST MON1T AND in TiVOB CI A bisqls gold standard. He is opposed to the free coinage of silver, and is in favor of a money recognized as money by all countries, which means gold. I am more interested in thi condi tion or attaiss in new TOBs than anywhere else just now. If they don't get relief there soon things will be much worse." Topeka State Journal (Rep.), Aug. 8, 1893. Beware of Ointments For Catarrh That Con tain Mercury, As mercury will surely destroy the sense of smell and completely derange the whole system when entering it through the mu cous surfaces. Such articles should never be used except on prescriptions from reput able physioians, as the damage they will do is ten fold to the (rood you can possibly de rive from them. Hall's Catarrh Cure manu factured by F. J. Cheney fc Co., Toledo, O., contains no mercury, and is taken inter nally, acting directly upon the blood and mucous surfaces of tne system. In buying Hall's Catarrh Cure be sure you get the Senuine. It is tp ken internally and made i Toledo, 0., by F. J. Cheney & Co. Tes timonials free. CXSold by droggiate, price 75 cents per bottle.