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The advocate. [volume] (Topeka, Kan.) 1894-1897, May 27, 1896, Image 6

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Mat 27,
A Farmer's Idea of the Profits From This
Crop in Kansas.
A correspondent writes the Farm,
Field and Fireside (Chicago) and crit
icizea Secretary Coburn's figures on
the cost of raising corn. Mr. Coburn's
article was given in these columns
gome time ago. The correspondent
"The article recently published in
the Farm. Field and Fireside by Sec
retary Coburn on the cost of raising
corn in Kansas gives figures that are
not warranted by the facts and should
not be accepted by those who might be
led to try farming in localities In this
State. The Secretary whips us farmers
over the head for complaining of hard
times and high interest by figuring 2)4
per cent, interest on our investment,
which, he says, 'is a net rate higher
than the capitalist, general banker or
money-lender dreams of realizing.' It
is no dream ,but the naked truth.that the
bankers and money lenders are de
manding and getting from our farmers
from 12)4 to 24 per cent, for money.
Of course they evade the law and call
it discount, and none of our legislative
roosters dare give us a remedy.
"If the farmers are doing as well as
Mr. Coburn states, why borrow money
and pay so much more than he says
they are making if not to maintain
honor by meeting our obligations
brought about by failures, low prices,
high freights and a cursed legislation.
"His report may be true as to the
ones of Whom he gets his reports, but
why not classify the State and show
thousands and thousands of acres of
corn that never produce an ear, is
never harvested and reported in the
general yield, and the interest on the
investment, labor and all loBt to the
farmer, and it must be remembered
that a large per cent, of the farmers
refuse to give the acreage of growing
crops to their Assessor, so it can be
seen that such reports can be no guide.
"lie figures the average yield of corn
per acre since 18iH for the State to be
twenty-seven bushels and the total
cost per acre for raising an acre of
corn from $5.71 to $.10. I say it will
not exceed an average of ten bushels,
but let us call it twenty-seven bushels,
which is twenty bushels more than
this county has had in three yearn, and
last year had to buy seed shipped in.
"Twenty-seven bushels at 15 cents
per bushel is $1.05, and if it costs from
85.71 to $U0 the farmers of the State
go in the hole from $l.G to $2.35 on
every acre, which must be mnde up by
paying large Interest.
"What is true of corn is also true of
other crops. It may sound well to
people in the East to talk about the
large profits in feeding, but right now
$2.50 per 100 pounds for hogs is
staring us in the face, or hold them
when not another pound can be added
and danger of losing them by heat,
and borrow money at above rates with
the uncertainty of a raise to offset it.
"Again the Secretary makes our
stalk fields valuable. (Jo to any farmer
in this country and ask him how much
better he would be off had he not had
a stalk field, after deducting the loss
of cattle and horses.
"I found out, I think, why the banks
and moneyloaners he speaks of are
not making on the average any larger
Interest. It is because of holdiLg their
money idle too much. Just the other
day a banker of this county said there
was more idle money in his bank than
ever before, and they dare not loan It
for fear of never getting it back till
the farmers could get for their prod
ucts the cost of production, and he
saw no remedy until the cause of
underconsumption was removed. Of
course when they do loan they
must make up for the idleness of their
"This same banker said they were
receiving circular instructions to ad
vocate the gold standard, so it is plain
to see where we are at financially. If
the gold standard causes so many dif
ferent ways for money to be kept out
of circulation I am against it, and this
is the first time it has gone down in
black and white.
''The State la now booming the
wheat crop in the Interest of land
sharks or wheat speculators, and not
wishing to pass judgment through my
prospects, 1 have looked around some,
and although this is known as the ban
ner wheat county, it will fall ten bush
els per acre short of any estimate that
has been made. If I have made any
misstatements let my brother farmers
correct me."
Common Sense In Cattle Breeding.
Speaking of Col. Harris' recent sale
of the Linwood herd, the Breeder's
Gazette says:
"If Col. Harris had never done any
thing else for American cattle-breeding
interests than champion the cause
of rational breeding he would be enti
tled to the gratitude of the entire body
of Western cattle-growers. He not
only led the fight against the pedigree
craze that was rampant fifteen years
ago but he had the courage to oppose
with equal vigor the silly idea that
Cruickshank Short-horns can be bred
in-and-in for generations with any
other result than that which has over
taken all other strongly-bred strains
known to Short horn records. The
Uazette has for years inveighed against
'pure' this and 'pure' that as embody
ing an idea that is repugnant to all
reason and common sense, and we re
joice therefore at the signal vindica
tion of the soundness of this view fur
nished by the Harris dispersion sale.
When sixty-three head of cattle can be
sold for nearly $13,000 at a time when
the average value of all commodities
is lower than at any other period dur
ing the past thirty years there is ample
ground for encouragement for all who
are honestly trying to breed good cattle
along the broad lines bo successfully
followed up by the great breeder who
has temporarily laid aside the work.
The Linwood sale was an object les
son in the art of cattle-breeding that
cannot fail to have a salutary effect
upon all who heard the proprietor's
brief and ex tempore valedictory ad
dress at the ringside and saw the many
beautiful animals passed under the
Illgh-Grade Stock In Texas.
In the line of fine stock ranches,
both large and small, the Panhandle
does not take second position to any
section of the West. The great XIT,
or Capitol syndicate, has several divi
sions devoted to full-blood stock exclu
sively, and a "division" of that com
pany means whole ranches to an
ordinary stockman, as some of them
contain two or three counties. Differ
ent divisions are devoted to different
breeds of cattle and these supply the
other divisions with breeding stock.
A number of small ranches are raising
nothing save pure-bred registered
cattle of some kind, and some of the
highest-priced bulls in the State are
located within 100 miles of Amarillo.
One firm gave an order the other day
to a bull man to bring them a bull
costing not less than $500. It is such
animals as this that will produce such
herds as the WM or the J A when 2-year-old
steers sell at $22.50. Texas
The Feeding Value of Alfalfa.
At the Utah Agricultural Station an
experiment has been in progress that
has for its object the' determining of
the relative feeding value of alfalfa
cut at different stages of its growth
that is proving very instructive. Three
sets of steers were used in making the
experiment, being fed from December
18 to February 21. One set was fed
alfalfa cut before comiog into bloom,
another set being fed alfalfa cut while
in early bloom, and the third lot fed
on the same cut after it was entirely
out of bloom. The results were de
cidedly in favor of the early cut alfalfa.
The steers fed on this made an aver
age gain of three fourths pound per
day, those fed on the medium cut
made an average gain of one-half
pound per day, and the lot fed on the
late-cut hay made an average gain of
but one-fourth pound per day. There
ought to be a lesson here for Nebraska
farmers. No doubt there is a tendency
among farmers to let the job of cut
ting the alfalfa crop accommodate
itself to the other affairs of the farm.
When this is done the haying is sure
to have to wait beyond its time very
often, and; as the above experiment
would go to show, there may be a very
serious loss from this cause; and then
the loss may be from a double source,
as there should be a new crop of alfalfa
coming on while as a matter of fact
this is effectually estopped by reason
of the old stand holding its place and
growing so bard and fibrous as to be
discarded in a large measure and left
in the manger. Cows in particular are
fond of the early-cut alfalfa horses
will eat it a little coarser. liut we
take this opportunity to impress upon
those who have had little experience
with alfalfa that it ought to have the
attention of the farmer at the right
time. Nebraska Farmer.
Inspection at the Chieago Stuck Yards.
Live stock inspection causes a good
deal of friction, and of course there
are many mistakes made by inspect
ors which work great hardship upon
owners, but those mistakes are by no
means all on one side, and, consider
ing the hurry and bustle of a great
live stock market, they are not very
numerous, and the present system of
hog inspection at least, while far from
satisfactory, is far and away ahead of
the old days, when packers did all the
"docking." There is but one feature
of the cattle inspection that works to
the disadvantage of shippers, and that
is where animals are held for post
mortem examination and found to be
all right. They never can be sold as
well as they could if left with the orig
inal drove and sold without any ques
tion. A salesman says: "We have
had steers condemned by the inspect
ors, upheld by the State Veterinarian,
and when they were slaughtered they
were found to be perfectly sound and
we were at liberty to sell at the best
possible price obtainable, but in every
such case it was a loss to the shipper
of from $15 to $30 on each animal,
and without any redress. We think
we need a rigid inspection in order
that we can get to any markets of the
world with U full knowledge that our
meats or animals are free from disease,
but at the same time we should have
laws that, where the government or
Stata takes an animal which after
being slaughtered is found free from
disease, should be paid for in full by
either the State or national govern
ment." This seems an unfortunate
thing, but it is one that is difficult to
help, and the only thing to do is to in
sist on having the most competent and
impartial inspectors, who will mini
mize the evil. Drovers' Journal.
Dairying In Mexico.
The Kansas City Journal says that
milch cows in Mexico ten years ago
were not brejL-and no milk, butter or
cheese was produced. Fifteen years
ago there was not a drop of cow's
milk or a pound of butter in Monterey,
Mexico. The natives depended en
tirely on goat's milk. The opinion
abroad in that region was that milch
cowb would not thrive in Mexico, and
the natives made no attempt to try
breeding. Condensed milk was first
imported from the United States in
1883, and many have lived to see dai
ries established. Mr. Edmond Levan,
from Texas, advised a Frenchman
named La (J range to procure a few
Jersey cows from the States and make
a start. He did so, and in five years
he had a herd of fifty cows, as well as
horses and pigs, with fruit and vege
tables and made money. This was the
first dairy in Mexico, and to-day M.
L Grange has made about $100,000
out of his business since 1887. He has
a ready sale for his products and next
to no competition.
How Plants Breathe.
All plants, from the humblest way
side weed to the most stately tree, are
provided with "lungs," and a regular
respiratory system. If a leaf be ex
amined while under the glass of a pow
erful microscope it will appear almost
like a piece of lace work, the entire
surface being punctured with thou
sands of minute openings. These
openings may properly be said to be
mouths. They are technically known
as stomata, but they serve in the ca
pacity of a mouth, and it is through
their well guarded lips that all the air
passes into the tube that is provided
by an all-wise Providence for the pur
pose of airing the blood (sap) of the
plant or tree in question. Strictly
speaking, the leaves themselves are the
lungs of the plant, and the air comes
in direct contact with the sap and
urates it as soon as it passes through
the minute mouth or opening in the
surface of the leaf. The botanist says
that these openings (stomata) are so
well guarded with tiny bristles that it
is absolutely impossible to force a drop
of liquid (water, spirits or anything of
that sort) through the lips. This is
certainly wonderful, when we consider
that they are in fact continually open
ing and closing, in fact performing the
act of inspiration and expiration.
Wagner says that "the average apple
tree of five years' growth inhales and
exhales as much air in a given length
of time as does a full-grown man."
Farmers' Voice (Chicago).
Crimson or Scarlet Clover.
The Ohio Experiment Station has
made several experiments with crim
son or scarlet clover during the past
four seasons, all of which have thus
far resulted in failure. The chief diffi
culty has apparently been that the dry
weather, which is so common in Ohio
during August, the time when this
clover is ordinarily sown, has killed
the young plants after germination.
Of late years this summer drought has
regularly extended into the fall.
Whether this clover will endure our
winters is also a doubtful point.

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