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THE ADVOCATE AND NEWS.
remove the skin and musclea, which Is
easily accomplished by soaking in water
after taking out the heart, lungs, and
intestines, you may preserve the skele
ton by the usual wire fastenings.
It is surprisingly strange how similar
some of its parts are to that of the hu
man frame. The bat, as you will ob
serve, has long, strong collar bones, and
the forearm, as well as the phalanges,
are disproportionately long as compared
with the rest of its body. Observe the
bones of the trunk, however, and you
cannot fail to be struck with the sim
ilarity. Nature, in her busy work-a-day gar
ments or in her holiday attire (If, in
deed, she ever has a holiday), is con
tinually furnishing something grand,
majestic and sublime.
The harvest mouse, the smallest of
all our mammals, makes the most won
derful of nests; woven from the blades
of grasses, they are a beautiful anddel-
icate piece of work.
The "mole hills" which we see wat
ered over the fields are really fort
resses. These fortresses, consisting of
a central chamber surrounded by two
circular galleries, are situated under a
mound of earth. They are not arranged
by accident, for the lower gallery has
upper one, which has three passages
leading from it to the central chamber.
There is a fourth passage leading down
ward from the central chamber to the
"hunting ground" of the moles.
It is very interesting to watch a mole
when it begins to burrow into the
Wonders In the heavens, wonders on
the earth, in the air, in the waters, un
der the rocks by the brook-side, and but
a little depth below the ground we'flnd
the wonders there. Everywhere the
world Is teeming with mysteries waiting
to be explored. Search for them. It
does not require 'much effort. It may
make life seem more to you; it may
help you to lighten the burden of others;
it will certainly bring you to a higher
appreciation of the gifts of our Creator,
the master-hand who has wrought
these wonders on sea and land. B.
The Sled Merry-Go-Eound.
One of the most exciting of winter
sports is the sled merry-go-round. It is
built very much like an ordinary boy's
whlrlgig, only it is placed on the ice.
And for genuine fun it cannot be
- Any boy can make a sled merry-go-round.
All the material necessary Is
a stourt post, long enough to reach
through the ice and find a secure rest
ingplace In the mud or sand in the bot
tom of the pond, it should reach about
three feet above the surface. When it
is put in place a hole may be cut in the
Ice Just large enough to admit it, and a
heavy mallet will drive it into place in
the bottom of the pond. If it is left over
night the water will freeze close around
it and hold it solid. In the top of the
post a large, round bolt or spike should
' be driven. The whirligig part of the
merry-go-round is a long plank or scant
ling with a hole in the middle Just large
enough to fit over the bolt or spike.
When this s in place the merry-go-round
is complete. Before it is used,
however, It is well to grease the top of
the post and bolt so that the plank will
slip around easily.
Any number of exciting games may
be played with the sled merry-go-round.
Perhaps the best of these is the sled
contest. Two stout sleds are attached
to the ends of the plank by long ropes.
A boy sits on each of them. Then half
a aozen oiner ooys siana near me post
and set the plank to turning, exactly as
in a whlrlgig. Of course the sleds travel
at exhillrating speed, swinging out at
the ends of the ropes and slipping and
sliding over the smooth ice faster and
faster, until the rider rools off like the
end boy In cracking the whip.. The boy
who can stick to his sled longest is the
winner of the game.
Another exciting game is played with
out sleds. Skaters take hold of the
ropes, and see how long they can hold
on after the merry-go-round is started.
And sometimes, when they let go, they
are whirled rods away across the Ice.
Any boy wlTo is getting up a skating
rink for the winter should not fail to
have a sled merry-go-round as one of
"NEWSPAPER ADVERTISING IN THE
UNITED STATES." A book of 200 pages,
containing: a catalogue of about 6,000 news
papers, being all that are credited by the
American Newspaper Directory (December
edition for 1897) with having regular issues
ot 1,000 copies or more. Also separate State
maps of each and every State of the
American Union, naming those towns only
In which there are issued newspapers hav
ing more than 1,000 circulation. This book
(Issued December 15, 1897) will be sent,
postage paid, to any address, on receipt of
$1. Address The Geo. P. Rowell Advertis
ing Co., 10 Spruce 8t, New York.
CO-OPERATIVE READING CLUBS.
AMERICAN I.ITEUATl'HK COl'RSK.
Outline of the Early Period.
LESSON II. Part 2. The Principal
Writers of the Revolutionary Period.
Political Writers. Thomas Jefferson,
James Madison. Alexander Hamilton,
John Adams, Chief Justice Jay, Chief
Justice Marshall, George Washington.
Orators. Patrick "Henry, James Otis,
Joslah Quincy, Samuel Adams.
Miscellaneous. Charles Brockden
Brown (the first novelist), John Wool
man, Thomas Paine, Philip Freman,
1. Of what naturo were the literary
attempts of this period? Into what
classes divided? a.
'1. What has been regarded as the
"most interesting suppressed passage"
of the Declaration of Independence? b.
3. Were the writings of "Tom Paine"
of any particular value? From, what
source came their harmful influences? c.
4. What were the sentiments of the
most popular poem of the period? d.
Who wrote It?
5. What three songs written In this
peiiod became popular? e.
6. Who was the first American novel
ist, and in what channel did the most
of his stories run? f. Have more mod
ern writers adopted that style In any
7. Have the eccentricities which char
acterized John Woolman's (the Quaker
writer) productions or the rules gov
erning 'his every-day life been of service
to mankind? g.
8. Are there any "John Woolmans"
now? If so, what Influence do they
a. Page 51, "Beer's Outline Studies."
b. Page 50, "Beer's Outline Studies."
c. See "Side Lights."
d. John Trumbull's "McFIngal," pub
lished in 1775, was a satire in three
cantos, directed against the American
Loyalists. It describes a wordy quarrel
between the Whigs and Tories, the quar
rel ending in a. free fight around a
liberty pole." Watkins.
c. "The Battle of the Kegs," by Fran
cis Hopklnson, was founded on a laugh
able Incident of the campaign at Phil
adelphia. "Hail Columbia," by the son of Fran
"The Star-Spangled Banner," by Fran
cis S. Key, belongs to a later period.
The origin of "Yankee Doodle" is un
certain, but is said to have been words
adapted from a Dutch song, the air being
an old one.
f. Charles Brockden Brown, the first
American novelist, is said to have been
a prophecy of Poe and Hawthorne.
in no way equalling either of them.
His stories have the wlerd, supernat
ural about them.
g. He was a friend to all the wretched
and oppressed; to the negro slaves, to
the Indians and sailors. Hl3 writings
are pure and sincere; his style remark
Notice Question No. S Is a topic
for discussion In local clubs.
Have you some good ideas on the
"John Woolman of To-day?" If so,
write them down and send them to the
main office limit 200 words. The Sec
retary and General Manager will select
the best one for publication in the Ad
vocate and News.
Pages 82, 83 and 84 of "Beer's Out
line Studies" will throw light on the
subject for you.
"The oratorical reputation of James
Otis" (1725-1783), says Richardson, "was
the greatest among the many Massachu
setts speakers." He is described as
having "a plump face, which was courtly
and handsome; his voice strong and
well modulated; his eyes piercing." He
was likened to a "flame of fire." Though
neither consistent nor discreet, he com
manded applause whenever he appeared.
Ills reputation, like that of so many
orators, was largely a matter of tradi
tion. Josiah Quincy (1744-1775) died of con
sumption within sight of the Massa
chusetts shore. He it was who said: "To
hope for the protection of heaven with
out doing our duty, and exerting our
selves as becomes men, is to mock the
Deity." Although written at the begin
ning of the Revolutionary struggle, it
stands to-day as a sentence full of the
deepest meaning, unchanged by time or
"Patrick Henry (1736-1799) was Ill
read in law, and ungainly in his man
ners" (Richardson) yet his voice rever
berated through the solemn chambers of
the assembly halls, resounding in the
echoes of Freedom until It shook Eng
land to its foundation. The name of
traitor was to him an insignificant epi
thet to which he took no heed. Death
as a traitor as England applied the
term held for him (like Joslah Quincy)
no terror. Few of his burning speeches
have been preserved; yet that famous
oration delivered in the Virginia con
vention Is a hook, sufficiently large and
strong, to support the mantle of Fame
round which his smaller, though not
less brilliant, speeches were clustered.
Thomas Paine, author of the pam
phlet, "Common Sense," began with the
famous words, "These are the times that
try men's souls." Palne's writings were
popular because easily understood by
the plain people; hence his rather
rough and vigorous advocacy of the
American cause was conducive of much
tfood. He afterwards went to Fiance,
took part in their Revolution, and was
rominltted to prison. While iu prison
he wrote "The Age of Reason," a crude
statement of the Deislstlc argument
against Christianity, which lost him
his reputation in America. See pages
64, 65 and 66 "Beer's Outline."
Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826), Secre
tary of State, Vice President and Presi
dent; author of the Declaration of Inde
pendence, and the one who drafted the
Constitution. Of him it is said: "Many
have surpassed Mm In distinctly literary
reputation and circulation of their writ
ings; few have been so influential in
achieving to the full the aspiration of
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LOOP IN CHICAGO
Is now open. It runs on Van Ruron St root.
Directly in front of the
Passengers arriving in Chicago can. by tho '
new Union Elevated Loop, reach, any part of
tho city: or, for a ft-cent faro, can he taken
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All Elevated Trains will stop at the " Kock
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facilities can only l.e offered by the "GREAT
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If you will send a2-cent stamp for postage
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Address CD tO TJCD JD.CZTT3
njJ02m"SE2AflTIAN, O. P. A.7?
7 ' CHICAGO.