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THE ADVOCATE AND NEWS.
JANUARY 19, FARM DEPARTMENT. BY W. A. PEFFER. H-H-M"! -l-ll-l- I-H-H-HH - Health and Disease. When fowls are Judiciously fed, made to take exercise, and their quarters kept clean and free from filth, there is comparatively no trouble with sickness, f xcept In cases of contagion. When the combs and wattles of the fowls are of a bright red color It Indi cates a condition of good health. When the fowls are busy scratching, tho hens laying and singing, and the cocks crowing, these are signs of good health. When you can enter the hen house after dark and hear no wheezing it proves there are not any roupy fowls In the flock. When the manure is hard, and a por tion of it white, it indicates a healthy condition of the digestive organs. When the edge of the comb and wat tles are of a purplish red and the move ments sluggish, there la something wrong. When fowls He around, indifferent to their surroundings, they are too fat, and death from apoplexy, indigestion or liver complaint will result unless the trouble Is corrected. When fowls are restless and con stantly picking their feathers, they are infested with vermin. When young poultry, especially duck lings, appear to have a sore throat, and swallowing is difficult, it Is the symptom of the force erav lice on the neck. If a fowl has a bilious look, with al ternate attacks of dysenterry and cos tivenesa, it Is suffering with liver com plaint. A lack of grit, overfeeding and idleness will cause this trouble. A hospital should be a part of every poultry yard. As soon as a fowl gets ill remove it to the hospital and com mence doctoring it at once. The trouble with far too many is that they wait until the disease Is in its advanced stages before giving medicine. A very sick fowl Is difficult to cure, and when cured it is seldom of value afterwards. Rural World. Incubators. Every incubator and brooder manu facturer gives specific directions for run ning his machine and caring for the chicks after they are hatched and in the brooder, but there are some general di rections that are applicable to all in cubators: 1. An incubator can be most success fully operated In a room of even tem perature, and it should be placed where no cold drafts can strike it. 2. Use fresh, perfect eggs, of even size and shape. No rough, ill-shaped or overly large ones, or those of under size for the breed that produced them. 3. Keep the temperature of tho ma chine at 103 degrees. Do not cool the eggs. 4. Chickens may die in the shell from too much moisture, too high tempera ture, too low temperature, lack of con stitutional vigor of parents, too frequent opening of the Incubator, or because the eggs are from hens that are overfed and fat. 5. If the temperature Is kept too low the chick may hatch, but it will be after time; if too high the chicks may come out the nineteenthe day. 6. Do not use eggs picked up from anywhere they may be had and expect success. 7. Eggs from hens that are confined and overfed will not hatch, or will pro duce puny and weak chicks. 8. Incubators with a capacity of 200 eggs or less will give the best satisfac tion to beginners, in fact, to anyone, unless situated so a large number of fresh, fertile eggs can be readily ob tained. Western Rural. Farm Notes. Sheep get tape-worm from dogs, who pass the embryo from their bowels in the pasture. Hence, to prevent tape worm keep dogs out of the pasture. A cow that Is overfed will not digest all of her food, and the milk, as well as the butter made from It, will be in jured; good digestion and assimilation are necessary. Not even the gizzards of birds will destroy the seeds of raspberry and blackberry, as is evident from the growth of these bushes In fence corn ers where birds have voided them. It is remarkable, considering the large place agriculture occupies in our Industrial life, how little our educa tional methods have been directed upon lines that could possibly lead to the practical benefit of the farmer. When the stimulated Industry finally produces mutton In excess of home de mand an appeal must be made to for eign markets to take the surplus, and In that event profit will depend alto gether on the quality of the mutton. The convention of veterinary Bur geons from all the State experiment sta tions, held at Fort Worth, passed a resolution to drop the name Texas fever and call It splenetic fever, as the spleen or melt seems to be most largely In volved. Milk is the best balanced, most per fect, imoet digestible and one of the cheapest human foods known. It con tains In proportion all the elements necessary for the complete nourishment of the body, and as compared with meat is a very cheap food. Senator Taylor, of Wyandotte county, Is the potato king of Kansas. He eaya: "Fall plowing Is one of the important things in potato raising; then plow again before you plant in the spring. Plant thirteen Inches apart in the drill, with rows thirty-two Inches apart. Good nests can he made from bits of poultry fence netting. They may be shaped from ends left of the fencing by bending and holding in place with wire, and nailed to the wall, either in the chicken house or in sheltered places outside, by staples such as fence is made with. Newsy Notes for Tanners. Kansas is feeding more cattle this winter than ever before, and that Is saying a good deal. A colony of Indiana farmers In Wa bash county is arranging to settle in Louisiana next spring. San Antonio, Tex., is one of the most Important cattle trading points la the country. The Bales In one week recently reached $1,000,000. The consideration In most of the deal3 ranged from $5,000 to 110,000. The timber wealth of the United States gives a yearly product of twice the value of the yearly output of all its mines of whatever kind. This la a re source worth keeping, and yet we are expending the capital with wonderful recklessness, and very little of the tim ber cut Is represented by new growth. Milk has been found to possess re markable healing qualities If applied to wounds and bruises in an early stage, and excellent results have been obtained by Its use in the dressing of burns. Com presses are soaked In milk and laid on the burn to be renewed night and morn ing. An extensive burn has In this way been reduced in three days to one-third of its original size. When a sheep Is a year old, two large additional teeth appear in the front part of Its lower jaw. According to English law, when these teeth appear the young animal is no longer a lamb, but a sheep. At 2 years old the sheep gets four large teeth in the middle of Its lower Jaw. At 3 years old it has six large perma nent cutting teeth, and at 4 years eight. When it is very old, its teeth begin to drop out, and those that remain are long and round like shoe pegs. A State organization of cattle shippers Is proposed to work In conjunction with the existing cattlemen's association. One of the purposes of the proposed organization Is to enforce the law which gives the shipper of a single car the right to a round-trip pass to the point to which his shipment la made. An other is to add the force of numbers to the influences now wielded by the cat tlemen's association, which includes only heavy dealers. Latest report to the Department of Agriculture indicate the following range of prices at the farm compared with those of last December: The farm price of corn, as indicated, averages 26.5 cents per bushel, against 21.5 cents last year; that of oats, 21.5 cents, against 18.7 cents last year; that of barley, 37.7 cents, against 32.3 cents last year; that of rye, 44.7 cents, against 40.9 cents last year; that of buckwheat, 42.1 cents, against 39.2 cents last year; that of hay, $6.65 per ton, against $6.55 last year. I The agricultural experiment station of the University of Illinois has completed the preliminary work on consignments of sugar beets grown In Illinois during the past summer. Over 400 samples were submitted from sixty-four counties, and the analyses show an average of a fraction over 16 per cent, of saccharine matter in them. From the samples treated It is inferred that the sugar beet can be profitably grown In all the soils of the State, except perhaps in some of the white clay soils In the southern part. Oream of Our Pann Exchanges. Practically all the cream now sold in large cities is separated by means of the separator. Farmers are too apt to keep their horses tied up too much in winter. It is a bad practice. Natural resources are but raw mate rial, and in their capacity to employ labor lie all their advantages. The tools are worth taking care of, even if they have not been paid for. Care of tools is one sign of the efficient farmer. Where eggs are wanted during the winter, do not allow the hens their lib erty out of doors, except on the milder sunshiny days. Uniformity in the egg yield is really of greater importance than a large egg yield, because it means a better average price, quicker sales, and greater profits. Scientists tell us that every element necessary to the support of man is con tained with in the limits of an egg shell, In the best proportion and in the most palatable form. The windows of root cellars should be open in fair weather until there is dan ger of freezing, to admit air, but they should also be screened in such a way as to shut out light. Prosperity is abroad In the land when the middle class income prevails, when no citizen is so rich that he can buy others, and no one so poor that he may be compelled to sell himself. The raiser of mutton sheep as a rule makes less complaint of depression In prices than, any other person engaged in general farming or stock raising. Prices have been low and discouraging. It Is the nature of the horse to want to be on the move. If given the choice of a comfortable shed or a stalk field in winter the horse will spend the greater part of his time In the field and profit by it too. From this time forward farmers will be inclined to keep smaller holdings of lands, looking more closely to the meth ods by which an income that will leave something over for a rainy day when the expense bills have all been paid. There Is no more valuable insect de stroyer than the woodpecker. The work he does is almost always on dead wood, and he only pecks holes in that to find the Insect that has deadened the wood and If allowed to live would ultimately destroy the tree. As a stock feed chemical analysis show bald barley to be richer In protein than either corn, oats or wheat, and much richer than common barley. It is also richer in fats than any of those feeds except corn and oats. Its digesti bility is also very high. For each 100 pounds of live weight of a sheep three pounds of dry fodder will be full feeding. If this is of the best well-made clover hay it willsustain the animal in good condition, providing nothing else is demanded than the mere sustenance of the animal. When people are buying their mistle toe for Christmas decorations it may Interest them to know that a transla tion from the French in Meehan's Monthly speaks of this plant as a valu able fodder for sheep, and a food of which, cows are very fond. It is announced that the next agri cultural appropriation bill will provide for the establishment of sixteen new weather bureau stations In the West, Southwest and along the great lakes. It will alao make provision for the in spection of export pork In all the pack ing houses; not only in those now hav ing inspection, but in all that may want it during the next year. The Incalculable effect upon interna tional conditions of the opening of the American West by transcontinental rail way systems bids fair to be duplicated shortly by the railway building in Si beria. No two events have had such prodigious consequences in this half century bs the opening of the West and the building of the Suez canal. They have virtually transformed the world's commerce and affected every producer on the civilized globe. As good a cistern as can be made is by walling up with brick, and then cement ing to make water tight, but when cheapness is to be considered, dig the excavation so that it will be larger at the top than at the bottom, like an old- fashioned dash churn turned bottom aide up. About two and a half or three feet from the top, cut a square shoulder in the side of cistern to begin laying brick on to make the arch. Cement it well to tho earth and brick, then get a flat rock, any size to suit your conve nience, cut a hole in it large enough for an average sized man to get through; put it down In cement over the arch, and you have a good, cheap cistern. Discussing the wheat situation, the Northwestern Miller, is of the opinion that, taking all crop conditions as they stand, in all countries, with the prospect of extended acreage in the spring, arid there is reason to look for a fairly full harvest. The outlook is good in most countries of Europe, where half the wheat of the civilized world Is produced, and it may not be so bad in North America, where a fourth of all Is grown, as was thought likely a few weeks ago, while in the antipodes present prospect exceeds either of the last two years. It follows that if this crop year passes without excessively high prices, there is no present reason to expect them in the next. Oh the other hand, low prices are not indicated, for yet another season at least. The American Cultivator calls atten tion to the fact that transportation fa cilities have become so general that a habit of "hand-to-mouth living has grown up." "Were an invading army to shut off all communication with any large city, how long would its food last? There would be scarcity of meat and fish within one or two days at farthest. In places where grain and flour and meal are largely stored these would last longer. But the great majority, who always are and always will be the poor, do not keep enough even of flour to last their families more than a week. Most of them keep less than that, often buying bread by the loaf and thus pay ing much more for it than they ought. The exception to this state of things Is among the farmers in the country. With well-filled grain bins, stores of pork, beef, fruit, potatoes and other vegetables in their cellars, the farmers of this country could live through a longer siege than any other class of its citizens, unless it is the flour dealers." How Much Does an Egg Cost? It Is estimated in the Eastern States that the average cost of an egg is 1 cent, but Mr. Jacobs, an authority on such matters says the cost depends largely on the prices of grain. If meat, milk, cut bone, chopped clover and cooked potatoes are given, the cost will be less; not because the meat can be purchased at less than the grain, but because the feeding of a variety and a balanced ration will Induce the hens to lay more eggs. The greater the num ber of eggs laid the lower the cost pro portionately, and it is possible to pro duce eggs at a cost of only half a cent each. Before long you will see a revolution in the apple trade. Winter apples will not be a necessity. Cold storage will solve the difficulty. Probably before two years are over you will see in every fruit-growing district cold storage houses on the co-operative plan, based on the cold storage buildings at the World's Fair. Fall apples put into cold storage buildings where the temperature is 34 degrees may be kept an indefinite length of time. Thus winter apples will not be necessary. When I was at the World's Fair, in the middle of the hot season, I saw in good condition Duchess of Oldenburg apples which had been ripened early the previous summer and kept in cold storage. While in Montreal recently I noticed in the new cold stor age building California pears Prof. Craig, of Canada Experiment Station. A CHILD'S HEALTH Depends almost wholly on the mother's, not only before ita birth but afterwards. A sick mother can't properly care for her child's health. A sick mother some times bears a healthy child, but it isn't to be expected. Maybe the baby will possess the appearance of health, but will lack stamina. Maybe innate weak ness will develop in after years. Every woman should be particularly careful of her health during the period of ges tationwhen the child is really a part of herself. During all this time she should keep her body strong and pure and she should take proper precautions against her time of labor. For this pur pose Dr. Pierce's Favorite Prescription is prescribed. It has been used In thou sands of cases, with the most gratifying results. It Is a tonic to the whole body, but particularly to the organs distinctly feminine. It so prepares the system for childbirth as to render it almost pain less. It cures all female troubles and promotes regularity.