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THE ADVOCATE AND HEWS. 6
PRESIDENT McKIWLEY'S MESSAGE. (Contluued from page 1.) Company, the St Paul, St. Louis, New York and Paris, were chartered. In ad dition to these the revenue cutters and the lighthouse tenders were turned over to the Navy department and became tem porarily a part of the auxiliary navy. Regarding Dewey's victory at Manila the" President says: The first encounter of the war, in point of date, took place April 27, when a de tachment of the blockading squadron made a reconnolssance In force at Ma tanzas, shelled the harbor forts and de stroyed several new works in coqstruc tion. The next engagement was destined to mark a memorable epoch in maritime warfare. The Pacific fleet, under , Com modore Dewey, had lain for some weeks at Hong Kong. Upon the proclamation of neutrality being issued and the usual twenty-four hours' notice being given, it repaired to Maris bay, near; Hong Kong, whence it proceeded to the. Phil ippine islands under telegraphed orders to capture or destroy the formidable Spanish fleet then assembled at Manila. At daybreak on the 1st of May the Amer ican force entered Manila bay and after a few hours' engagement effected the to tal destruction of the Spanish fleet, con sisting of ten war ships and a transport, besides capturing the naval station and forts at Cavite, thus annihilating the Spanish naval power in the Pacific, ocean and completely controlling the bay of Manila, with the ability to take the city at will. Not a life was lost on our ships, the wounded only numbering seven, while not a vessel was materially in jured. For this gallant achievement the Congress, upon my recommendation, fit tingly bestowed upon the actors prefer ment and substantial reward. The effect of this remarkable victory upon the spirit of our people and upon the fortunes of war was Instant A pres tige of Invincibility therefore attached to our arras, which continued throughout the struggle. Reinforcements were hur ried to Manila under the command of Major General Merrltt and firmly estab lished within sight of the capital, which lay helpless before our guns.. On the 7tb day of May the government was adr vised officially of the victory at Manila and at once inquired of the commander of the fleet what troops would be re quired. The Information was received on the 15th day of May and the first army expedition sailed May 25 and ar rived at Manila June 30. Other expedi tions soon followed, the total force con sisting of 641 officers and 15,058 men. leading up to the Santiago campaign President McKinley reports: On May 30 Commodore Schley's squad ron bombarded the fort3 guarding the mouth of Santiago harbor. Neither at tack had any material result. It was evi dent that well ordered land operations were indispensable to achieve a decided advantage. The next act In the war thrilled not alone the hearts of our own countrymen, but the world, by Its exceptional hero Ism. On the night of June 3 Lieutenant Hobson, aided, by seven devoted Volun teers, blocked the narrow outlet from Santiago harbor by sinking the collier Merrimac in the channel, under a fierce fire from the shore batteries, escaping with their lives as by a miracle, but fall ing Into the hands of the Spaniards. It Is a most gratifying incident of the war that the bravery of this little band of heroes was cordially appreciated by the Spaniards, who sent a flag of truce to notify Admiral Sampson of their, safety and to compliment them upon their dar ing act. They were subsequently ex changed July 7. . , By June 7 the cutting of the last Cuban cable Isolated the island. Thereafter the Invasion was vigorously prosecuted. On June 10, under a heavy protectipg fire, a landing force of 600 marines from the Oregon, Marblehead and Yankee was ef fected in Ouantanomo bay, where 1t had been determined to establish a naval station. This Important and essential port was taken from the enemy after se vere fighting by the marines, who were the first organized force of the United States to land in Cuba. ' The 'position so won was held, despite the desperate attempts to dislodge our forces. By June 16 additional forces were landed and strongly Intrenched. On June 22 the advance of the invading army under Major General Shafter land ed at Daiquiri, about fifteen miles east of Santiago. This was accomplished under great difficulties, but with marvelous dis patch. On June 23 the movement against Santiago was begun. On the 24th the first serious engagement took place, in which the First and Tenth cavalry and the First volunteer cavalry, General Young's brigade of General Wheeler's di vision, participated, losing heavily. By nightfall, however, ground within five miles of Santiago was won. The advan tage was steadily increased. On July 1 and 2 a severe battle took, place, our forces gaining the outer works of San tiago and El Caney and San Juan were taken after a desperate charge and the investment of the city was. completed. The navy co-operated by shelling the town and coast forts. On the day fol lowing this brilliant achievement of our land forces, July 3, occurred the decisive naval combat of the war. The Spanish fleet, attempting to leave the harbor, was met by the American squadron, under command of Admiral Sampson. In less than three hours all the Spanish ships were destroyed, the two torpedo boats sunk and the Maria Teresa, Almlrante Oquendo, Vizcaya and the Cristobal Co lon, driven ashore. The Spanish admiral and over 1,300 men were taken prisoners, while the enemy's loss of life was de plorably large, some 600 perishing. On our side but one man was killed and one man seriously wounded. ' Although our ships were repeatedly struck, not pne was seriously Injured. Where all so con spicuously distinguished themselves, from the commanders to the gunners and the unnamed heroes in the boiler rooms, each and all contributing to the astounding victory, for which neither ancient nor modern history affords a parallel in the completeness of the event and in the marvelous disproportion of casualties, it would be invidious to single out any for special honor. Deserved promotion has rewarded the more con spicuous actors the nation's profound est gratitude is due to all of those brave men who by their skill and devotion in a few short hours crushed .the sea power of Spain and wrought a triumph whose decisiveness and far-reaching effects can be scarcely measured. Nojr can .we be unmindful of the achievements of our builders, mechanics and artisans for their skill in the construction of our war ships. ' . . With the catastrophe of Santiago Spain's effort upon the ocean virtually ceased. A spasmodic effort toward the end of June to send her Mediterranean fleet under Admiral Camara to relieve Manila was abandoned, the expedition being recalled after It had passed through the Suez canal. The capitula tion of Santiago followed. The city was closely besieged by land, while the en trance of our ships into the harbor cut off all relief on that side. After a truce to allow the removal of non-combatants, protracted negotiations continued from July 3 to July 15, when, under menace of Immediate assault, the preliminaries of surrender were agreed upon. The total casualties in killed and wounded in the army during the war was as follows: Officers killed, 23; en listed men killed, 257; total, 280; of ficers wounded, 11$: enlisted men wound ed, 1,464; total, 1.577; of the navy, killed, 17; wounded. 67; died as result of wounds, 1; invalided from service, .6; total, 91. It will be observed that while our navy was engaged in two great, battles and In numerous perilous undertakings In the blockades and bombardments, and more than 50,000 of our troops were transported to distant I an da and engaged in assault and siege and battle and many skirmishes in unfamiliar territory, we lost in both arms of the. service a total of 1,668 killed and wounded; and in the entire campaign by land and sea we did not lose a gun or a flag or a transport or a ship, and with the exception of the crew of the Merrimac not a soldier or a sailor was taken prisoner. On August 7, forty-six days from the date of landing of General Shatter's ar my tn Cuba and twenty-one days from the surrender of Santiago, the United States troops commenced embarkation for home, and our entire force was re turned to the United States as early as August 24. They were absent from the United States 'only two months. ; It is fitting that I bear, testimony to the patriotism and devotion of that large portion of our army, which, although eager to be ordered to the post of great est exposure, fortunately was -not re quired outside of the United States.' They did their whole duty, and like their com rades at the front, have earned the grat itude of the nation. In like manner, the officers and men of the army and of the navy who remained In their departments. and stations of the navy, performing most Important duties connected with the war, and whose requests for assign ment in the field and at sea it was com pelled to refuse because their services was indispensable here, are entitled to the highest commendation. It is my re gret that there seems tq.be no provision for their suitable recognition. In this connection it is a pleasure for tne to mention In terms of cordial appro bation the timely and useful work of the American National Red Cross, both in re lief measures, preparatory to the cam paigns, in sanitary assistance at several of the camps of assemblage and later, under the able and experienced leader ship of the president of the society. Miss Clara Barton, on the fields of battle and In the hospitals at the front in Cuba. Working in conjunction with the gov ernment authorities, and under their sanction and approval, and with the en thusiastic co-operation of many patriotic women and societies in the various States, the Red Cross has fully main tained its already high reputation for intense earnestness and ability to exer cise the noble purpose of its organiza tion, thus Justifying the confidence and support which it has received at the hands of the American people. To the members and officers of this society and all who aided them in their philanthropic work, the sincere and lasting gratitude of the soldiers and the public is due and is freely accorded. , In tracing these ' events we are con stantly reminded of our obligations to the Divine Master for Ills watchful care over us and His safe guidance, for which the nation makes reverent acknowledg ment and offers humble prayer for the continuance of His favor. Pursuant to the fifth article of the protocol, I appointed William R. Day, lately Secretary of State; Cushman Davis, William P. Frye and George Gray, Senators of the United States, and Whltelaw Reld, to be peace commission ers on the part of the United States. Pro ceeding in due season to Paris they were there met on the first of October, by five commissioners on the part of Spain. The negotiations have made hopeful prog ress; so that I trust soon to be able to lay a definite treaty of peace before the Senate, with a review of the steps lead ing to its signature. I do not discuss at this time the gov ernment of the future of the new pos sessions which will come to us as the result of the war with Spain. Such a discussion will be appropriate after the treaty of peace shall be ratified. In the meantime and until Congress has legis lated otherwise, it will be my duty to continue the military government which has existed since our occupation and give its people security in life and prop erty and encouragement under a Just and beneficent rule. . As soon as we are in possession of Cuba and have pacified the island, it will be necessary to give aid and directions to these people to form a government for themselves. This should be undertaken at the earliest moment consistent with safety and assured success. It is impor tant that our relations with these people shall be of the most friendly character, and our commercial relations close and reciprocal. It should be our duty to as sist in every proper, way to build up the waste places of the island, encourage the industry of the people and to assist them to form a government which shall be free and independent, thus realizing the best aspirations of the Cuban people. Spanish rule must be replaced by a Just, benevolent and humane govern ment, created by the people of Cuba, capable of performing all international obligations and which shall encourage thrift, industry and prosperity and pro mote peace and good will among all the Inhabitants whatever may have been their relations In the past. Neither re venge nor passion should have a place in the government. Until there Is com plete tranquility In the island and a suit able government Inaugurated, military occupation will be continued. With the exception of" the rupture with Spain, the intercourse of the United States with the great .family of nations j has been marked with a cordiality and the close of the eventful year finds most of the issues that necessarily arise in the complex relations of sovereign states adjusted or presenting no serious ob. stacles to a Just and honorable solution by amicable agreement- The sympathy of the American people has Justly been offered to the ruler and the people of Austro-HuBgary by reason of the affliction that has lately befallen In the assassination of the empress-' queen of that historic realm. On the 10th of September, 1397, a coni filet took place at Latimer, Pa., between a body of striking miners and the Sheriff of Luzerne county and his deputies in which twenty-two miners were killed and forty-four wounded, of which ten of the killed and twelve of the wounded were Austrian and Hungarian subjects. This deplorable event naturally aroused the solicitude of the Austro-Hugarlan government, which, on the assumption that the killing and wounding Involved the unjustifiable misuse of authority claimed reparation for the sufferers. Apart from the searching Investigation and the peremptory action 6f the author lties of Pennsylvania, the federal exec utive took appropriate steps to learn the merits of the case, in order to be in a position to meet the urgent complaint of a friendly power. The Sheriff and his deputies, having been indicted for mur der, were tried and acquitted, after pro tracted proceedings and the hearing of hundreds of witnesses, on the ground that the killing was in the line of their official duty to uphold law and preserve public order in the State. A representa tive of the department of Justice attend ed the trial and reported Its course fully. With all the facts In its possession, this government expects to reach a harmo nious understanding on the subject with that of Austro-Hungary, notwithstand ing the renewed claim of the latter after learning the result of the trial for Indem nity for Its injured, subjects. Pending the consideration by the ben ate of the treaty signed June 16, 1897, by the plenipotentiaries of the United States and of the republic of Hawaii, providing for the annexation of the Islands, a joint resolution to accomplish the same pur-, pose by accepting the offered cession ana Incorporating the ceded territory Into the Union, was adopted by the Congress and approved July 7, 1898. I thereupon directed the United States steamer Phil adelphia to convey Rear Admiral Miller to Honolulu and entrusted to his hands this Important legislative act to be de livered to the president of the republic of Hawaii with whom the admiral and the United States minister were author ized to make appropriate arrangements, for transferring the sovereignty of the islands to the United States. This was simply but Impressively accomplished on the 12th day of August last, by the deliv ery of a certified copy of the resolution to President Dole, who thereupon yielded up to the representative of the govern ment of the United States the sover eignty and public property of the Ha waiian islands. Pursuant to the terms of the Joint res olution and in exercise of authority thereby conferred upon me, I directed that the civil, judicial and military pow ers theretofore exercised by the officers of the government of the republic of Hawaii should continue to be exercised by those officers until Congress shall provide a government for the incorpor ated territory, subject to my power 1o remove such officers and to fill vacancies. The President, officers and troops of te republic thereupon took the oath of alle giance to the United States, thus provid ing for the uninterrupted continuance of all the administrative and municipal functions of the annexed territory until Congress shall otherwise act. Following the further provision of the Joint resolution, I appointed the honor ables Shelby M. Cullom, of Illinois, John T. Morgan, of Alabama, Robert R. Hltt, of Illinois, Sanford B. Dole, of Hawaii, and Walter F. Grear, of Hawaii, as com missioners to confer and recommend to Congress such legislation concerning the Hawaiian Islands as they should deem necessary or proper. The commissioners having fulfilled the mission confided to them, their report will be laid before you at an early day. It Is believed that their recommendations will have tne earnest consideration due to the magni tude of the responsibility resting upon you to give such shape to the relation ship of those mid-Pacific lands to our home union as will benefit .both in the highest degree, realizing the aspirations of the community that has cast its lot with us and elected to share our politi cal heritage, while at the same time, Jus tifying the foresight of those who for' three-quarters of a century have looked to the assimilation of Hawaii as a natural and Inevitable consummation,. In harmony with our needs and in ful-' Ailment of our cherished traditions. The proposal of the Czar for a general reduction of the vast military establish ments that weight so heavily upon uaasy (Conttnned on p U.) - .