OCR Interpretation

The Advocate and news. (Topeka, Kan.) 1897-1899, December 07, 1898, Image 5

Image and text provided by Kansas State Historical Society; Topeka, KS

Persistent link: https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn85032019/1898-12-07/ed-1/seq-5/

What is OCR?

Thumbnail for 5

(Contluued from page 1.)
Company, the St Paul, St. Louis, New
York and Paris, were chartered. In ad
dition to these the revenue cutters and
the lighthouse tenders were turned over
to the Navy department and became tem
porarily a part of the auxiliary navy.
Regarding Dewey's victory at Manila
the" President says:
The first encounter of the war, in point
of date, took place April 27, when a de
tachment of the blockading squadron
made a reconnolssance In force at Ma
tanzas, shelled the harbor forts and de
stroyed several new works in coqstruc
tion. The next engagement was destined to
mark a memorable epoch in maritime
warfare. The Pacific fleet, under , Com
modore Dewey, had lain for some weeks
at Hong Kong. Upon the proclamation
of neutrality being issued and the usual
twenty-four hours' notice being given,
it repaired to Maris bay, near; Hong
Kong, whence it proceeded to the. Phil
ippine islands under telegraphed orders
to capture or destroy the formidable
Spanish fleet then assembled at Manila.
At daybreak on the 1st of May the Amer
ican force entered Manila bay and after
a few hours' engagement effected the to
tal destruction of the Spanish fleet, con
sisting of ten war ships and a transport,
besides capturing the naval station and
forts at Cavite, thus annihilating the
Spanish naval power in the Pacific, ocean
and completely controlling the bay of
Manila, with the ability to take the city
at will. Not a life was lost on our ships,
the wounded only numbering seven,
while not a vessel was materially in
jured. For this gallant achievement the
Congress, upon my recommendation, fit
tingly bestowed upon the actors prefer
ment and substantial reward.
The effect of this remarkable victory
upon the spirit of our people and upon
the fortunes of war was Instant A pres
tige of Invincibility therefore attached to
our arras, which continued throughout
the struggle. Reinforcements were hur
ried to Manila under the command of
Major General Merrltt and firmly estab
lished within sight of the capital, which
lay helpless before our guns.. On the
7tb day of May the government was adr
vised officially of the victory at Manila
and at once inquired of the commander
of the fleet what troops would be re
quired. The Information was received
on the 15th day of May and the first
army expedition sailed May 25 and ar
rived at Manila June 30. Other expedi
tions soon followed, the total force con
sisting of 641 officers and 15,058 men.
leading up to the Santiago campaign
President McKinley reports:
On May 30 Commodore Schley's squad
ron bombarded the fort3 guarding the
mouth of Santiago harbor. Neither at
tack had any material result. It was evi
dent that well ordered land operations
were indispensable to achieve a decided
The next act In the war thrilled not
alone the hearts of our own countrymen,
but the world, by Its exceptional hero
Ism. On the night of June 3 Lieutenant
Hobson, aided, by seven devoted Volun
teers, blocked the narrow outlet from
Santiago harbor by sinking the collier
Merrimac in the channel, under a fierce
fire from the shore batteries, escaping
with their lives as by a miracle, but fall
ing Into the hands of the Spaniards.
It Is a most gratifying incident of the
war that the bravery of this little band
of heroes was cordially appreciated by
the Spaniards, who sent a flag of truce to
notify Admiral Sampson of their, safety
and to compliment them upon their dar
ing act. They were subsequently ex
changed July 7. . ,
By June 7 the cutting of the last Cuban
cable Isolated the island. Thereafter the
Invasion was vigorously prosecuted. On
June 10, under a heavy protectipg fire,
a landing force of 600 marines from the
Oregon, Marblehead and Yankee was ef
fected in Ouantanomo bay, where 1t had
been determined to establish a naval
station. This Important and essential
port was taken from the enemy after se
vere fighting by the marines, who were
the first organized force of the United
States to land in Cuba. '
The 'position so won was held, despite
the desperate attempts to dislodge our
forces. By June 16 additional forces
were landed and strongly Intrenched.
On June 22 the advance of the invading
army under Major General Shafter land
ed at Daiquiri, about fifteen miles east of
Santiago. This was accomplished under
great difficulties, but with marvelous dis
patch. On June 23 the movement against
Santiago was begun. On the 24th the
first serious engagement took place, in
which the First and Tenth cavalry and
the First volunteer cavalry, General
Young's brigade of General Wheeler's di
vision, participated, losing heavily. By
nightfall, however, ground within five
miles of Santiago was won. The advan
tage was steadily increased. On July 1
and 2 a severe battle took, place, our
forces gaining the outer works of San
tiago and El Caney and San Juan were
taken after a desperate charge and the
investment of the city was. completed.
The navy co-operated by shelling the
town and coast forts. On the day fol
lowing this brilliant achievement of our
land forces, July 3, occurred the decisive
naval combat of the war. The Spanish
fleet, attempting to leave the harbor, was
met by the American squadron, under
command of Admiral Sampson. In less
than three hours all the Spanish ships
were destroyed, the two torpedo boats
sunk and the Maria Teresa, Almlrante
Oquendo, Vizcaya and the Cristobal Co
lon, driven ashore. The Spanish admiral
and over 1,300 men were taken prisoners,
while the enemy's loss of life was de
plorably large, some 600 perishing. On
our side but one man was killed and one
man seriously wounded. ' Although our
ships were repeatedly struck, not pne
was seriously Injured. Where all so con
spicuously distinguished themselves,
from the commanders to the gunners
and the unnamed heroes in the boiler
rooms, each and all contributing to the
astounding victory, for which neither
ancient nor modern history affords a
parallel in the completeness of the event
and in the marvelous disproportion of
casualties, it would be invidious to single
out any for special honor. Deserved
promotion has rewarded the more con
spicuous actors the nation's profound
est gratitude is due to all of those brave
men who by their skill and devotion in
a few short hours crushed .the sea power
of Spain and wrought a triumph whose
decisiveness and far-reaching effects can
be scarcely measured. Nojr can .we be
unmindful of the achievements of our
builders, mechanics and artisans for
their skill in the construction of our
war ships. ' . .
With the catastrophe of Santiago
Spain's effort upon the ocean virtually
ceased. A spasmodic effort toward the
end of June to send her Mediterranean
fleet under Admiral Camara to relieve
Manila was abandoned, the expedition
being recalled after It had passed
through the Suez canal. The capitula
tion of Santiago followed. The city was
closely besieged by land, while the en
trance of our ships into the harbor cut
off all relief on that side. After a truce
to allow the removal of non-combatants,
protracted negotiations continued from
July 3 to July 15, when, under menace of
Immediate assault, the preliminaries of
surrender were agreed upon.
The total casualties in killed and
wounded in the army during the war
was as follows: Officers killed, 23; en
listed men killed, 257; total, 280; of
ficers wounded, 11$: enlisted men wound
ed, 1,464; total, 1.577; of the navy, killed,
17; wounded. 67; died as result of
wounds, 1; invalided from service, .6;
total, 91.
It will be observed that while our
navy was engaged in two great, battles
and In numerous perilous undertakings
In the blockades and bombardments, and
more than 50,000 of our troops were
transported to distant I an da and engaged
in assault and siege and battle and many
skirmishes in unfamiliar territory, we
lost in both arms of the. service a total
of 1,668 killed and wounded; and in the
entire campaign by land and sea we did
not lose a gun or a flag or a transport or
a ship, and with the exception of the
crew of the Merrimac not a soldier or a
sailor was taken prisoner.
On August 7, forty-six days from the
date of landing of General Shatter's ar
my tn Cuba and twenty-one days from
the surrender of Santiago, the United
States troops commenced embarkation
for home, and our entire force was re
turned to the United States as early as
August 24. They were absent from the
United States 'only two months. ;
It is fitting that I bear, testimony to
the patriotism and devotion of that large
portion of our army, which, although
eager to be ordered to the post of great
est exposure, fortunately was -not re
quired outside of the United States.' They
did their whole duty, and like their com
rades at the front, have earned the grat
itude of the nation. In like manner, the
officers and men of the army and of the
navy who remained In their departments.
and stations of the navy, performing
most Important duties connected with
the war, and whose requests for assign
ment in the field and at sea it was com
pelled to refuse because their services
was indispensable here, are entitled to
the highest commendation. It is my re
gret that there seems tq.be no provision
for their suitable recognition.
In this connection it is a pleasure for
tne to mention In terms of cordial appro
bation the timely and useful work of the
American National Red Cross, both in re
lief measures, preparatory to the cam
paigns, in sanitary assistance at several
of the camps of assemblage and later,
under the able and experienced leader
ship of the president of the society. Miss
Clara Barton, on the fields of battle and
In the hospitals at the front in Cuba.
Working in conjunction with the gov
ernment authorities, and under their
sanction and approval, and with the en
thusiastic co-operation of many patriotic
women and societies in the various
States, the Red Cross has fully main
tained its already high reputation for
intense earnestness and ability to exer
cise the noble purpose of its organiza
tion, thus Justifying the confidence and
support which it has received at the
hands of the American people. To the
members and officers of this society and
all who aided them in their philanthropic
work, the sincere and lasting gratitude
of the soldiers and the public is due and
is freely accorded. ,
In tracing these ' events we are con
stantly reminded of our obligations to
the Divine Master for Ills watchful care
over us and His safe guidance, for which
the nation makes reverent acknowledg
ment and offers humble prayer for the
continuance of His favor.
Pursuant to the fifth article of the
protocol, I appointed William R. Day,
lately Secretary of State; Cushman
Davis, William P. Frye and George Gray,
Senators of the United States, and
Whltelaw Reld, to be peace commission
ers on the part of the United States. Pro
ceeding in due season to Paris they were
there met on the first of October, by five
commissioners on the part of Spain. The
negotiations have made hopeful prog
ress; so that I trust soon to be able to
lay a definite treaty of peace before the
Senate, with a review of the steps lead
ing to its signature.
I do not discuss at this time the gov
ernment of the future of the new pos
sessions which will come to us as the
result of the war with Spain. Such a
discussion will be appropriate after the
treaty of peace shall be ratified. In the
meantime and until Congress has legis
lated otherwise, it will be my duty to
continue the military government which
has existed since our occupation and
give its people security in life and prop
erty and encouragement under a Just and
beneficent rule.
. As soon as we are in possession of
Cuba and have pacified the island, it will
be necessary to give aid and directions
to these people to form a government for
themselves. This should be undertaken
at the earliest moment consistent with
safety and assured success. It is impor
tant that our relations with these people
shall be of the most friendly character,
and our commercial relations close and
reciprocal. It should be our duty to as
sist in every proper, way to build up the
waste places of the island, encourage the
industry of the people and to assist them
to form a government which shall be
free and independent, thus realizing the
best aspirations of the Cuban people.
Spanish rule must be replaced by a
Just, benevolent and humane govern
ment, created by the people of Cuba,
capable of performing all international
obligations and which shall encourage
thrift, industry and prosperity and pro
mote peace and good will among all the
Inhabitants whatever may have been
their relations In the past. Neither re
venge nor passion should have a place
in the government. Until there Is com
plete tranquility In the island and a suit
able government Inaugurated, military
occupation will be continued.
With the exception of" the rupture with
Spain, the intercourse of the United
States with the great .family of nations j
has been marked with a cordiality and
the close of the eventful year finds most
of the issues that necessarily arise in
the complex relations of sovereign states
adjusted or presenting no serious ob.
stacles to a Just and honorable solution
by amicable agreement-
The sympathy of the American people
has Justly been offered to the ruler and
the people of Austro-HuBgary by reason
of the affliction that has lately befallen
In the assassination of the empress-'
queen of that historic realm.
On the 10th of September, 1397, a coni
filet took place at Latimer, Pa., between
a body of striking miners and the Sheriff
of Luzerne county and his deputies in
which twenty-two miners were killed
and forty-four wounded, of which ten of
the killed and twelve of the wounded
were Austrian and Hungarian subjects.
This deplorable event naturally aroused
the solicitude of the Austro-Hugarlan
government, which, on the assumption
that the killing and wounding Involved
the unjustifiable misuse of authority
claimed reparation for the sufferers.
Apart from the searching Investigation
and the peremptory action 6f the author
lties of Pennsylvania, the federal exec
utive took appropriate steps to learn the
merits of the case, in order to be in a
position to meet the urgent complaint of
a friendly power. The Sheriff and his
deputies, having been indicted for mur
der, were tried and acquitted, after pro
tracted proceedings and the hearing of
hundreds of witnesses, on the ground
that the killing was in the line of their
official duty to uphold law and preserve
public order in the State. A representa
tive of the department of Justice attend
ed the trial and reported Its course fully.
With all the facts In its possession, this
government expects to reach a harmo
nious understanding on the subject with
that of Austro-Hungary, notwithstand
ing the renewed claim of the latter after
learning the result of the trial for Indem
nity for Its injured, subjects.
Pending the consideration by the ben
ate of the treaty signed June 16, 1897, by
the plenipotentiaries of the United States
and of the republic of Hawaii, providing
for the annexation of the Islands, a joint
resolution to accomplish the same pur-,
pose by accepting the offered cession ana
Incorporating the ceded territory Into
the Union, was adopted by the Congress
and approved July 7, 1898. I thereupon
directed the United States steamer Phil
adelphia to convey Rear Admiral Miller
to Honolulu and entrusted to his hands
this Important legislative act to be de
livered to the president of the republic
of Hawaii with whom the admiral and
the United States minister were author
ized to make appropriate arrangements,
for transferring the sovereignty of the
islands to the United States. This was
simply but Impressively accomplished on
the 12th day of August last, by the deliv
ery of a certified copy of the resolution
to President Dole, who thereupon yielded
up to the representative of the govern
ment of the United States the sover
eignty and public property of the Ha
waiian islands.
Pursuant to the terms of the Joint res
olution and in exercise of authority
thereby conferred upon me, I directed
that the civil, judicial and military pow
ers theretofore exercised by the officers
of the government of the republic of
Hawaii should continue to be exercised
by those officers until Congress shall
provide a government for the incorpor
ated territory, subject to my power 1o
remove such officers and to fill vacancies.
The President, officers and troops of te
republic thereupon took the oath of alle
giance to the United States, thus provid
ing for the uninterrupted continuance of
all the administrative and municipal
functions of the annexed territory until
Congress shall otherwise act.
Following the further provision of the
Joint resolution, I appointed the honor
ables Shelby M. Cullom, of Illinois, John
T. Morgan, of Alabama, Robert R. Hltt,
of Illinois, Sanford B. Dole, of Hawaii,
and Walter F. Grear, of Hawaii, as com
missioners to confer and recommend to
Congress such legislation concerning the
Hawaiian Islands as they should deem
necessary or proper. The commissioners
having fulfilled the mission confided to
them, their report will be laid before
you at an early day. It Is believed that
their recommendations will have tne
earnest consideration due to the magni
tude of the responsibility resting upon
you to give such shape to the relation
ship of those mid-Pacific lands to our
home union as will benefit .both in the
highest degree, realizing the aspirations
of the community that has cast its lot
with us and elected to share our politi
cal heritage, while at the same time, Jus
tifying the foresight of those who for'
three-quarters of a century have looked
to the assimilation of Hawaii as a
natural and Inevitable consummation,.
In harmony with our needs and in ful-'
Ailment of our cherished traditions.
The proposal of the Czar for a general
reduction of the vast military establish
ments that weight so heavily upon uaasy
(Conttnned on p U.) - .

xml | txt