Newspaper Page Text
THE ADVOCATE AND NEWS.
3' DECEMBER 7. 'i i 0 WWW 1 TT TV T rPmaicai ram w From Actual Experience. s'l 8 AgricuHuM Is tha Most Healthful, Kost Useful, and Most Noble Employment ol Wan." ') , ueorge waBainguin. li.3w&---S- A W 0 ICS I Hrrkihlre Swine. Thoroughbred hogs are In demand and bring good prices. At a sale recenuy in flnrinefleld. 111., thirty-nine head of Berk shire hogs were Bold at an average of ?o9.74. One boar sold for J1.2UU wnicn is uald to be the highest price ever paid at an auction sale for a Berkshire nog. Hliort-horn Price. At a recent sale of Short-horn cattle at the Kansas City Btock yards one three-year-old bull sold ror ii.uuu. Twelve bulls, cows and heifers brought an average of $400, and fifty head sold for an average of $214. TheBe are high prices and they Indicate that the Inter est In thoroughbred cattle Is keeping tip and that breeders and dealers appre ciate the 'good qualities of such stock. Lumpy Jaw. A case of a man dying In Chicago from lumpy Jaw has been reported. He had been a government Inspector of cattle and meats for eight years and It was thought that he caught the ailment from the diseased cattle. It has since been denied that he died from that disease. The doctors aeera 'to disagree In regard to It,, some claiming that It was only a malignant growth and not lumpy jaw. There Is no question but what lumpy jaw In cattle Is a disease and cattle thus afflicted should never be slaughtered for human food. National Grange. At the national grange of the Patrons of Husbandry recently held in Concord, N. H., more than a thousand members were advanced to the seventh degree In the highest body of that order. The ex penditures for the last year were $25,000 and the order has Invested funds amounting to more than $53,000. The next annual meeting la to be held In Ohio at some city to be hereafter se lected. The sentiment was very Btrong In favor of keeping politics entirely out of the grange. A resolution was adopted thanking the national Department of Ag riculture for the efforts made to place the books and documents of that depart ment In the hands of actual farmers. Illgh-Prleeri Horse. Star Pointer, holding the world's pac ing record of a mile In 1.594, was re cently sold In New York city to W. J. White of Cleveland, Ohio, for $15,000. which Is $600 less than J. A. Murphy, of Chicago, paid for him In 1897. Crescens, from the Ketcham stock farm, Toledo, Ohio, was sold to the Kalamazoo, Mich., Btock farm for $14,000. The following sales wore also made: Lanky Dob, $3,500; brown yenrllng colt, $2,200; bay mare, $1,000; Eastern Morn, $1,000; Farwell Banker, $350; Welfare, $720; -Toledo Bee, $5C0. TheBo are large sums to have wrapped up inside of horse hides and no one but : professional horsemen can afford to pay such prices. Farmers can afford to raise ths colts and get the best prices possible for them but they cannot afford to In vest any of their money In race horses or horse races. Preserving Forenti. The farmer on the prairies has a large Interest in the best method of handling our forest domain. He Is Interested In thej future supply of lumber, its cheap ness, In the amelioration of the climate, &vA the better utilization of rainfall, yor while forests do not Increase or de tvme rainfall, they have a good deal to d with conserving it, holding back the 'f-Ctois, thus avoiding the destruction from high waters and the losses from failing streams. Heretofore th forestry !' division of the Department of Agricul ture has done little or nothing for the fanner. Secretary Wilson has been for tunate this summer in securing the ser vices of Mr. PInchot as head of that de partment He is a gentleman of large tvealth who has made forestry his spe cial study and is now in a position where fie can confer great services on the Amer ican people. He has secured control of 799.CO0. acres of woodland, 100,000 of 1 tlch la in the Adirondack. It Is cov t'i'fld irlth spruce and hard wood. He pc oposea a new method to the lumber i u,: namely, to leave enough of the r?.ialiuum-slzed marketable trees to act .s feed trees and also single trees where there are no young trees, involving a loss of from 6 to 8 cents per acre, the object being to seed the soil and Becure a con slant growth of young trees instead of leaving the ground to grow up to leas valuable timber. In a recent visit to the lumber regions of Minnesota we find that when pine, for example, is taken off en tlrely, the land grows up to the decid uous trees which have as yet little or no commercial value, and we can see the value to the country at large In Mr. Pln chot's methods. He is also making a special study of the best methods of com bating forest fires, which do such Incal culable damage not only to the farms In the timber belts but to the country at large. He holds that fires always run along in waves, throwing out spurs, and that fighting and back-firing should be done in front of these spurs, when the back stretches can be more easily dealt with, instead of fighting as farmers most generally do, the back stretches, endeav oring to catch up with the spurs. Wal lace's Farmer. Ilee and the Weather. As forecasters of weather bees never make a mistake. They know what the weather for the day will be without con sulting the direction of the wind or markings of the barometer. If there is going to be a rain they will not go to work, no matter how fair the sun may shine In the morning, and if the weather 13 going to be fair, the thickest clouds in the morning do not keep them at home. Go to the bees In the morning, and if they are going out and coming In as usual It is safe to make hay or to go to the picnic. If they are loafing about home as If they intended to take a day off depend upon It they know there la going to be rain soon. Sometimes they will be seen rushing home, as if ia a hurry, but none will be noticed flying away to the fields. When this happens a hard storm is threaten ing, one of those sudden electrical storms that form and break almost without warning. Farmers' Voice. Alaika Agriculture. Last winter Congress appropriated $10,000 for the purpose of making agri cultural experiments in Alaska under the direction of the government Department of Agriculture. Prof. Georgeson, for merly of the Kansas Agricultural Col lege, was placed In charge of this work and during the past summer he has been conducting a series of experiments in that northern region with a view of de termining what agricultural products can be successfully raised there. No bet ter man could have been placed In charge of that important work for he has had a wide experience In growing crops In Northern latitudes. Ho has returned to Washington and reports that he suc ceeded In growing and maturing oats, barley, flax, potatoes and a number of other vegetables in the vicinity of Sitka. The potatoes ho raised were of excellent quality. If oats, barley, potatoes and other vegetables can be grown and ma tured in Alaska farming there will not only prove a profitable industry but the products will be of immense value to the thousands of miners who go to that frigid country after its deposits of gold. Prof. Georgeson is also making a careful study of the boIIs of that country and ho will very quickly determine the best crops that can be adapted to the climate and soils of Alaska. Cong reM of Farmer. The Farmers' National Congress and Pan-American Agricultural Parliament meets in annual session at Fort Worth, Texas, December 6th to 14th. It has a long name and will probably have a large number of delegates In attendance. This la the eighteenth annual session of this association. It was started In 1880, and for a number of years bad a very meagre attendance, but now from 1,000 to 1,500 delegates attend Its annual meet ings and they gather from all parts of the country to discuss the needs and de vise ways to advance the interests of the farmers. The Texas people are to give the delegates a free excursion from Fort Worth to Austin, Galveston, Houston and back to Fort Worth. The English agri cultural parliament was organized five years ago upon the same plan as the Fanners' National Congress of this country. Croa Breeding Corn. In recent years a good deal of atten tlon has been given to croB3-breedIng plants, especially fruits and vegetables, and In many cases with wonderful suc cess. For several years Guilford Dudley, of Topeka, who is a banker, but also a farmer and a student of nature, has been experimenting with the cross-breeding of corn, and he describes his theory and methods as follows: "The cross-breeding of plants is not a new discovery. It is simply one that is not generally known, and not practically applied. Since the discoveries of Charles Darwin and the publication of his works, in 1859, the evolution of plants as a matter of fact has been generally con ceded, but practical application has been wanting. In truth, the inter-marriage of plant life as well as of animal life has been a theory. "The division of science Into zoology and botany is simply a matter of con venience. The lnter-marriage of vege tables is practical and it can and will work a revolution in growing. The methods are bo simple and the reasons can be stated so plainly that any farmer, be he scientifically inclined or not, can easily work out the evolution. Aside from proving interesting to him, he will find that the cross-breeding of crops will yield to his financial stores immensely in a very short time. Constant straight breeding results in a degeneration in ani mal life, and it Is necessary to mix fami lies even in the human. How essential It Is that our corn and beans and other vegetables are not allowed to degenerate slowly but surely by straight planting. "Many farmers are opposed to the ap plication of science to farming, holding that it is but an excuse to spend money without getting adequate returns. Time Is proving such theories to be false. The biologists tell us that when they exam ine the physical organization of man they resolve him Into the finest particles into which the microscope will enable them to break him up; then they take a sort of an anatomical record of devel opments, functions and activities and study his environments as he appears on the surface to the world. They then take up the other animals most convenient the bird, the dog, for instance and find that their bodies are resolvable Into the same' elements as that of man and so of all the other animals. Then they pur sue their investigations into the vegeta ble world and they can In the same way follow out the structure of the plant from the most intricate flower, grass or shrub up to the largest tree. And so with their seeds, the storehouses of oil, starch, fiber and gluten, which either in normal state or in their concentrated form, com prise the whole menu of animal food. "Oxygen Is required by the animal; carbonic acid is essential to the plant Protein is manufactured from the ele ments by the plant; animal jelly Is man ufactured from the same elements by the animal. Under microscopic investi gation the most industrious student, the most' profoundly learned, cannot sepa rate' nor tell the difference between the vegetable and animal jelly. Thus, bi ologists have arrived at the conclusion that a fundamental uniformity of struc ture Dervades the animal and the vege table worlds and that plants and animals differ from each other simply as adverse modifications of the same general plan. "This, theji, is the foundation on which I cross-breed vegetables. Who would think of improving the desirable qual ities of his dairy herd, his chickens, his ducks, his swine, by long, close Inbreed ing? Darwin says: 'Nature abhors con tinuous Inbreeding. If the same general laws control plant evolution, why not cross-breed the com, wheat oats, pota toes,' garden products and fruits? Why simply hunt for natural variations in the genealogy world and study scientific ge nealogy only in animal life? "The cost of an enterprise often af fects the amount of care and attention it shall receive. Experiments in cross breeding of vegetable life do not require that the present implements and condi tions be cast away and great sums of moner expended In arranging and pre paring for the work. Any farm is adapt ed to the work, any fanner Is fitted for it any hired man can do it and any child can understand. "When ready to plant, use two varie ties as near alike as possible two of white or two of yellow or two of red, that mature near the same time. Plant in al ternate rows only using two different kinds, red and yellow, yellow and white, red and white. When the tassel appears ride between the rows on horseback and pull the tassels from one row only. This will destroy the pollen (male) from one variety and leave the silks (female) to be fertilized from the pollen of the o'tfc variety. The row with the tassel us touched will self-fertilize, as is usual if corn fields, and will also fertilize th row with the tassel pulled. The corn grown upon the row with no tassel will be purely and sexually cross-bred. Re moving the tassel will not check the growth. If the variety of pollen is likely to be mixed by a neighbor's corn field being too close, try to have both plant the same kind of seed. The pollen is secreted in the little anthers, which a short time after the appearance of the tassel, hang like so many diminutive Chinese lanterns from the flowers of the tassel. "They are divided into two apartments and shed the golden-colored fertilizing dust round through holes in the bot tom. The silks are covered with a sort of mucilaginous substance and show a natural affinity for the golden-colored powder. Experience will prove, and all science goes to prove, that the cross breeding of plants -adds vigor, growth and fertility. It revitalizes and increases largely the yield of seed. The breeding of animals proves that thorough breed ing without thorough feeding falls to bring the best results. So the greatest care should also be exercised In the se lection of seed, ground and the prepara tlon of the soil, to secure the best re sults in the cross-breeding of corn." The following varieties are recom mended for cross-breeding: (1) Farmer's Interest, pollenlze with Early Mastodon; (2) Prolific White Cap, pollenlze with Farmer's Interest; (3) Farmer's Interest, pollenlze with First premium White Dent; Early Mastodon, pollenlze with Farmer's Interest If you wish to Improve by cross-breeding both fodder and grain, buy Beed of Farmer's Interest, and pollenlze with Red Cob Ensilage. Save the seed from the pol- lenized corn and plant next season; thus you have the new strain or breed. Employing Help. Upon the Important subject of employ ing help on the farm Mr. Frank Putnam makes the following suggestions: Farmers who employ help can learn some useful methods from manufacturers who provide their help with tenements and are thus enabled to employ married help, as, other things being equal, the married man with a family and home ties Is likely to be the best and most re liable help and is not as likely to lose his temper and leave during the rush of work as the young fellow with nothing more than; a gripsack to prevent him from roving from place to place. An other point in favor of married help Is, a married man is likely to be at home resting himself nights Instead of riding a bicycle, or after other amusement, tir ing himself so as to be unfit for work the next day. Everv emnlover of farm helo should so plan his work as to give steady employ ment the vear round to the bulk of his help; a man hired for only four months must of necessity be on tne lookout tor another Job, and cannot be expected to take the interest in work that a steady hand by the year naturally would. When I worked In the shop, every fall and early winter lots of young fellows came in from the surrounding country, who had been farming during the sum mer, seeking Jobs, and the best or tnem, If they secured a good job, would usually stick to it In the spring In preference to going back to the country for a sum mer's work with a certainty of being out of a job again at the beginning or tne next winter. A steady Job has attrac tions for every sensible worker in what ever line it may be. The Massachusetts census of 1885 gave as one of the most important reasons for the movement of population rrom tne country to the cities a lack of steady employment for wage workers. PnllerMvelv. farmers can do much to wards solving this question by making country life more attractive for farm heln esnoHallv the voune folks. If a Grange has not already been organized. the Booner one Is started tne netter it win be for both the employer and his help, provided it is run on Grange principles, and the employer should encourage his help to join and assist in the work that they may be kept in touch with the best thought of advancing agriculture. Farm ers should take more Interest and more active part in politics, not as blind party followers, but as patriotic citizens, so that agriculture shall reap its full share of benefit and not be condemned to sub sist on the crumbs left after other profes sions and Interests have had their surfeit. Send to this office for clubbing rates with other, papers. We can save you money.