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DECEMBER 28, THE ADVOCATE AMD NEWS. J! S : Practical Farm Notes I From Actual Experience. tn,un, u th. Mnt Hflalthful. Mott Uselul. and Most Noble Employment ol Man." TlinoA Wolililnlltrui () Cora aud Oat fur Hones. There are 18,000 omnibus horses In Paris, France, and they are fed almost wholly on corn and oats shipped from this country. These horses are driven fifteen or sixteen miles each day and the service 18 so lauonuua uuu eAiiauomis that the average age of horses in this ser vice Is only five years. The daily ra tion for each of these horses Is eight pounds of shelled corn and eight podnds of oats with ten pounds or cut nay or , oat straw and two pounds of beans. American grain Is in demand for feeding not only horses but people In Europe, and the demands for the products of the American farmer are constantly Increas ing. Uunrauteed Kffgs. Another swindle In selling old eggs for new has been discovered In the mar kets of England. When eggs get so old and dingy aa to be unmarketable they are renovated by washnlg them In a solution of diluted vitrol. This gives them the appearance of being newly laid eggs and the dealer sells them on their appearance and simply guarantees that they are eggs. Such eggs are a delusion and a snare and a sad disappointment to the unfor lunate housewife who undertakes to cook thom for table use. Stale egg3 should not be. used for food In any form, not even for hens or hogs, but they Bhould only bo used as other offal for fertilizers to enrich the boII. Hogs aft Life I'ri'servers. The hog has received a great many kicks and curses in his day, but he has gone right along peacefully grunting and converting almost any kind of old cast off and refuse food Into pork and the pork Into money to pay mortgages, build houses and barns and buy pianos and other luxuries for his friends. But the latest and most important freak of use fulness to which he ha3 been put was to use him for a life preserver. A ves sel was recently shipwrecked on the Aus tralian coast and there was no means at hand to communicate with the shore. There were a lot of live hogs In the cargo and the captain was thoughtful enough to tie light lines to their hind leg3 and throw them overboard. The pigs swam ashore through the rough Bea, dragging the lines after them. Strong ropes were tied to these lines and drawn ashore by people on the land and by this means the lives of the people on the ship were eaved, thanks to the humble and some times much despised hogs. milking should be done with an easy, steady motion that can only be acquired by experience. Cows should be milked completely dry, for the last of the milk Is the richest. It is generally called "strlpplngs." In some States there are very stringent laws with severe penalties for withholding from milk sold any of the "strlpplngs," because they are the richest portion of the milk and It Is con sidered swindling and a fraud to milk them In a separate pail and withhold them when selling the milk. If a cow is not milked clean she will not give so much the next day, and It has a tendency to dry her off. Hence a shiftless milker who does not milk the cows clean is a damage both to the cows and their owner. Ilutter and Cheese, Ordinarily it takes about 20 pounds of milk to make a pound of butter and about 14 pounds of milk to make a pound of cheese. Any farmer who as certains the market price at which but ter and cheese can be sold can easily figure out which will be the most profit able for him to make, butter or cheese, or which it will pay him best to pat ronize, the creamery or the cheese fac tory. If he has not convenient scales for weighing the milk he can estimate it by considering a pint as a little more than a pound. About 88 per cent, that Is, about 88 in every 100 pounds of milk is water and the remaining 12 per cent, has to furnish the elements for making the butter and cheese. Hence it can readily be seen how little of nutritious food Is left for the calf that Is raised on skim milk or whey. Cider Through a Straw. Many a man remembers well how, when he was a boy, he used to suck cider from the bunghole of a cider bar rel with a straw, and how boozy It would make the boys after the cider had got very hard. These are happy recollec tions of many a man's boyhood days. A man in Pennsylvania recently tried thta old game and he will recollect the circumstance longer than the boys who ; got boozy from drinking hard cider 1 through a straw. The bunghole of the barrel had been left open and a large hornet, attracted by the fumes of the cider, had gone in to get a drink and was floating In the cider when this man began drinking It through a tube. The hornet was sucked into his throat, where it stung him so severely that the conse quent swelling nearly choked him to death. Milking Cows. Milking cows properly requires expe rience, skill and tact, and is both a science and an art It requires patience and yet it must be done quickly and gently. A man who can milk eight or ten goods cows In an hour and do It well is a valuable man for a dairyman to have. A kicking cow can nearly always be traced to a kicking or unskillful milker. A swearing man or boy should not be allowed to milk a cow, for an oath and a blow generally go together, and they are both indicative of the brute in human form. If a cow holds her milk it 3s a sign that she has been abused by some milker. Jerking the teats will make B cow Inclined to hold up her milk. The American Corn. A million dollars' worth of corn is bo lng sent each week from this country to Europe. A large part of it goes to Ger many for feeding stock. It is easily han dled, Is a nutritious food in a condensed form and furnishes the German farmere a cheap and wholesome food for their stock. It is estimated that there will be a yearly market for 150,000,000 bushels of corn for this purpose in Germany alone. France Is also using large quan tities of our corn and Africa cannot get enough to supply the demand. If the United States had a merchant marine of her own American vessels and Ameri can seamen would get the benefit from the export transportation of American products, and American seamen would hunt out and supply the foreign markets with American products to a far greater extent than will the merchant marine of any foreign country. Crops In Orchards. Careful experiments running through a number of years show that fruit trees will make a more rapid growth with clean cultivation than they will when any kind of crops is grown among them. But for the first six years after apple trees are set in orchards corn or potatoes or beans or some such hoed or cultivated crops can be grown in the orchard with out materially retarding the growth of the trees. Red clover can be grown among the trees without retarding their growth to any great extent, because the clover is a fertilizer of the soil and keeps it mellow and moist But small grain, such as oats or wheat, should never be grown In an orchard, for it will dwarf the growth of the trees. Trees set in blue grass sod, or where the land Is seeded in blue grass after the trees are set, will not generally make one-fourth the growth of the same kind of trees that are given clean cultivation. Peach or chards should have clean cultivation and no crops should be grown in them unless perhaps potatoes, cabbage or some such low-growing hoed crops. When apple trees commence bearing the orchard should be seeded to clean red clover. If the ground gets dry and hard it should bo pulverized with a disk harrow and again seeded to clean clover. The theory of all this Is that the growth of wood may be crowded while the trees are young, but when the trees begin to bear fruit the growth of wood should be re tarded in order to encourage the devel opment of fruit buds. Pedigree' Records. As ordinarily conducted the pedigree record of an animal is of but little value. It Btmply shows that it is the progeny of registered parents, and aside from that it is no guarantee as to quality, form or results. Some of the progeny of regis tered animals may be very Inferior, and yet about all that is required for registra tion Is a statement that it is the progeny of named registered animals and the payment of the required fee In order to obtain a certificate of registration. There ought to be some further guar antee and some further protection than this secured by a certificate of registra tion. Perhaps a score card, properly and carefully filled out, in the application for registration, and also in the certificate issued, would be a help in this direction. It would at least show the form and whether or not it corresponded to the recognized requirements for that partic ular breed, and would also serve as addi tional means for Identification. The breeders of Holstein-Frleslan cat tle have recently taken an important step in this direction by establishing what they call an Advanced Registry, in which pedigree alone is not sufficient, but proofs as to form and performance are also required. The beneficial results from such requirements for registration must readily be apparent. Purchasers of breeding stock want not only a good animal but also good results in the fu ture. Hence the new form for registra tion proposed by the Holstein-Frleslan men will be an advancing step in the right direction. Farmers' Census. The farmer's of this country have nev er been fully or fairly represented in any census which the government has taken. Every ten years the government, at great expense, takes a census of this country. The next census will be taken in the year 1900. The census purports to give an accurate and detailed statement of the population and wealth of the country with statistics relating to each depart ment and industry. In doing this it is much easier to get accurate Information from cities and corporations, both pub lic and private, than it Is to get full and accurate Information from the. rural dis tricts. For this reason greater care should be used In gathering the facts re lating to the farms and farm produc tions. Agriculture Is much the largest single vocation in thl3 country. What ever helps the farmers must help the whole country, and an accurate census of the farms and farm productions would be beneficial not only to the farmers but to the country at large. The farmers themselves can aid greatly In securing a more accurate census of their inter ests than has ever been obtained before. The census of 1900 will be based upon the crops and conditions of the year 1893. Every farmer should keep an accurate account of his farm and Its productions during the year 1899 and when the census enumerator comes around in 1900 with his books and blanks the farmer can give him the actual facts without guessing at them or overlooking or omitting any Im portant items. This would not only aid the Government in making a fair and ac curate report but it would be of great benefit to the agricultural Interests of the country. Farmers' Colleges. All agricultural colleges should pro vide winter courses of study and Instruc tion for farmers' boys and girls. The work on the farm demands their help during the summer months and the win ter season Is the only time that most of the farmers' bovs and elrls can devote to attending school. The school year for farmers children who are old enougn to attend colleges must begin with about the first of November and end with about the first of April. This gives five months for school in each year. And a course of three or four years should be provided In all farmers' colleges that would em brace the winter months when farmers' children could attend without taking them away from the active work on the farm during the summer months. A course of this kind would have the addi tional advantage of allowing the stu dents to put in actual practice on the farm during the summer months what they had studied at the college during the winter, thus combining theory and practice in the most helpful manner. The theory of agricultural colleges is to make better farmers, but the teaching in such schools has too much of a tendency to lead the students away from actual farming and into other vocations and pursuits in life. A winter course at such school could be so arranged as not to take the students away from the farms during the summer months and could be so conducted as to attach them more firmly to farm life and farm work rather than to lead them away from It Suca a course would give us more educated farmers and farmers' wives and put more fully Into actual practice the true theor; of farmers' schools. Composition of Eggs. Before striving to do something you should first find out what you seek. You desire the hen to lay eggs. She cannot produce something from nothing, and she cannot produce an article different from the elements or materials on which she works. A weaver makes a woolen car pet, but his employer does not supply cotton for that purpose, but wool, and he works to make a certain number of yards of carpet, and of a particular kind. His loom must also be in good condition for the work. Before we begin on the carpet we must first determine of what the carpet is to be composed and the kind of material required. Just so with the egg; bo let us find out what is in the egg, anl then we will know how to go to work on it Of course, all eggs are not exactly alike, but we will take one of 1,000 grains, so as to give the proportions in round numbers. We may divide it as follows: Grains. The white 600 The yolk 300 The shell 100 Total 1,000 So far we know that the egg contains the white, the yolk and the shell? We learn that the principal ingredients are nitrogen, carbon and water, with certain proportions of mineral matter. Now keep the following in view, as it will assist you further on. Nitrogen is four-fifths of the air we breathe, but in plants and other sub stances it exists In the shape of combi nations, in the form of ammonia (when decomposition sets in), but in the food we call it albumen, flbrine, gelatine, pro tein, etc., and we allude to all materials containing nitrogen as nitrogenous ele ments. They are the elements that form flesh, the white of eggs, the gluten of wheat, the cheese of milk, the legume of clover, peas and beans all under the classification of albuminoids. Hence we learn that when the cream is taken from milk we remove only the carbon, and the flesh-forming elements are left In the skimmed milk. Although cream sells for more than skimmed milk, yet the real value of the milk, as food, is much great er than that of cream, because nitrogen is more costly than carbon. It is the labor of securing the cream that makes it val uable, as It Is of no value as food ex cept to produce warmth. Carbon is fat, oil, starch, sugar, etc., and we allude to materials rich In car bon as carbonaceous. Under this head come all elements that produce fat or warmth. The starch of feeding stuffs are known as carbo-hydrates, the "hydrate" signifying water in a crystalline state. During digestion all starch matter Is more or less converted into sugar, and from sugar into other forms, including fat. Fat exists as oil, but, as stated, during digestion the carbo-hydrates (starch, etc.) are also converted into fat. Mineral matter consists of lime, soda, potash, magnesia, sulphur, etc., and is found by reducing the food to ash, which permits the nitrogen and carbon to fly off in the gaseous state, though a portion of the mineral matter Is sometimes left in the shape of carbonates, sulphates, phosphates, etc. The shell contains about fifty grains of salts of lime, or about twenty grains of pure uncombined lime (calcium oxide), the remainder being pure carbonic acid, water of crystallization,, etc., but some of the mineral matter in the white and yolk is also lime, or the chick could not be produced, for lack of bone. Bear In mind the mineral matter contains phosphate of lime, soda (derived from salt), sulphur, potash, magnesia, etc. You must know what to put in the egg before it is complete, and the next is how to get the materials for that purpose. Poultry Keeper. Wool In North-Central Kansas. J. N. Grau. of Asherville, Mitchell county. Kansas, whose exhibits of Me rino and Dickinson Delaine sheep and wool at the Omaha Exposition attracted such favorable attenton, will talk to the Kansas Board of Agriculture at its Jan uary (11-13) meeting of his methods and experiences in north-central Kansas, as a region which he thinks unexcelled for producing the finer grades of wool. Author (after completing a new book) "There, that will make me more Immortal than ever." Fliegende Blatter.