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6 THE ADVOCATE AND NEWS. Practical 3 m " Agriculture is the Most Healthful. Most Useful, nd Most Noble Employment ot Man." , George Washington. Farm Notes 1 () ( (9 From Actual Experience. Sunflower Oil. In 1812 a Russian farmer named Boka reff conceived the Idea of extracting oil from the seed of the sunflower. His neighbor told him It was a visionary Idea and that he would have his labor his pains. He persevered, however, and from that humble beginning the Indus try has expanded to enormous propor tions. To-day more than 7,000,000 acres of land In Russia are devoted to the cultivation ofthe sunflower. Two kinds are grown, one with Bmall seeds, which are crushed for oil, and the other with larger seeds, that are consumed by the poorer people In enormous quantities. Farm, Field and Fireside. Slopes for Orchard. Other things being equal, a north and east slope will probably be the best ground on which to plant an apple or chard, because It will be more sheltered from the hot and drying southwest winds that are so apt to prevail In July and August. But the character and quality of the land have more to do In growing a good and profitable orchard than the slope of the land. Limestone land Is the best for apples and slopes leading away from a limestone ridge will gen erally be good orchard land because of the moisture formed by the seepage from the stony ridge. This moisture sustains the trees during the dry portion of the year In July and August. Peach and pear trees will do well on top of the ridge, If not too stony, while apple trees will do best on the sheltered slope land3. Origin of Cattle Ilreerit. As a distinct breed of cattle, the Short horns have been known for over three hundred years. They were bred on. the estates of the Earl of Northumberland in the latter half of the sixteenth cen tury, but their reputation as Short-horns did not become generally known until during the last half of the eighteenth century. The Herefords or white-faces date back to 1750. They were first im ported to this country in 1816. The Aberdeen-Angus breed was known la 1700, but was not popularized until about the beginning of the present cen tury. The Galloways were bred as black cat tle In the Galloway district In the thir teenth century and it Is Impossible to tell when their Improvement was begun and developed as a distinct breed of cattle. Cotton In the South. The enormous crop of cotton raised In the Southern States In 1898 amounted to 11,000,000 bales. Of this there was exported 7,700,000 bales, making 3,936, OuO.udO pounds. The production of this crop has become so great and the prices eo low that great efforts are being made to induce the farmers to raise a diver sity of crops. But cotton is so easily raised and handled and taken to market in a compressed form that It will be very hard to Induce the negroes to give up cotton and raise other crops Instead. AH that a Southern negro needs to tend from two to five acres of cotton Is a mule, a small bull tongue plow and a rope harness. The cotton will produce from half a bale to a bale per acre, and at a very low price will bring $20 to $30 a bale, which Is more than the negro could realize from any other crop he could raise. Country Ntore. The old-fashioned country store was, after all, the original , "department store." The residents of our cities have often laughed when they visited the leading store in a country village be cause of the variety of articles offered for sale by the local tradesman. To the denizen of the city the selling of drug3 and hardware, of flannels and flour, of pick-axes and peanuts, by the same dealer and In the same establishment, appeared to be most amusing. But now It has come to pass that the great de partment stores of our cities sell every thing that the country store sells, and much more besides. For In the most modern of these great establishments one can not only furnish his house from top to bottom, kitchen and wine cellar included, but he can also have a tooth send a teie a picture gallery and even a menagerie, And so the much-laughed-at country man has taught the city merchant a les son from which the latter Is deriving handsome profits Leslie's Weekly. Sluglng Hen. Singing hens lay the most eggs. Hen3 sing because they are happy and con tented, and happy and contented hens always lay more eggs than those that are dumpy, starved or sick. Singing hens not only lay the most eggs but they lay the best and largest eggs and eggs which make the most wholesome food. A half sick or half-starved hen, if she lays any eggs at all, will lay eggs that are small in size and Inferior in quality and vital ity. Eggs for hatching ought to be from hens In good thrifty condition and from the best and most constant layers. By using care In selecting egg3 for hatch ing the laying qualities of hens can be improved. By applying some of the same principles in the breeding of fowls that are so carefully studied and used In breeding cattle the egg-producing qual ities of the hens on nearly every farm might be greatly improved. The dairy man breeds for milk and butter by weed ing out the poor milkers and saving only the best milkers for breeding purposes. With a little care the farmer's wife can select eggs for hatching from the hens that lay the most and largest eggs and thu3 Improve greatly the laying quali ties of the flock. Live Stock Value. The magnitude of the live stock Inter ests in this country is shown by the fact that the total value of farm animals on January 1, 1899, was $2,215,053,000. The highest point ever reached by this value was $2,507,050,000, In 1889. The depres sion in these values began In 1892 and reached the lowest point of $1,860,420,000 in 1896, making a decline of fully 25 per cent. The upward tendency In values began in 1896 and has continued ever since until now 19 per cent of the 25 per cent of shrinkage has been recovered. This leaves 6 per cent of that shrinkage still to be recovered before the high- water mark of ten years ago will be reached. The natural growth of the country and growing export trade will make an Increasing demand so that It may reasonably be expected that during the next few years the maximum values of 1889 will be reached and passed and from these facts the conclusion may be drawn that there will be no permanent decline In the values of live stock for several years to come. Since January 1, 1897, the per cent of Increase in the value of different kinds of stock has been on horses 20, mules 11, milch cows 31, other cattle 48, sheep 72, hogs 1. On January 1, 1899, Kansas had 821, 000 horses, with an average value of $31.n0; 86,000 mules, with an average value of $39.30; 815,000 milch cows, with an average value of $30.80; 2,308,000 other cattle; with an average vakie of $24.90; 282,000 sheep, with an average value of $3.05. and 2,538,000 hogs, with an average value of $4.40. products for you. It will pay to study the best way to get the meet out of our products. This is a 6tep forward and a step that will pay if the matter is given the thought and study it should have. Homestead. Marketing Farm Product. We are Ju9t now starting In a new year, and the confidence in it for a pros perous business is well nigh unanimous. The confident feeling seems to grow day by day, and it is not only felt in one locality, but from the seaboard to the grain fields of the great West, and this furnishes a valuable index of the source of much of the good business so recently reported. A glance at the past in order that we may see more clearly in the future will disclose the fact that as a rule not enough attention has been paid to mar keting farm products. The nearest mar ket Is usually selected as the place for marketing products, and there may be very good reasons for this selection. A market a few miles further away may sometimes pay enough better prices to Justify going to that market. Many farm products can and should be sold to pri vate customers, and by working up a private trade the profits may be much larger. Again It may be necessary to look up good markets further away from home. Uncle Sam is very generous in the way he transacts business for us, and a 2-cent stamp will reach some com- mill ancrAM a servant, send a tele- mission mercnant in a city not rar ais- jma, have hie photograph taken, vlelt tact, who would gladly handle your Average Farmers. The average farmer does not plan his work, and the day is past when we can afford to be an average farmer. The av erage farmer grows average crops and has an average time, and his family are to be congratulated if they are blessed with an average amount of sup plies. There are too many average farm ers who are farming average farms, and the bulk of what they grow goes to pay their rent while their families suffer. There Is really no need of this if some planning be done at a time when you have time to lay plans. That day Is past when farmers are to work like slaves, and like slaves reap their reward. If the work is planned at the proper time, there will need be no work at night, and both farmers and teams' will get enough rest to make them vigorous for the next day's work. If plans are not made there will be a hurry and worry when the time comes. A day off to get a plow repaired, a day for cleaning seed, a day for selecting seed corn, a day for hunting up another horse, and a day or two more, and a week Is wasted Just because there was not a little planning at a time when it could have been done. When a large building Is to be erected or a railroad built, the plans are all laid before one shovelful of dirt is thrown. The cost 13 considered, and the promoters know Just how it will be when It 13 finished. The conditions are such that the farmer can not so exactly calculate In the future, but he can calculate more than he does with good results. He can reason that rain will come, or that a certain enemy will show up at a certain time. If they do appear he will be able to meet them, but should they fall it Is his good plea sure to know he was ready for the eraer- genc Homestead. Fall Sowing Alfalfa. "The idea that all grass seed must be sown In the spring has a deep and ap parently a lasting hold on the minds of the people. With alfalfa our exper ience is, that sown In the spring the plants are weak to begin with, and when the dry, hot weather strikes it, it goes back. A little rain then starts the fall grass and weeds and the crop is gone. By sowing In the fall, by cold weather the plants are as big as the average spring-sown, and are ready for business as soon as the weather is favorable in the spring. I find by sowing In the fall I gain a year in time and a better and surer stand. I find, also, that I get bet ter results where the plants are four to six inches apart Any system of seeding that would give a good, healthy plant to four Inches square of ground is thick enough, and one-half peck of seed put on well-prepared ground the last week in August of any good, fair wheat year will give plenty of stand. I could not see any practical difference as to ability to stand cold, dry weather, winds, etc., between the young alfalfa . and wheat, the grade of land, slope and con ditions being equal. "To farmers who have failed with spring-sown alfalfa I would say: Take a piece of naturally dry, rolling land It must be clear of standing water at all times of the year, no matter what the subsoil is, or how above water put In good condition and sow to oats. Cut and remove the oats in time so that there will be no volunteer crop. Then as soon as possible plow and put In good condition again, and whenever your Judgment would say sow, broadcast one half peck to a' peck of good seed to the acre, and harrow thoroughly. Pledga yourself that you will keep all and every kind of stock off that land for two years from sowing, and stick to your pledge, and you will find it among the most prof itable fields on the farm." Z. W. Coleman. Good Roads. This is not a new subject, and It Is one that will not be likely to ever die of old age. Good roads are of more im portance to the farmers than to all other classes of people. Their products must he hauled to market and their groceries hauled home. The losses to the farmers because of bad roads are enormous and cannot be fully ascertained. Upon this Important subject the Farmers' Voice says: "Gen. E. C. Harrison, superintendent of the good roads division of the De partment of Agriculture, estimates that good roads would save annually to the farmers of this country the Immense sum of $626,000,000. Thi3 question of good road is eonetantly growing greater and the solution to the problem of providing them Is receiving attention now from men who a few years ago did not think it worth while to think about it at all. A recent bankers' convention, even, did not think it beneath their dignity to pass a resolution in favor of good roads. "Wherever a start is mado in the direction of permanent road improve ment the work spreads, reaching out farther and farther, and this alone will bring good roads to every section in the course of time. In Illinois roads that are good the year through may be found In different parts of the State where a few years ago the roads were almost im passable during the winter, unless they were frozen. "Near Kankakee there are first-class roads made of broken limestone taken from the Kankakee River. These roadf were built not so much to avoid mud as to make good hauling through sand. When other roads are very bad sand roads are firmest and In this case a very light coat of broken limestone makes a firm road which never works up and makes heavy hauling possible. In Lee County the roads are being Improved and in Putnam County there Is a con stant increase In the mileage of good roads. "Most of this work has been paid for by Ihe lands lying along the roads so far, but General Harrison has advanced views on the subject. He holds that roads are public property and that the general public should be taxed for their improvement and the tax for this pur pose levied on all property alike. As the benefits of good roads are enjoyed by every one within the territory they cover this seems to be only a fair way to spread the cost of making them." Tay as You Go. No sentence has ever been formulated that means more If correctly applied than this one of four words. If It were applied on every farm in this country It would mean mora than words can ex press. It would save worry In waking hours and nights, of wakefulness. Pay as you go, and the dollar in your pocket is your own, the man you buy of gives you his lowest price, and no man has a claim on your purse, which may be pressed at a time when you are unable to meet or must make a sacrifice to do so. Nearly every one who reads these words will be able to call to mind some one who always pays spot cash. Such a man may be called a close buyer, store keepers and others with goods to sell may not have a high opinion of hira because they have no opportunity to press the sale of their merchandise un der the specious plea that it can be paid for at a more convenient season, to buyer often forgetting that the convt- nlent season to pay a debt contracted for this reason alone rarely comes. It Is the small debts that worry, for large ones are contracted cautiously, and these should never be made. The man who pays spot cash almost invariably ha3 money for his needs, and if he has not the money he does not Duy, and at the end of the year Is just as well off in every way. "Long credits make baa friends," is a good old Scotch saying that Bhould be kept In mind. The things bought to-day must be ' paid for some time, and the prices never become less because It is charged to an account. We well remember an old man who grew rich by never going in debt. It was known that he always had money in his pocket, and the neighbors could sell him stock or grain in a pinch and get cash for it, and on such occasions they usually made a price that led to profit for the buyer, and he was not nig gardly at such times. A thrifty steer not quite ready for market, a colt a year too young to sell, a bunch of growing shotes and things of that sort were of fered to him and paid for at a satis factory valuation. These he finished for market and made a good profit on, for he was as careful with hl3 stock as with his money. With 40 acres to begin with, he never added an acre to his farm. He lived simply but well, and died respected, leaving his two children the 40 acres of land and $12,000 in cash In the hands of those of his neighbors who did not fol low Randolph's advice. At 80 years of age he had a cheery voice and a placid temper, due, no doubt, to a great extent because he had never been worried by small debts. Farmer's Voice. What costive people need is a natural laxative like Dr. Pierce's Pleasant Pellets wlhch are powerful without being vio lent. They move the bowels gradually and comfortably but surely. lYou can regulate the dose one, two or three "Pel lets" exactly as you need. They strengthen the Intestines to do their own work, so that after their movements have become regular they keep on naturally of themselves.