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THE ADVOCATE AND NEWS.
3899. RANGE IMPROVEMENTS. Problem of IteatorlaaV Graaeea o OYeratocketl Luanda. In a circular just issued by the agri cultural department it is stated that the chief problem in the cattle regions of the southwest is, How shall we restore or bring back the grasses on lands where they have been destroyed by overstock ing! An estimate based on such statis tics as we have been able to obtain from correspondents indicates that the cairy ing capacity of the southwestern ranges was 40 per cent less at the beginning of 1897 than it had been in 1880. The money value of this loss has been vari ously estimated at from $10,000,000 to $40,000,000 in the state of Texas alone, and on other ranges in the western states and territories the aggregate loss from overstocking is not less than $100, 000,000. In other words, if the natural pastures in the country west of the ninety-eighth meridian were now cover ed with as luxuriant a growth of glass as they were 20 years ago, the addition al number of live stock which could be carried would be worth probably up ward of 1100.000.000. The regressing of overstocked lands is tn the interest both of the individual ntncli owner and the commonwealth. The email losses sustained by each owner become in their aggregate & sum wnicn materiallv effects the welfare of the state. It is the common testimony of stockmen that there are vast areas where the abundance and quality of the natural herbage have been decreased. The better grasses have been run out by overstockina durinar years of drought. Weedy annuals of less value, because less nalatable to stock and less nutri tious, have taken theii places. If these fail the eround becomes entirely bare of vegetation. In other sections the amount of natural pasturage has been decreased bv the encroachment of perennial weeds and thorny shrubs and by the cactus thickets, or the grasea have oeen de stroyed bv rabbits and prairie dogs. Overstocked lands are not only unpro ductive, but thev rapidly deteriorate in productive capacity. They require rest and treatment to again restore them. The soil becomes hard and compacted by the trampling of cattle. Less of the annual rainfall is absoibed by the soil, and more each year is lost in the flood waters. Moreover the finer ananence richer Dortions of the surface soils are washed into the streams, because there is no protecting mat of grass roots to retain them. The data thus far secured at the close of eight months' work give sufficient Dromise that definite, tangible results will accrue from experiments for the benefit of stockmen. It is too soon to draw conclusions, but the outlook for rapid increase in the quantity of grass on these overstocked pastures is encour aging. Moreover, the methods in use are such as are well within the reach of any stock owner should he wish to avail himself of the results. Durine the succeeding seasons expert mentswillbe made as to the practica bility of sowing alfllaree, bur clover, Bokhara clover, alfalfa, sorghum and other wild and cultivated grasses and forage plants directly on the sod with out further treatment than to keep stocu off during at least the first year, un n: examination of the plans it will seen that a number of methods mv ing undertaken which may be a at but little expense by stock . should they prove to result profiim neavleat Horae EYer Known. The weight of this animal was 3,K. pounds, or nearly 1 ton 7 cwt. TLi Clydesdale horse, which was on exhit i tion at New York in 1889, was 20 bands high, and although only 5 years old measured 82 inches round the arm, 45 inches round the stifle or knee joint, 95 inches girth, 84 inches round the hip and 11 feet 4 inches in length. It was of perfect proportions, with a head 80 inches in length. A British dray horse has been known to stand 18 hands high and weigh nearly 18 cwt, while one of WombweU's menagerie horses was once shown at Oxford measuring 17 hands 8 inches in height. The Thames Bank distillery at the cart horse parade of 1895 exhibited a hand some pair of bays, each of which stood 18 hands high and weighed nearly a ' o u Iisxdof thafiocUts Nation ale d'AgrlcuIture of France gives the mean weight of horses as follows: Ex cluding ponies, which have an average weight of 440 pounds, the weight of horses varies from two pounds to i,04u pounds. The weights of omnibus, tram and cart horses vary between 1,100 pounds and 1,540 pounds. Ihe weignt of victoria and coupe horses, which is about the same as that or cavalry horses, varies between 990 pounds and 1.056 pounds. M. Lavalard s weignta are for adult animals. Field Feeding For IIob. A nnmber of men who have beon very successful in their management of swine advise that the feeding, not only or stock hogs, but of the fattening hogs as Well, be done in the fields instead of in pens. They will take on flesh more rap idly, if their digestion is not injured, when fed in pens, but tney are neaunier and take on better meat when fed in the fields, because of the exercise they have. The manure thrown out from the npns in almost alwavs wasted, but if the animals are fed in the fields the feeding places will cover more ground and can be changed every day, so that the ma will be distributed over the ground, and with a little care in selecting tno fPAdinff places the portion of the land moat needing manure will receive tha largest supply of it. A Great Hereford. The tiure bred 2-year-old Hereford steer Sir Blanco was bred by T. JT. u. fiotham of Chillicothe. Mo., and fed by Samuel Weaver of Forsyth, Ula. H ' , ft , SIR BLANCO. was champion of the fat stock class at the late Illinois State fair and also at tha Omaha exposition. The accompany ing illustration is from The Breeder's Gazette. Nallleae Horeeehoee. One of the most recent novelties, which will, we think, be welcomed as a boon to horsekeepers as well as the ani mala under their charge, is a shoe which can be affixed to the hoof without nails. The new shoe takes the familiar form. but has two projections, one cn each side at the back, which engage rings at the ends of a band which passes over the front of the hoof and is fastened in the middle by a screw attachment to the center of the shoe. The entire ar rangement is simple, and the innova tion means that when a horse casts a shoe it would not be necessary any longer to seek the aid of a farrier, for the new shoe can easily be fitted in a few minutes by an inexperienced hand. In a recent trial of the nailless horse shoe the new invention was put to a severe test, the horse on which the shoes were fitted being attached to a heavily laden van and worked up and down steep gradients and on granite paved streets. Notwithstanding the rough work the shoes showed no signs of shifting and were not removed until worn out. The new shoe obviates all risk of pricking or laming by nails, and a slight rasping of the hoof is all that is required in attaching it to its bed. Chambers' Journal. EVILS OF INBREEDING. Deaeaeraey In Shp Waea the Prac tice la Comtlaood. Amonar sheeD the direct loss from dose inbreeding is the most apparent, says E. P. Smith in the uoston uuiti vator. The defeneration of a flock is bo rapid that you can almost see it from one generation to another. It naturally follows that the need of thoroughbred rams from other flocks to add new blood to the sheen is creator in flocks that have been inbred for a succession of years. The first thing noticeable in the lino of degeneration is the undersize of the lambs. The animals actually show smaller size from one generation to an other, and if the inbreeding ia kept up they become small and puny creatures, or at least a fair percentage of the- lambs will be thus undersized. The loss is of itself twofold. The lamb that is undersized produces less wool because there is a smaller Burrace for it to grow on. In the course of bov eral generations the amount of surface may decrease by almost a square foot. Count up how much wool is produced on a squaro foot of the sheep's hide and you will get at the exact loos. Then the undersized lamb yields so much lefis meat for the butcher. The loss here, too, is considerable, and when finally sent to be killed the loss on the wool and the mutton will make a rather startling sum. But this is not the only loss sustained from inbreeding. The wool gradually grows thinner on the hide of the poor, scrubby sheep. Only one hair is found where before two grew. The inherent weakness of the animals shows itself in the thin crop of wool, the same as an old man or one suffering from long sick ness or insidious disease. The quality of the wool naturally degenerates along with the other things. Place the wool of a scrub on the scales, and it is found wanting in weight Place it then before the sorter and picker and they quickly mark it down as second class. The fiber lacks something that experts can quickly distinguish. Here are the fourfold losses: Less mutton, less surface for the wool, less wool to the square inch and inferior quality of wool, which brings only the lowest prices in the markets. Fea For noraeahoelna. A pen UBed in shoeing and operating upon unmanageable horses has been de vised by a Danish veterinarian and re- Tlmoihj aad Saeep. The Farm Journal says: Timothy nay should never be fed to sheep, as i often causes a derangement of the di gestive tract. And timothy is of a fat forming nature, hence is not as valu able a food as clover and other grasses which are rich in proportion. PlaV Neata. The Western Plowman says: "Never use buckweat straw or oat straw for pigs' nests. Buckwheat straw will soon make them jump and kick and jerk. Oat straw will give them a skin disease which will in a short time stop their growth." DANISH HORSESnOBINO PKN. ceives much favorable mention in Dan ish agricultural papers. The accom panying illustration is self explanatory. IIow to Grow Gloxlafaa. Gloxinias are such free and contigu ous bloomes and of such exquisite beauty that all amateurs possessing even the smallest greenhouse should grow a few. Dry bulbs may be started in February or March in three inch pots filled with a light sandy soil, with an addition of some well rotted manure. The pots should be placed near the glass in a warm greenhouse and shaded from the sun and afterward shifted into large sizes. Never let the plants suffer for want of water, which should be given at the surface of the soil, care being taken that the upper parts of the leaves do not get wet Keep the surrounding air moist and warm. After flowering grad ually cease watering until the plants are dry, when they may be set aside in some warm dry place until the next season. Gardening. 00 YOI) KEEP FGULTRY? Then you should subscribe for THE POULTRY WEST. Bright, InatrnotlTa and entertaining. Tall how to make your Book profitable. Only S5 eentt per year. Send for free (ample ocpy. Address THE POULTRY WEST. Dept. Z, Topoka. Ka. V -"--C3 Ci!cil fra CO En ' T7t il Mi. M. T. Dural. Old Chnroh. Va. J hatched with Bantam A to and 48 . ohiflktcaoh from 6uKf and attar before eaw an Incubator. You oaa 10 Ida Km. li.Otf do u wtIL Tr an IW 4ar. free. Hon W kw Ko-WCav- tiaokej lacabaUrC., earlatflekd. 0. ' t , " I 1- ""t KCYCLOZ2S fence mcKius tofldt 100 IOM Mrafar imm a 4ar , a u4 Chw.1 ThMM la ' alwhokMUyrUM, Wrttt taJaj. CTCIORI UNI CO., 9tl.t,B?Ca. a-. fWMkM, III. ClmH,0. 3 with or without lowercabl barbed. All hortmmtal Una are cable, not effected by ha and cold. BtoalPtakot Lawn and M.M.8. Poultry Fnnca, Bttel tiaUa, f oata, aw. UNION' FENCE CO. DeXaft, EM. ARE YOU WITH US? Aw..Ji'M,'--','. :V..; '.i.v jf;' OKA. Wr"i'','W :."- MV . ,..v i- '. M-i.'.rt", n'.-'tv ! '" THC DEALER 13 ACAIHST U3 keeaaaa wa aU yaa wire fcaca airaat fraai tB4) fa.Ury at wholesale rlca. Tha dealer doea not girt you a better fenoe tha wa do, but be oharnee you mora fur it. You cao buy tha ADVANCE ill direct from ua Juat as cheap aa tha dealer ean. Thai makea a aavlng that will amount to eomethlnf Dioa, a.(Kmtal card will brlnicyouclniularaandpricaa. ADVANCE FENCE COMPANY, 1 803 Old Street. Peoria. III. O J V j Head Wana at f1.4 m I Toalioed Woe ati..fa Niirrtea a.Mi riiatonatSTi iHprlnu Wagon Wi Single llarnen 13.701 rarm liar neaallt. AlaoCarti.Saddlea and ererythlnir In the relilcle Sine at lowont wholeaal prices. All correct In ityle, quality and workinannlilp. Buy direct from factory. Sara dealer! profit. We aell one or more aa low aa other noil In car lot, and tttilp 0. 0. D. with privilege of eiamlnatlon. Guaranteed a represented or money refunded. Write fnrcatalnirtieand ti'Htlmonll JW. CASH BU VERSTNION.W W.YMBnrta St. B 14, Chlap In Meklnv an enHne of any kind, either SEni POTAt5Lfl, POK1ABLB or Traction, buy the They are almpleareaiapoaMSand repreaent nnunual value. Komawnill)a,wBlldrtlUng,thrnlng anything AIM Threnhera, Hone Power, Hawmllla, ato. Catav loirue rKiiX a RUMELY CO., La Porte, lod. FARM' blur's tedi tn Wtrraotel U Prtdat. rv.hloa I lorl4l iLnthxr. H.Tror. Pa.. Mtonlihat tk.l br iroolDi JjO bmhaU Bit roar U.UI J. nnvur. HlihlaolL Wl 17 buio. barlr. aud H. Uftio. ' Hi Wln(, Ulna., br rowln I JO baita. Bali.r'i Mra i pit aura. If yun don'H, wrli. Uitn. wna waia auv.uw d.w ouilomw., tone win mbs aa uiai 10 DOLLARS WORTH FOR 10c. 1 10 pk(nmr. farm KM; Halt Ba.h, Bap. for Bbatp, I tn. ) corn, " in roar iiau, iMwaitu ; Hronimiaerml rlllnlloD.Barprair.aa titf , , Kill, .to,, ki. Warn," Inoludln ur Bjammoia i mt t'.taiome, ttiiinc all about ear rana . ant, all mali'4 joa apoa rco.iptorui luo. pclmn, imiittrxiT worm liu, lo rt a . tiari, i vw,oo kia.Neea retara atei.VO and apabbl, H pkn orlK.t Tta. ,ll.( Catalog alone. Sc. N0.1M k..MMir IwlU awll ay kaaawwi aatolta far IttaatrarM a4 kaMltfally illaMralei, aa4 a lira. Due ktii, pU for 10a, wartb at waa for Wi, eHanlataly fVte. It M fall af kartala Ail U Bast Saals Balk, Heata. Beww. mtrw I'ratta, Carta eeae, Fatatwaa, aia.. at Wn minm. Tea Vraat Maveluea mini wltaoul IwlllpayaS9.fOAANAIf aaca. Doa'laay atack mtU roa aw iha aaw attalogiM. aVrmal varftMat abowa roaretacantllTi la aalora'. Oraat Mwrana tor aroar thla Tow.t Taw will be ul mar Irwadi r. U. UlIXC, leedaaiaa, Kx 10 KeaeUlU.ll. mrartttt at my bargala o&tt. Kn4wa4dmaaB l au nor inaiuai is aaa too. m fatlalkMlay. will wo.lv. a aapy. P)a mention the Advocate and Newt when writing to our advertisers. es5srasUCOESS OR FAILURES Sv jruiaapoib,i1.tjb.., Br,i!b Inoubatora and Brpoolere.f ' ,i TgTaay work avtoawUeaUy aa4 caaaot fall at gsod rawitat Oar yvVLtklt BOOK, 3k;i'ii. w " "" aaaHiH wnMia a auwuui w. m t atf tUMfi Ul.