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1899. THE ADVOCATE AND NEWS. ful men and women of the world. It means a building up of honest, useful lives. It means the consecration of the energies of mind and body to high and noble work. It means a thorough preparationforthevaried duties and emergencies of life. It means the realization of our highest hopes and a fulfillment of God's great purpose in our lives and in tho lives of our fellow men. Self-education means the upbuilding of use ful lives lives that will add to the com munity, honor to our institutions and strength and dignity to state and nation. Another problem that confronts our young men is this: Every individual has a partcular work to do and the great problem of life is to find out what this work is and to do it. You have a place to fill which no one else can till. You have a work to do which no one else can do and if you do not do it, it will be left undone, and the purpose for which you were created will bo repeated just to that extent. The very fact that you exist is an expression of the still broader fact that you exist for a purpose. Oarlyle uttered a great truth when he said, "Grad ually sec what kind of work you individl ually can do; it is the first of all problems for a man to find out what kind of work he is to do in this universe. For that is the thing a man is born to, in all epochs. He is lorn to expend every particle of strength that God Almighty has given him, in doing the work he finds he is fit for; to stand up to it to the last breath of life and to do his best." Carlyle has stated the problem clearly. We must become conscious of our possibilities, we must find our proper place in life before we can realize what life has in store for us. The moment we realize what we may become, that moment our useful ness as members of society begins. Every thing in the universe becomes great to us in " proportion as we understand the real worth of ourselves. Man is great not because of what he has been, not lecause of what he is, but Iweause of what he may become. It is the consciousness that we may become greater and more useful than we are that adds strength and dignity to life. It is this that puts the stamp of nobility upon ambition and the seal of honor upon every worthy deed. It is this that makes life full of hope and inspiration and power. It seems to me that the great truth that we should impress on the awakened mind of the young man is that he, as an individ ual, has a particular work to do, and tlut ho will contribute his respective share to the sum total of human wealth and happi ness, only when he does that work for which nature intended him. It has been earnestly snid that "To know one's self, to accept one's limitations, to cultivate one's talent, is to live a life of peace, of growth toward the divine." Why so much misery in life? Why so much dissatisfaction! Why pov erty's woes here and wealth's merry laugh ter there? In short, why so much inequal ity in society? Simply because too many people have gotten into the wrong place in life. They are doing work for which they have no love, no abilities and no ambition. Those who are consumers ought perhaps to be producers and vice versa. Mrs. Humph ery Ward has well said, "It is the vain en deavor to make ourselves what we are not that has strewn history with so many broken purposes and lives left in" the rut." Alas! Mrs. Ward's analysis is altogether too true. Young men cannot afford to mis direct their energies and to grow up dis satisfied with themselves and with their environments. They owe a duty to society and society in turn owes them a duty. We owe the young men a duty. The important problem confronting us today is, not simplv to give men employment, but so to train the minds and characters of the young men of to-day that every man who wants to work will be in a position to do that work which he can do best. This is the great problem of education and social reform. "The successful man is the man whose op portunities are those which permit the natural development of the talents given him." Hut what are the conditions that confront us in actual life? It is a sad and pathetic fact that many young men start out in life without giving the question of self-preparation adequate attention. Many of these young men fail to do the work for which they were by nature intended. What follows? They do not, thev cannot under such conditions use to the 'best ad vantage the abilities with which they have been endowed and consequently, it becomes impossible for them to measure up to their highest possibilities. Now, when a great number of people labor under such adverse conditions, ignorant of their real worth and of their opportunities, many of the ad vantages in life which were intended for them will be grasped and utilized by others. It is at this stage that social inequality ap pears The opportunities lost by one indi vidual wdl be utilized by another. You gav thts is not right. It is right. It is but an expression of an unwritten law of nature nnd society! The opportunities lost is, as it were, the punishment which society in flicts upon the careless individual tho in dividual who fails to find his proper place in life. Somo one has truly said that "Life gives to the individual precisely what he gives to life. In fact the great philosophy of social evolution is found in giving and receiving. It is apparent that the indi vidual who is in the wrong place in life is also out of harmony with tho controlling thoughts and ideas of his day and, conse quently, he is not in a position to give much to society and as a result he docs not re ceive much in return. I believe that I am safe in saying that modern social ills are due, not only to unjust laws, but also to unwise education. Laws cannot make men. Education can. If we hope to reform so ciety, it cannot be done by simply drafting resolutions in party conventions; it cannot be done by simply urging party organiza tions to fulfill certain prescribed conditions. These thing are necessary, but they are not enough. We must go down deeper. We must come closer to the disease. We must not only tickle the popular ear, we must educate it to listen to the crying needs of humanity. We must teach the young men the future citizens of our country that above everything else Bociety expects them, religion expects them, and God ex pects them to find their proper places in life in order that they may become instruments for good in the service of a common race. A well directed life is an inspiration in itself. In the degreojjn which you prepare yourself for the duffs' of life, in the same degree will it Income possible for you to rapture the position of trust and honor in life. Young men don't court popularity; win it. Don't imagine success; make it. Don't stand at the bottom of the ladder and look at the positions of usefulness and influence; climb up. A place will bo ready for you as soon as you are found worthy of it. Success will crown your efforts not when you try to do what some one else has done, but when you do that work which you can do best. We realize our possibilities in life only when we place ourselves in those positions where we can use to the best ad vantage the abilities which God has given us. This is the broad philosophy of life and education. It makes for social equality. It leads on to an exalted and dignified citi zenship. It makes the business man just as important a factor in society as the lawyer. It places the tiller of the soil on an equal basis with the teacher in tho class-room. It makes the lalwring man worth just as much as tho minister of the gospel. It makes life uniform, equal and full of hope and inspiration for each and all. Teach men correct doctrines and men will be sat isfied. Make the young men feel that life is worth living and that they have a place to fill and a work to do and in return they will help to mako the world better. There is another problem confronting the young men of to-day and that is tho prob lem of citizenship. The first lesson that we should teach in the line of citizenship is a proper appreciation of the government un der which we live. We are satisfied with a thing only when we appreciate and we appreciate a thing only when we understand it. Our appreciation when we understand it. Our appreciation of a thing is proportionate to our knowledge of that thing. To illustrate: A man who has no knowledge of Shakespeare cannot appreciate his master works. To the ignor ant mind a beautiful poem is but a combi nation of words. So in the realm of gov ernment. Where there is a lack of apprecia tion on the part of the citizen, there also we find a failure to exercise rightly the ex alted privileges of citizenship. Intelligence i3 a necessary condition for a proper appre ciation of the rights bestowed by the gov ernment upon the citizen. This is the moro imperative because at the present time the ignorant and vicious citizens are endeavor ing to overrule the intelligent minds in the affairs of government and state. As intel ligent patriotic men and women we dare not deny the fact that we are to-day threatened by a silent and lurkingfoe.whose strongholds are found in our large centers of population, and whose leaders are slyly attempting to poison the minds of our young men, to undermine our institutions and to violate our laws. We may preach patriotism from the stage and the public platform; we may eulogize our honored dead; we may boast of our glorious post, replete as it is with noble sentiments and heroic deeds, but these things alone will not alter present social conditions. There is but one way to remedy the evil that con fronts us and that is to teach patriotism and respect for law in our public schools, colleges and universities; to purify and strengthen public conscience: to reach out and save the young men from those vicious paths which lead downward to a degraded citizenship. The church, the home, the schools and the press should be broad enough, patriotic enough and conservative enough to give the young men a foundation upon which they may stand secure, even though surrounded by the enticing influ ences of all the demoralizing agencies that may confront them. Patriotism must be come more than a fanciful theory. It must stand for the sacrcdncss of citizenship. It must become an all pervading sentiment which will ennoble life and sanctify Bocial institutions. There should be nothing for eign or un-American in our eitiienship or in our philosophy of government. Tho fu ture citizen should lie taught to look upon our government as an institution, worthy the unswerving loyalty of all intelligent and patriotic men in time of peace, an well as in time of war. I speak not under the pressure of any emotion when I say that the men who jxusnns the public mind and con science with false and dangerous doctrines is guilty of just as great a crime against tho government as is he who stuffs the bal lot box or prove a traitor to the flag of our country. Citizenship should le regarded, not a.s a tool for unprincipled demagogues, but as a priceless heritage secured through heroic blood. If wo hojie to meet the urgent demands of the hour, if we hope to settle rightly the great problems confronting us; if we hope to perpetuate those broad prin ciples of free government, which have added grandeur to our history and immortality to our heroes, we must lie big enough and broad enough to apply American thought to the solution of American problems. We must mako the young men the future citi zens of our count ry conscious of the pos sibilities which are theirs. We must give them a true conception of the opportunities offered them by the government under which they live. The voter must lw im pressed with the duties of citizenship be fore he can appreciate the privileges of citizenship. It is a recognition of this broad principle that makes the training of citizen ship so far-reaching in its results and con sequences. Another lesson which we should tench in the line of citizenship Is a proper concep tion of the relation which the individual sustains to the government. The ignorant and indifferent citizen to often labors under the delusive impression that the govern ment owes him a living. This, of course, is a radically misleading conception of the duties of citizenship and of the functions of government. I hold it to be a truth which cannot 1k denied by scholaristic or political sophistry, that this government of our owes no man a living, but every man owes the government his support, and, if need be, his life. This is patriotism. This is American ism. This is the only philosophy of govern ment that we should allow to be taught in our homes and in our schools. It is a philosophy that purifies the public con science, stimulates ambition, and makes for nn exalted nnd purified citizenship. The more we do for the government, even in lo cal affairs, the more the government will lm able to do for us. And the less we do for the government, the less tho government will be able to do for us. The tendency of our age seems to be to blame the govern ment for the weakness of our laws, for the corruption of our politics, and for the in equality of society, forgetting in the mean time, that the government is not an entity, not an organization, but simply the ex pressed will of the people through the bal lot box. Hence, the importance of making clear the supreme truth, that if we wish a pure form of government and a faithful execution of the laws, we must see to it that not n few but all discharge faithfully the duties which they owe the government of which they are constituent parts. Ah a cit izen, you are a part of the government, and your expression through the ballot, through tho ballot box, on every public measure becomes a part of the policy of the government under which you live. Jf vices and corruption exist it is not necessarily the fault of the individual citizen. Either the citizen has not used rightly the oppor tunities offered him, or else he has helped to elect corrupt ami incompetent men to office. In either case tho fault belongs to the citizen and not to the government. If this analysis lw true, as I lx-lieve it is, we cannot emphasize too forcibly the import ance of giving due attention to the individ ual citizen. Whenever we neglect the in dividual, we degrade politics; when we de grade politics, we degrade citizenship; when we degrade citizenship, we degrade the poo pic .and when we degrade the jcople we de grade the government. There is but one way in which we can hope to maintain a strong, clean, and aggressive public con science and that is to give every citizen as far as we can a correct knowledge of there lation which he sustains to the government. Without a proper degree of intelligence, law becomes a mockery and government a ci pher. Let the lessons of patriotism and good citizenship be taught more generally. Let the church, without losing any of its re ligion, become moro social, anl let society, without losing any of its philanthropy, be come more religious. Let the state, without losing any of its dignity, become more edu cated, and let the schools, without partisan ship, become more patriotic. Let us pay more attentiort to "Home" Sweet IIom,'' "Nearer My God to Thee," and "America," and less attention to political chicanery and the empty bubbles of the demagogue and the future of our glorious country will be secure. If then, we want to instituto lasting re forms; if we want to see our laws obeyed and enforced, we must cnliiit the energies of the rising citizen. We must exalt and dig nify our citizenship. We must be filled with an undying love for our country and an abiding faith, in the character and in tegrity of our institutions. We must un derstand that our sublime and glorious mis sion is, not to build temples of fame for ourselves, but to organize all human forces for the upbuilding of a civilization that shall be oa broad as the world and ns en during as humanity's love. Liberty Menaced By Wealth. From Uio Chicago Record. Dr. Albion Woodbury Small, head pro fessor of sociology in the University of Chi cago,' startled and delighted on audience of ministers, bishops and laymen recently by a paper which he read at the afternoon session of the lioard of examination of Rock river conference held nt the Englewood First Methodist church. Somo remarked that tho shaker's views smacked of social ism and socialistic propaganda, but his words were moderate and the churchmen frequently interrupted him with hursts of applause. At the end of the paper his au ditors gave him a prolonged demon-trafon of approval. The subject on which Professor Small spoke was "How Sociology Can Help a Working Pastor." After declaring that his views wero not intended to be sensational, but were the result of conviction, ho plunged boldly into the theme, saying in part: "Tho social system in which we live ami move and have our being is so bud nobody can tell the full measure of its iniquity. In this age of so-called 'democracy we are getting to lc the thralls of the most re lentless system of economic oligarchy that history has thus far recorded. That capital from which most of us directly or indirectly get our bread nnd butter is become tho most undemocratic, inhuman and atheistic of all tho heathen divinities. It breeds children but to devour the bodies of some, the souls of others and to put out the spirit ual eyesight of tho rest. Tho socialist ic in dictments of our civilization are' essentially sound. Mind, I do not say the remedies are sound, but the indictments are true." Following this, Professor Small outlined the science of sociology and commented on its power for good, while holding that it is yet in its infancy as a science, though of world-long age in practice; then he con tinued: "There arc clouds on the social horizon already bigger than a man's hand, foretell ing changes of which no one is wise enough to predict the end. If present tendencies continue it will not be long before the men whose business is to communicate ideas wi'l be gagged by those who publish ideas, and the publishers will 1h shackled by tho mak ers of paper, nnd the paper manufacturers will lie held up by the transportation lines, and the transportation corporation by the rouueers oi steel, and the steel industries v the coal operations, and the coal miners by the oil producers, and the oil magnates by the stove makers, and the cook-stove men by the sugar trust, and the sugar in terests by Wall street, and the stock brok ers by the labor unions, and they by the farmers, and the farmers, God help them, by evcryliody. "I am not throwing the dust of my li brary in your faces, but if you need the symptoms from bank and oflice, factory and railroad headquarters and daily pres, you have discovered that the very men who made these combinations are beginning to 1)0 frightened at their shadows. These very business men who claim a monopoly of prac tical 'horse sense' have involved themselves and all of us in a grim tragedy. They are asking in a quiet way how it is all going to end. "Whether they realize it or nor,, our vis ion of freedom is passing into the eclipse of universal corporate compulsion in the in terest of capital. The march of human pro gress is getting reduced to marking time in the lock-step of capital's chain gang. It would make infinitely more for human weal if every dollar of wealth was cleaned off the earth, if we could have instead of it in dustry and homes and justice and love and faith, than to 1ms led much further into the devil's dance of capit alism." Mr. Gotham I see that a new law in Georgia prohibits the selling of liquor with in three miles of a church or a school house. Colonel Kaintuck (of Louisville) My stars! That's a terrible blow to Georgia. Mr. Gotham Think so? Colonel Kaintuck Mercy, yes! In five Years there won't lie a church or a school house in the state. -New York Weekly.