A LITTLE GIRL'S, VALENTINE.
Ml Not Quit True, It On;ht to Be.
Valentine's Day Is on its way;
'Twill be here very vn.
For I heard sister Sue say so
To Bell this afternoon.
But rm afraid nobody '11 think
To tend me even one,
Cause I was only seven years old
Whpn the new year begun:
And so Til write one to myself
(I couldn't bear to be
Witnout a single valentine).
And play 'twas sent to me.
"Dear Gracie" that's how ril begin-
"You arc a lovely child:
You never drive your mother or
Your grandma nearly wild;
You never tease the baby, nor
Refuse with him to play:
You study hard, and know by heart
Your lessons every day;
You keep your dress and apron neat,
Your hair is always curled.
And j ou are just as nice a girl
As any in the world."
There"! that sounds very pretty, and
I think that it will do.
But 'pears to me it isn't quite
Exactly truly true.
But then it outfit to be, and that's
Almost, I think, the same.
And so down in the corner here
I'll sign a makc-b'licve name.
UarqjTtl Eytinge, in Harper' Yoitnj People.
Illwtory or the Work or Hiram Dudley Buck
in tlie Saving of Human Liven.
In the long and honorable roll of
those who have saved the lives of
others at the imminent risk of their
own. it is doubtful if yon will find an
other record to match that of young
Hiram Dudley Buck. There are men
whose occupations give them peculiar
opportunities for imperiling their own
lives for those of their fellow men: and
there are women too for who can for
get the noble work of the English
Grace D.irling and her American coun
terpart. Ida Lewis? whose names have
been added to the roll of honor while
they have been yet young; but seldom,
if ever, has it been given to a lad to
save four parsons from death by drown
ing, before completing his sixteenth
year, as j.as been the case with the sub
ject, of tli'.s sketch.
H'ram Dudley Buck was born at
Crown Point, Essex County, New York,
in 18GS. It was when he wa? only ten
years old that he was called upon to
perform the first of the brave deeds
which a.-c to be recorded here. His
sister EiHc, a girl a few years older
than himself, was bathing in Putnam's
creek, m,ar their homa in Essex County,
in company with soma friends. In
order b. keep afloat, in deep water she
had fastened a rubber life-preserver
under her arms, and this treacherous aid
slipped from its place, and. becoming
entangled with her feet, threw her
Lead under water. Dudley, the ten-year-old
boy, was attracted from a dis
tance by the frantic cries of his sister's
playmates, and running up, he plunged
into the deep water, and despite the
drowning girl's greater size and weight,
succeeded in bringing her ashore.
The following summer Dudley and a
number of 3'oung friends were fishing
off a high dam at Crown Point Centre.
A careless action on the pnrt of one of
the boys threw Freddie B into the
seething waters below the dam; and
though there were perhaps a dozen boys
present, only one of them had the cour
age to leap in to Freddie's assi-tance.
Assoonaslie realized his friend's peril
for he knew that the boy could not
swim Dudley unhesitatingly sprang
into the water, caught the struggling
boy as lie iS3 to the surface, and at
length brought him ashore, though not
until his strength was almost ex
hausted. In August, 1831. a party of young
people were bathing in Sjhroon Lake,
among whom were Sam and Kate
R and D.ulley Back. Sam could swim
a Hide, but his sister was more daring
tliaa prudent, and declaring that she
could go where hr brother went, she
followed him into deep water. In a
few moments she was in distress, and
clutching S.ini. who had turned to as
sist her. she dragged him down with
her. D.ulley was resting on the bank,
but as soon as he saw the peril his
friends were in he dived after them,
and found them actvallv at the bottom
of the lake. With great difficulty he
disengaged the girl's arms from her
brother's neck, and brougnt the two
to the surface. Kate's instinct of
self-preservation, which but for
Dudley had drowned both her brother
and herself, now endangered the life of
their gallant rescuer,- and it was only
With extreme difficulty that Dudley
could control her sufficiently to bring
himself and her safely into shallow
Such acts of gallantry as have been
here recited, all performed by a lad un
der sixteen years of age, are worthy of
whatever public recognition it is in the
power of a grateful government to
bestow. It is pleasant, therefore, to be
able to record, the fact that the Con
gress of the United States of America
has awarded to young Dudley
Buck its silver life-saving medal.
The silver medal which Dudley thus re
ceived is the highest honor that the
Government can bestow, the gold
medal provided for under the acts of
'Congress being awarded only for sav
ing life in salt-water. The medal
awarded is of stci ling silver, and about
twice the size of a silver dollar. Hiram
Dudley Buck wears another medal
which he must value highly. It is a
five-pointed star surrounded by a
wreath, all in solid gold, and bears this
inscription: "Life-saving medal pre
sented, to Hiram Dudley Buck for
heroism in rescuing from drowning
Effie Fred Sam Kate."
It was presented to him by tho four
friends who owe their lives to his
courage, heroism, and humanity."
Xhe-other medals on his breast are for
supremacy in athletic sports, one of
Harper" Young People.
Two Little Girls.
It was a blowing, blustering St. Val
entine's Day, fifty years ago. Mrs. Blj
was making ginger-bread "muster
ginger-bread," she c..llcd it, and Nellie
was watching her. She was a wee
chubby girl in a linsey-woolsey go'.vi
that was long enough to reach the top
of her laced-up leather shoes, and r
dark tier that was almost as long a boi
gown. I am afraid if you had seen hei
you would have said she looked just like
a little old woman. She wore a cap.
too I forgot to mention that a tiny
linen cap. trimmed with lace.
She looked on and wondered a long
time before she spoke, thinking over
ami over what she should say.
:If you pleae. mother." said she, at
last, "I would like to know what make?
you call it muster ginger-bread. It
there mustard in it?"
Her mother laughed.
"Oh no, my child, there's no mustard
in it,' she said, kindly. "And I don't
know why it's called muster ginger
bread, unless because it is the kind that
is most always sold on the muster
ground." Well, it smells very nice, I think,"
said Nellie. Pretty soon, her mother
rolled her dough again, and taking a
knife, cut out a heart-shaped piece,
which she put in to bake with the rest.
And when it was done to a nice brown,
she gave it to Nellie.
"There's a valentine heart for you,"
"Oh, thank you, ma'am!" cried Nel
She was so happy! She couldn't have
been better pleased with a real golden
heart, such as I saw on a valentine to
day, with a pretty verse beneath it, and
roses and lilies ail around.
Only a little while ago I heard this
same Nellie telling this story to a little
maid in a white pinafore, whose cash
mere frock doesn't roach anywhere near
the tops of her dainty kid boots, and
who had been crying for as much as ten
minutes because she only had five love
ly valentines, all silver and gold, and
cobwebby laoa and flowers.
"When I 'spceted six.'" she wailed,
with a linger in each eye.
Then grandmamma, that was Nellie
Bly, told her this story. Youth's Com
panion. A Queer Little House.
An ant's house is a verj- queer little
dwelling. It is made of earth, with a
great many chambers and galleries,
and all done by these busy little creat
ures! If a bit of one of these houses
gets broken such a scene as there is!
Some rush hither and thither; some
seize tho eggs and hurry with them to
a place of safety; others go to work at
once and repair the broken part. While
all this is going on. the ants as they
meet for you know they are
very wise insects. if the
are so small touch each
other with their feelers, just as if they
were telling all they felt about the mat
ter; and no doubt they are!
Ants have a very keen sense of smell.
This sensi? seems to lie in these anten
n:e, or feelers. Their hearing is not sn
good, for the loudest noises can be made
very near them and they do not seem
to hear them. Their sight, too. is not
very good, if they have got three queer
little eyes on the top of their heads, and
a larger one on either side, making
five eyes in all! One would think they
could see better than we with so mam,
but thev don't. Mrs. G. Hall, in Our
An Amusinj- Story Which Has the Slmon
l'ure Irish Flavor.
The following story was told to a
clerical friend by a countryman named
Dinny Cooley: "Good-morrow, Dinny:
where did you get the horse?" "Well,
I'll tell your reverence. Some time
ago I went to the fair of Ross, not with
this horse, but another horse. Well,
sorra a wan said to me: 'Dinny, dc
you come from the Aist or do vou come
from the Wesht?' and when I left the
fair there wasn't wan to say: 'Dinny,
are you going to the Aist or are you
going to the Wesht?' Well, your rev
erence, I rode home, and was near Kil
nagross, when I met a man riding
along the road forninst me. 'Good
evening, friend,' said he. 'Good even
ing, friend.' said L 'Were you at the
fair of Ross?' says he. 'I was,' sez I.
'Did you sell?' says he. 'No,' sez L
'Would you sell?" sez he.
'Would you buy?' says I. 'Would you
make a chine swop?' sez he;" 'horse
bridle and saddle, and all?' sez he
'Done!' says I. Well, your reverence
I got down off av me horse, not thi
horse, but the other horse, and tin
man got down off av his horse, that"?
this horse, not the other horse, and w
swopped and rode away. But when h
had gone about twenty yards he tiirne
round and called after me. "Ther
nivcr was a man from Ross,' sez he
'but could put his finger in the ej'e n
a man from Kilnagross,' sez he: 'ant'
that horse,' sez he, 'that I swoppec
with you.' sez In. 'is blind of an eye,"
sez he. Well, then, vour reverence, 3
turned upon him,, and I called out tc
him: 'There niver was a man fron
Kilnagross,1 sez I. 'but could put his
two lingers in both the eves of a man
from Ross,' sez I; 'and that horse that
I swopped with you.' sez I, 'is blind av
both his eyes, sez L" Spectator.
An Illinois citizen became en
thusiastic upon first" seeing the Atlantic
Ocean. "Why." he said, "it's im
mense! grand! What a prairie it would
make if it would onlv keep stilll"
I Harper's Bazar,
The "Process toy which the Sparkling Gesaa
Are Obtained la Sosth Africa.
In an interview with a reporter, J.
G. Doolittle, of Colorado Springs, who
has spent many years in the diamond
fields of Africa, said: "The process of
mining for diamonds is much different
to the ideas the people of America have
of mining- It is not carried on as sim
ilar work would probably be done in
this country. They don't sink shafts
and honey-comb the bowels of the earth
into long tunnels and little chambers.
Diamond claims are most generally
about three hundred yards square, and
every inch of the dirt in that space is
dug up, carefully looked through and
then carted away. The richest stones
are found in a bed of clav about two
"hundred feet below the surface, but the
earth from the top down to the clay is
studded more or less with clusters, con
sequently that-is the reason miners ex
cavate their entire claim instead of
sinking shafts. The industry is very
expensive, therefore the men who do
the digging make very little money
out of it as compared to the
diamond merchants and traders.
They are the men who make
the fortunes. In answer to a question
he admitted that natives were hired to
do the work, but as a general rule they
are so indolent and unreliable that op
erations proceed very slowly. "Does
it get hot in the mines? Well, I
should say. It would roast the life out
of a -a hite man." When the fields near
Kimberley, in Griqualand West, were
first discovered, an attempt was made
to work them with white men, but it
soon proved disastrous, and the opera
tors were compelled to employ native
negroes, Zulus and Basutos. They
stood the heat all right, but became
such consummate thieves that the
claim owners lost considerable money
through them for a long time, at first.
They would conceal the stones almut
th-ir person and at night carry them
out. Finally a law was adopted and
put into force compelling the diggers
to work without clothing of any kind
on them. This for a time proved to be
of little benefit, and the bosses were
puzzled to find some scheme that they
could use that would prevent the rob
beries. It was discovered, after de
priving the diggers of their clothing,
that they could conceal stones between
their toes, keep them there all clay and
get away with them at night. Now
every man's feet are carefully exam
ined when he leaves the mines of an
evening, and no more robberies are
When asked how miners judged the
value of a diamond in the rough, Mr.
Doolittle replied that every firm kept
a supply of alum on hand, and all
specimens are compared with lumps of
that material, and the closer a stone
resembles the color of alum the more
valuable it is considered. The stones,
however, always have a peculiar shape.
They are either eight or ten-sided, run
to a point, and one side of the point is in
variably flat. Nowadays the product
of these particular mines is sold at
Kimberley, a town that has sprung up
near there, where many London mer
chants have located. A few diamond
cutters have also opened shops there
and do a good business. The market
there is generally active, and miners
receive their own price; but that is reg
ulated by the customary opinion of
those who claim to be judges. But
the diamond cutter is the only man
who can judge the real value of a
stone. The miners go to the deal
ers with their products divided
into two classes, and then they sell at
GO to 12.) and as high as 150 shillings a
stone. The dealer who buys divides
his purchases into four classes, and
generally puts the price up on the von
best stones, so that he realizes about
double what he paid. By the time a
stone goes through the cutter's hands,
is mounted and placed on the market,
it has reached a figure six or eight
times larger than the miner realized.
Mr. Doolittle said that he was in Kim
berley when the great Rhode stone was.
found, and a dealer there offered Mr.
Rhodes 125,000 tor a half interest in
it, but he refused to accept the offer.
The stone would not bring that amount
now, but its owner has made a great
deal of money off of it exhibiting it
through Europe. The stone is said to
be about the size of a hen's egg. Very
often specimens that have every ap
pearance of being diamonds of the first
water prove to be entirely worthless
and crumble to pieces in a very short
time after being exposed to the air.
The Easy Familiarity or the Fifreons of
St. Mark's. Venice.
Within twenty paces of St. Mark's
on the piazza stands the famous Cam
pauclla, a venerable time-worn tower
more than ten centuries old, still rais
ing its head cloudwards as proudly and
defiantly as in those checkered days
long since gone by when it floated its
lights on the shores of the Adriatic,
and announced to the incoming seamen
and travelers in the offing that they
wer. in sighting distance of the capital
of ihc glorious republic of Venice.
Equnlly old and equally venerable are
the figures of the two majestic lions
crouching near one of the lateral wings
of St. Mark's their fangs drawn and
their faces disfigured by the wear and
teat of ages singularly interesting
looking pieces of sculpture, which arc
in themselves so main links that bind
the Venetian decay ol the present with
the Venetian splendor and gorgeous
ne?s of the past. While I was giving
full rein to my fancy on the wonderful
things that could have been seen by
these leonine eyes, If they had only
betra living ones, I received a tap on
the shoulder, and, turning around, saw
a tlL athletic Hibernian friend of ruiue
hand and gesticulating in a rather eo
centric style. To say the least of it, I
thought his conduct slightly irrever
ent romping about as he was in such
close proximity to the cathedral. Mr.
H., the Hibernian in question, was,
however, playing his part in a little
comedy meant to surprise me. Afte
attracting the notice of the pigeons otj
the piazza, he covered his own shoulder
and mine with fresh white crumbs, and
when, lo ! in the twinkling of an eye
the whole square seemed to disappear
from my gaze, and I could see nothing
around me or over me save one whirr
ing mass of pigeons. They perched on
my hat, 'fastened themselves to the
panels of my overcoat and clustered
in legion numbers all over my person.
These birds are very tame the tamest,
I fancy, in Europe. Tradition and
custom have made them so, for from
time immemorial the Piazza San Marco
has been their abiding place, and well
tended they have been and are by the
burghers and dames of the city. There
must be over a thousand of these
pigeons hovering over the piazza.
There is always somebody about throw
ing them their crumbs, or a little
polenta, but if you want to have a
swarm of them swooping down upon
you, 3on must do as my Hibernian chum
and treat them to what Sam Lover
would style the "lashins and lavins."
Venice Cor. San Francisco Chronicle.
THE BEST BEVERAGE.
An Knthnslast's Opinion or the Merits of
With our tea a comparative failure,
our coffee is. of course, almost past.
praying for. Our veiy pretensions go no
further than tea. We lose a good deal
by the meanness of our ambition.
Good coffee is the finest drink in the
world, and it would surely defeat half
the intoxicants on their own ground.
It is the most generous of stimulants,
and it induces activity and alertness of
brain without the faintest trace of ele
vation. Should any further recom
mendation be wanted, we may add
that, like pure water, it will kill, if you
take enough of it, or, rather, too much.
Murger died of excessive coffee not
unflavored with cognac but far more
people have to thank it for the prolon
gation of their lives. It is far beyond
tea as a dietetic, though perhaps no
body but Merlatti could wisely venture
to make it his sole support. Indeed,
high authorities say that it should nev
er be taken without something solid,
as an accompaniment. Any thing will
do, a piece of bread, or, failing that,even
a waistcoat button, according to the
Oriental proverb quoted in an admirable
lecture on the subject at the Parkes
Museum. It improves with age like
the other generous drinks, though not
of course when it is in the state of in
fusion. The green berry may be kept
for fifteen or twenty years, and it will
gain in flavor every day. Brown Java,
which leaves Mocha far in the shade, is
supposed to owe a good deal to its long
sojourn on the island before exporta
tion. It lies in store sometimes for
seven years. The ro:isting should al
ways be deferred to the very last mo
ment. Roast, and brew at once, is the
golden rule. First get your Brown
Java for that matter, one of half a
dozen other kinds will do. Then make
a smokeless fire, of coal, or siirit, or
gas; toss your green berries into an
earthenware pipkin; if you have
nothing better at hand, and there need
be nothing better; hold it over the
flame for fifteen or twenty minutes, to
dry it merely, not to burn it. stirring it
all the time, and your task is done.
Grind or pound in a mortar pound
ing, they say, is better. The Turks
find that the pestles improve with use,
as the coffee improves with age, and
they sell the old ones at a high figure.
Two ounces of coffee to the pint of
water is the happy mean, and those
who want it weaker had better weaken
it after the brew. A common jug and
a strainer are all 3011 ncad for the final
rite, but people who like to part with
their money often insist on more.
M ETROPOLITAN LI FE.
'ew York Women Who Are Compelled to
l'orform Unfcmlnine Lubor.
One of the most painful features in
metropolitan life is the degradation of
women. I do not here refer to any
thing of a vicious nature, but simply
to the effect of extreme porerty. It is
always pitiable to see the sex forced to
unfeminine employments but it is a
common thing here. I have seen a
woman cutting grass with a sickle in
an up-town lot in order to make hay
for the winter support of a goat. I
have seen a woman bring home a board
from some demolished building and
then try to break it up for fuel by
pounding it on the sidewalk with a
stone. I saw another woman carrying
coal in a pailup three pairs of stairs
to her room in a tenement house. She
had bought a small load of this article,
and was thus storing it awa. A large
part of the chiffoniers or rag and
waste-paper pickers are women, and
what horrid-looking creatures they
On the other hand, a dealer rn
fashions told me that there are hun
dreds and even thousands of women
who spend $25,000 annually on dress.
It may be difficult to imagine the feel
ings of this fashion-worshiping crowd,
but how much more to imagine those
of a woman so degraded that a rag
picked from the street is a prize. Tak
ing a general view, New York life is
not favorable to women. Among the
rich the idleness of luxury wastes its
victims into helplessness, while amonr
the poor one notices that dispropor
tionate degree of hardship which so
often stamps the countenance with
fearful ugliness & Y. Cor. Ulica Her-
Beaatukakto CNhua f a Dimlatrtl-r Se-
We had in the Secret-Service Bureau
In 1866 a detective named James Red
field, who was known to all of us by
the sobriquet of "Little Jim." He was
only five feet one inch high, weighed
ninety-seven pounds, and every body
who looked at him made a mental cal
culation that he would die of consump
tion inside of six weeks. Notwith
standing his appearance of ill health
he was tough as a hickory knot, and a
man with more nerve never lived.
After the close of the war a lot of
desperate fellows had their headquar-,
ters in Arkansas and the Indian Terri
tory, and when complaints of counter
feiting began to come in three of us
were sent out there to work up a ease.
We got on to the gang at Van Buren,
and in the course of a fortnight visited
Fort Smith, Muscogee, Shawneetown
and Tahlequah. We picked up a couple
of counterfeiters and sent them to Fort
Snith, and then ran across a couple oi
Pinkerton men who were in pur-suit ol
a fellow known as Blood Jim Baker.
He was a man-killer stage robber,
horse-thief and all else that was bad,
and the officers had followed him from
the neighborhood of Clinton, Mo.,
where he had committed robbery and
murder. If I remember aright, how
ever, he was wanted on a charge back
of that an attempt to rob an express
car near Hannibal, and the murdering
of the messenger.
When we met the Pinkerton men
they had located Baker in a lone cabin
in the mountains, near Shawneetown,
and had been lying in wait for him for
a week. He was well-armed, known tc
be desperate, and the probability is thai
the- had not recklessly exposed them
selves. They were in hopes he would
visit the town, but he had plent3 ol
provisions, and refused to come out. It
was not for us to mix up in the affair,
and we should never have even heard
the particulars but for a quarrel be
tween Little Jim and one of the Pinker
ton men. Both had been drinking, and
Jim charged the man with cowardice ir.
not making the arrest. Words were
leading to blows when we separated
them, and 1 recall how the Pinkerton
man, his face flushed and his list in the
"The whole secret-service force 0
pap-suckers couldn't arrest one side ol
such a man as BI001I3' Baker!"
The row occurred in the evening. Al
daylight next morning, before any ol
us were astir, little Jim mounted s
mule and rode to within half a mile ol
Bakcr'3 cabin. What folio wed I heard
from Baker's own lips, and he would
have no reason to lie about it. Having
nothing in his hand but a switch, oni
little man walked straight up the path
to the house. Baker saw bim coming,
and shoved a rifle out of a loop-hole and
ordered him to halt.
"Halt be hanged!"1 replied Redfreld,
as he kept ore his Avay, and his display
of recklessness prevented: the outlaw
from shooting". He walked straight np
to the door, pounded on it with his nst
and called out:.
"You, Baker open this door. I've
come for 3ou!"
"Who are you?"
"A detective come to arrest vou!"
"Skip, or I'll kill your
"You daren't kill anybody. Open
the door and stop this fooling, as I
have no time to lose!"
"Well, sir," said Baker to me, "I
fell into a tremble, lost 1113 sand and
the first thing I opened the door. He
came in, sat down, told me to go ahead
with the breakfast, and I'll be hanged
if I didn't do it and if we didn't eat to
gether. When we were through he
handcuffed me- to his left wrist, and
like a fool I walked into town with him
and was turned over to the Pinkerton
"You could have killed him!" I ob
served. "Why, I could hare picked him rrp
and squeezed the life out of him with
one hand, but the infernal coolness of
the little rat unnerved me."
When Little Jim brought him into
Shawneetown we were all at the post
office. He walked straight up to the
Pinkerton men, who were rubbing their
ces in amazement, and, unlocking the
handcuff from his wrist, placidly re
marked: "Here's yonr Bloody Jim, and 3-onM
better be a little careful of him. He
might bite a Pinkerton man!" Cor.
Detroit Free Press.
Lack of Confidence.
Colonel Yerger w:is dancing his little
sorr on his knee, when the boy, looking
up into his father's face, said:
"Pa, do you know what I want next
No, my son, I don't know what yon
want next Christmas."
"Well, I'll tell you, pa, bnt 30U
mustn't let it go any further, I want
''WI13-, Tommy, why do 3on want
Why, you see this one never leaves
the ke3 in the pantry door, and if I had
a new one jierhaps she would have more
confidence in me." Texas Silinrs.
A Question of Economy.
'Get married, Charlie, get married.
One never knows how cheaply he can
Sve 'zrlih. a good, economical wife irntil
he tiits it. WI13-, when I was married.
I couldn't even support mvself, while
"Now my wife supports me. It is
cheaper for me than being single"
The next Ecumenical Conference
of the Methodist churches is to meet
in America in 189L
la -ffsswiltr mi Claaar 8yaty mm
tweea IMMH HMalactafwn.
Progress among Westen- farmers haa
few ff any more interesting features
than the improvement manifest in tba
iairy industry. Butter-making was
formerly confined to the farmer's kitefc
n, whercthe milk from a few roaming
cows was set in poorly-selected situa
tions in wide crocks or shallow pans.
A dash churn served to make the but
ter; the finger was the only thermome- '
ter. A wooden bowl and ladle were
the instruments to further kill the
grain and quality of the butter. Com
mon coarse salt was added to the muck
abused article, and the greasy roll
were done up in nice clean cloths. At
the store of the country merchant,
these rolls were tumbled into an indis
criminate mass of all shades of white
and yellow. From them they took a
long ride in wagons, cars and boats,
with the temperature at the melting
point. Last but not least, the suffer
ing consumer w:vs reached, and his
tastes were so uneducated that the ar
ticle was taken along with other neces
saries. With combined dairying came in beN
ter practices. Fine, uniform butter,
coming from these places in considera
ble bulk, began to educate, not only
the taste of consumers, but the eye and
methods of the dairy trade. Associated
daiiying has now spread to nearly all
parts of the Northwest, and markets
are furnished with great quantities of
creamery, factory and dairy product
of high and uniform qualit3. Moire
and better goods are furnished the
markets than could have been pro
duced under the old S3stem. Practical
experience, with much aid from sci
ence, has enabled associated butter and
cheese making to be carried to a high
er degree of perfection. Tho work
inside many of these establishments is
carried on with S3stem and accuracy,
which, aided b3 marvelous improve
ments in methods of transportation,
enables them to lay down prime goods
in New York or Boston. The patrons
who furnish the crean have only a
partial connection with the process of
the manufacture, and, in too many
cases, are not abreast with the times
in progressive dairying. The cattle
arc not improved to produce more
milk or butter. The milk or birtter
producing capacity is very often les
sened, rather than increased, b breed
ing for looks. The average creamery
has very little influence over the breed
ing toward the dairy tpe.
Feeding for milk and butter is not
attended to, as it would if farmers and
manufacturers were in more close S3m
pat!i3. The questions of water, shelter
and pasture do not receive attention
as thc3 would if advance! dairying was
Tire new generation of Western
farmers is growing np without fully
keeping pace with the great improve
ments in dairying. They do not ap
preciate the nevcssit3- of painstaking
care. While there is improvement in
the butter supplied in the markets, the
farmers are comparatively slow in im
proving the small part tliey manufact
ure for their own tables. Improved
churns, thermometers, small lever
butter workers and refrigerators are
very slow in finding their way into the
farmer's home. Books and newspapers
aid, but more interest should be taken,
that farmers leant how to produce finer
milk and cream, and to make gilt
edged but ter for use in their own families-
THE HOG IN WINTER.
Coadltlons Which Should Be Taken lata
Consideration by Porfc-KalMers.
The hog has digestive organs that
are particularly well calculated for the
digestion of fibrous food. This, in a
state of nature, was his main food; in
fr.et, leaving out nuts and grubs, pretty
much his entire source of living. When
the hog is shut awiy from pasture ami
put into winter quarters, the change
from a variety of fxxl to the customary
ration of corn, and nothing but corn, is
not always conducive to health. In
fact, indigestion for even the hog may
have this affects manj hogs that are
thus changed from grass and other
fibrous food to corn alone or corn
mainly. It should be borne in mind
that the animal has no power to change
the elements in the food given to it.
He can 011I3 appropriate what is given
him. In his native condition the hog
had, as he now has when on pasture,
food containing a nutritive ratio of
about 1 of albuminoids to 4 of carbo
hydrates, while, the usual winter feed,
corn, contains a nutritive ratio of 1 to
8.6, establishing the fact that- the hog
in his native condition, and in modern
times, when on pasture, is furnished
with food far more conducive to growth
of muscle and frame than when he is
confined to corn alone. Before the
improvement made upon the pig during
the past one hundred 3-ears, he had a
much larger proportion of lean flesh as
compared to the fat than now. The
feeding of corn during winter is proper
enough in view of its adaptability to
the condition imposed by a low tem
perature, as fat is one of the bes
shields against cold. But the plan
adopted by many of allowing the hog
no exercise, and no food except corn,
during the winter, is, in both directions,
bad practice. In the absence of grass
it is an excellent plan to cut up hay,
mixing this with ground feed, com
posed of oats, bran and oil-cako meaL
By feeding this wet, most hogs, but
not all, will eat it with avidity, and an.
improved condition will at once follow.
Anoticeable improvement in the evacu
ations will be observed, as compared
to what was seen when corn alone was
fed, and soon afterwards a change i
the general thrift of the hog will b
manifest. National Livc-Xt'tck J'ourML
if ' . ?Tii'iZf-SZ'i3?i?H
Te "F5 -:.
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