OCR Interpretation

Thomas County cat. [volume] (Colby, Kan.) 1885-1891, October 06, 1887, Image 6

Image and text provided by Kansas State Historical Society; Topeka, KS

Persistent link: https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn85032814/1887-10-06/ed-1/seq-6/

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fia&xentlong on Raining Ornamental and
Other Tree from Seed.
la most cases it is not profitable or
practical for farmers to raise fruit
trees from seed. As a rule they will
want but small number, and they
will find it cheaper to buy tficm from a
reliable nurseryman. To raise fruit
trees from seed one must not only
know how to save, prepare and plant
the seed, but how to cultivate, bud,
graft and prime the young trees. To
learn how to practice all these opera
tions requires much study and practice.
It also calls for a variety of tools.
Grafting and budding must be done at
times when farmers are engaged in
field work. It is often difficult for
persons who have small nurseries of
fruit trees to obtain scions of the
varieties they want for grafting. With
rare exceptions a farmer who desires
to set out an orchard will find it to his
advantage to obtain Ills trees from the
nearest reliable nurseryman. Raised
in a similarsoil and climate and trans
ported but a short distance, they will
be much more likely to do well than
those grown at a distance and exposed
for some time before they are set out.
It is practical and eay, however, for
a farmer to raise most kinds of decidu
ous and several kinds of evergreen
trees from seed. The 1)03-5 ami the
girls on the farm will delight in gath
ering seed, sowing them, and taking
are of the young tiees. They will
lake an interest in ornamenting the
farm, in raising a grove, and in pro
ducing trees that will bear nuts. Chil
dren are observing and will learn and
remember under what condi
tions the seeds of different kinds of
seed-will best germinate. If they are
successful in their operations they can
HI main- forest, shade and ornamental
trees, and receive considerable money
for them. Whether the seeds of trees
are pla ted in the spring or fall, the
ground should be prepared in the lat
ter season of the year. A spo should
be selected when the soil is quite free
from grass and yveeds. It should be
near enough to the house to prevent
its being visited by squirrels and wild
birds that will be likely to cat the
seeds. It should not, however, be so
near that it will be visited by fowls
that will scratch the soil and dig up,
if they do not devour, the seed almost
as soon as it is planted.
The soil for raising trees from seed
should be friable and tolerably reten
tive of moisture. A clayey soil is too
tonaciou- and likely to become so com
pact that the sprouts of seeds can not
force their way through it. A sandv
.-oil is objectionable for the reason thai
it is likely to become very dry if there
is a lack of rain for several weeks, and
i- likely to wnh away and leave the
eed exposed during a heavy rain. All
things considered, a good loam is the
best. If it is not moderately rich some
very old ami well-rotted manure
should be applied to it. Decayed
3 caves make a most excellent fertilizer
for soil in which the seeds of trees are
to be planted. Rank manure, like
that from the pig-pens or fresh dung,
should not be used. Wood ashes are
beneficial to land where trees are to
be rai-ed. They contain potash, of
-which small trees require a large
i!:oi:ut. Seed trees make a very slow
growth while they are young, and for
that reason no 1 ains should be spared
to provide them with suitable food.
The soil for the seed-bed should be
deeply worked and finely pulverized.
It it is small a spade and rake will be
found to be the best implements for
preparing it. Although the soil should
be well pulverized it should not be
loo-e. If it is it will part with its
moisture very readily and leave the
.seed too dry to germinate. Beds four
feet wide and of any desired length are
very convenient for starting fruit trees
in. They sliould be raised but a little
above the surface an 1 have walks about
two feet wide between them. One can
stand in the walk and pull out the
weeds half way across the bed without
placing the foot on it. Some growers
of forest trees sow the seed broadcast
and cover it with a rake, but the best
re-ults will generally be obtained by
planting them in rows about a foot
apart and reaching across the beds.
There is a great advantage in placing
.-tick at the ends of the rows, as they
show their locations and allow the
ground to be worked with the hoe and
ruke without disturbing the seed and
oung plants. Most kinds of seeds
should not be planted more than half
-111 inch deep. After they arc covered
the soil should be trodden down firm
over the rows.
The seeds of most forest trees ger
minate very slowly, and some of them
lo not "come up" until the second
year after they arc planted. Much de
pends on the quality of the seed, the
way it was preserved, and the season.
The growth of forest trees during the
iirst year is very small. Even oaks
will not attain a height of more than
two or three inches. From the time
they appear above ground they must
lie watched and tended with care. The
ground should be frequently stirred
between the rows, and the weeds and
jgrass kept from growing between the
plants. This work must be done with
ibe hand. If weeds are allowed tobe--eonie
large and well established they
can not be removed without pulliug up
the plants. Weeding is best doneaft--cr
a heavy rain that renders the ground
soft. Trees should be removed from
the beds where they are raised from
seed when they are one or two years
old, and set out in nursery rows, which
should be far enough apart to admit
of running a narrow cultivator be
tween them. In transplanting, their
tap roots, if they have any, should be
shortened. They can stand iu the
nursery rows and receive cultivation
till thev are of a size to place where
they are to remain permanently. Chi
cago Times.
How to Care for Thrm at All Seasons
of the Year.
It is foolish cruelty to make a horse
work in the dust and hot sun for hours
without water. In summer give water
at least five times a day. If the horse
is warm make him drink siowl-. Give
him all the water he wants before
meals, none after he will want none
if his food is moistened. Money is
made bv giving water of an agreeable
temperature, winter and summer. If
the horse has been at hard work give
no water until he is lested fifteen min
utes, and no food for thirty minutes.
Drive slowly the first hour after a
meal. Allow the horse to roll on dry
earth or saw dust once a day, at least.
The evening is the best time. Then at
once groom him thoroughly, and out
side the stable. Thorough grooming
cleanses the hide as well as the hair.
A dry shampoo is best for a horse.
Better use elbow grease than water.
Bed liberally. The best horses are in
dry, elevated regions. Pureness and
dryness of air in the stable arc secured
by an elevated site (with tile drains
under the walls of bank barns); keep
ing manure cleared up, and having tho
basement of the barn connected with
cupolas by ventilating shafts. Fairly
good ventilation is secured by holes
under the caves. Have windows on
east, south and west. Light and dry
nes's destroy fungous growths. Do not
throw the bedding against the manger.
Small stables are not economical.
Earth (clay) or cement floors are best.
Cleanliness in and about all things.
Bathe the shoulders with salt water
each evening, beginning six weeks be
fore spring work opens and continuing
through the summer. Fit the har
ness to the horse. Better drive twenty
miles to a good farrier than have a
next-door botch put on the shoes.
Blanket in winter in the open air (a
blanket is to protect the lungs rather
than the back); net in ily time; fasten
green leaves to the top of the bridle
when the sun is hot. Tender firmness
with kindness. Cut the hay and grind
the grain; feed them moistened and
mixed. To feed the meal alone is
wasteful and dangerous. For work
horses, temporarily idle in ccld weath
er, the best ration is clover hay and
Indian corn, half of each b- weight.
Horses much idle in winter should bo
fed even less grain. Concentrated
foods with inaction are apt to produce
indigestion. Horses at work should
have a ration of forty per cent, by
weight of timothy hay, thirty per cent,
of oats, twenty-live per cent, of corn,
and WQ per cent, of oil meal. These
rations are sanctioned by science;
found best in practice by the street-car
and omnibus companies of this coun
try and England, and by many pro
gressive farmers. In the. proportions
given tho fibrous and concentrated
foods are best digested, and the wants
of tho animal most economically 'sup
plied. Keep salt in one corner of tho
feed bpx. Give a teaspoonful of clean
woodtshes on the feed every other
morning. Cor. N. Y. Tribune.
Statistics Sliowint: tlio Importance of tho
Chli ken Itu-tincst.
The best statistics of the poultry in
dustry of the United States are given
in the census for 1880, from which we
get the following:
Xumh'r. v.ilne.
Barn-yard fowl..:oi-.'7i,135 .r0c
Other fowl 13.2:13. 1&7 O'tc
Kitks, dozen 4.-i,(ji(VJlG lie
Meat, lb-, -.M0.0iM.u0) 10c
13,9 II, Hi
Total of all poultry products
The census states, however, that
these figures can not be expected to
fully show the facts, as this was the
first attempt at statistical enumeration
of this character. Allowing for short
age on this account, we can yet hardly
be justified in placing the actual an
nual value of the products at more
than $200,000,000. That this is a very
modest estimate no well-informed per
son will doubt: but there is no autho:
ity or basis for a poultrv valuation of
over S600.000.000, as estimated by Ed
ward Atkinson. If, therefore, we ac
cept our estimate of 200,030.000 as ap
proximately correct, we may compare
it with other interests (basetl on the
census of 18S0) as folio ws:
Artrcae Total
Xumr. ru ralnt.
Milch cows 1.M43.1S0 $23.00 ?.311,OTAnot)
.mux, gallons.... :-i,r.".i,7j.i
Butter, lbs TTO.2.V),-JST
Cheese, lbs 27,27,439
Total dairy products ,
Total poultry products
Sheep 35,192.071
Wool 153,tai,751
.8S 42,410.330
.15 113,537,543
.07 1,91)9.071
J8.00 fl7.,900.370
.15 53.352,203
$10.00 351.597. 11C
.05 5,506,536
.03 37.81U.89i
.80 50,87.5(1:
.40 701.T3t5.C7fl
.75 344.612,333
.03 202,5'. 3,911
Total sheep husbandry
Total of poultry industry. .
Orchard products.
Hay. tons 31.150,,-tl
Rice, lbs 110.131,373
Tobacco, lbs.... 472,061,157
Potatoes, bu lt9,458.539
Indian corn 1,754.591,676
Wheat 459.483. 137
Cotton, lbs 2,532,423,000
At the low estimate we have put up
on the annual value of the poultry in
terest, it will be seen that it repre
sents an annual production larsrct
than that of the entire dairy industry
(deducting a part of the value of tha
cows as not being an annual product).
Poultry is larger than the whole sheep
interest The value of poultry and
poultry products is four times as larg
as that of orchard products, almost
two-thirds the value of the hay and oi
the wheat crops, five times the value oJ
the tobacco crop, four times the po
tato crop, as large as the cotton crop
and almost one-third the value of the
entire corn crop of the country. Yet
the poultry business is only in its in
fancy, and we do not begin to supply
our own markets. Farm and Ham.
The Advice of a Journalist Who Hal
Wielded the Shears for Many Teara.
My son, you wish to engage in an
occupation through which the light of
your noble genius will be shed broad
cast throughout the land, reflecting
credit on yourself and the glorious
country which had the honor of giving
you birth. After cavefully consider
ing the subject, you have concluded that
the newspaper business is the thing,
and in view of this fact, you wish the
advice of one who has had a long and
varied experience with free passes,
delinquent subscribers and man-other
blessings which the editorial fraternity
is heir to. Yes, vou hav
struck the!
right shop. We are just boiling over
with good and fatherly advice to give
to a young man who is about to em
bark on the turbulent waters
of the journalistic sea, and we
will give it to you in plain
colors; with no coating of flowery
language or hifaluten phraseology to
hide from you the great responsibility
which will rest upon you after taking
the most important step of your life.
All you have to do is to heed our in
junctions and y-ou will be, bo to speak,
carried through your journalistic ca
reer on flowery beds of ease.
1. When 3-011 start your paper be
sure to have a fierce-looking picture up
in the northeast corner, labeled,
"Fighting Editor," coupled with the as
surance that he is "always in," 3-011
have no idea what a pleasant effect this
will have on persons of the John L.
Sullivan frame of mind.
2. Whenever a birth occurs repre
sent the father as wearing a broad
smile, and as being the happiest man
in town, even though he may already
have more children than ho can feed
and clothe properly. It is a time-
honored custom and must be observed.
3. If you have cause to speak of
the meanest man in town, and the
worst enemy you have, refer to him as
our esteemed anil highl respected cit
izen, etc. He will know that it is not
bo, and that 3011 have lied, but he will
like you the better for it, and may
treat you with more consideration in
the future.
4. Never, O never, labor under the
impression that you will be praised if
you get up a readable paper, for
should you do so 3-011 are but doomed
to disappointment Expect, however,
to be abused if you do not please the
most fastidious, and you will get what
yon are looking for just ninety-nine
times out of a possible hundred. Peo
ple never praise an editor for fear it
will give him the big-her.d and make
iiim unfit for his position.
5. Alwaj-s be prepared to write flu
ently on both sides of any question
that may arise in your town. It will
be expected of you, and 3-011 will incur
the dislike of both parties should 3-011
fail to do so.
6. When a death occurs, express
yourself as full of S-nipalIiy and sad
ness, even thoughthe deceased issome
body's mother-in-law, who he has
been tiying to get rid of for years,
without avail,
7. Marriage notices should alwa3s
begin with the couplet:
Two souls with but a single thought.
Two hearts that beat as oue.
The couplet is not new, but it is
good. Otherwise it could not have
given such splendid satisfaction dur
ing the many years it has been in use,
and it should, moreover, be respected
for its age and the great number of
marriage notices it has figured in.
8. Alwaj's try to cany the impres
sion that 3-0U are poor and need
11101103-. You won't get the 11101103
but 3ou will be respected for not blow
ing about the wealth which 3-011 will
quick- accumulate.
9. When a young lady visits your
town, speak of her as the "beautiful
and accomplished" Miss So-and-so, one
of the societ3 belles of such and such a
place, even though she is as ugl3' as
"home-made sin," and washes for
a living. It will be sure to
make her like you, and 3-011 will not
only have gained her respect and ad
miration, but also the good will of her
friends whom she is visiting. It is
also probable that when she takes her
leave, her friends will subscribe for
3'our paper and send it to her for six
montlis at least
10. When 3-011 wish your delinquents
to pay up, don't abuse them, but speak
to them kindly; tell them that you are
in need of money, and that your pants
are in such a condition (as they soon
will be) that 3-011 are competed to wear
3'our coat all the time; picture to them
the many wants of the editor, and ask
them gently to pay up. They will
never think of doing so, but you may
get 3'our reward in Heaven.
We might continue giving you ad
vice for hours, but wo refrain, from
doing so. Carefully follow the course
laid down, and should success fail to
crown your efforts, drop us a line, and
we will ever be found willing to aid
you in any way within oA power.
Peck's Suji.
Between the acts: She (reproach
fully) "E dward, you've been drink
ing." H -Only a glass of milk, my,
dear." She "But your breath smells
horribly of whisky." He (with con
cern) "Is that so? The cow must
have been fed on distillery slops."
Buffalo Express.
Ayounglady giving her experi
ence in a dentist's chair, said it was
hardly as agreeable as a box at the
opera, but better than being run over
by the cars.
Polished granite is much more dura
ble than hammered granite. Polish
ing the stone prevents yhe lodging of
moisture and foreign particles on its
m face.
Commercial Fertilizers and Their Eco
nomical Application to tle Soil.
Mo9t -elaborate experiments are year
ly made in Great Britain, in relation to
commercial fertilizers and their eco
nomical application to tne soil. In
many localities the question of com
mercial fertilizers is an important one.
Many farmers err in supposing that
given a certain amount of commercial
fertilizers available, farm-yard manure
may be dispensed with. This, how
ever, is not: the fact There "is large
available nutrition in most soils if it
be not locked up. Among the ot&er
constituents furnished by barn-yard
manure is the humus it furnishes to tho
soil, which under the action of heat,
moisture and potash forms nitrates,
tho most costly material in agriculture.
In relation to the importance of barn
yard manure: In the process of
decay, a combustion of carbon
and a formation 01 carbonic
acid, with liberation of heat,
takes place in the soil, analogous to
that which occurs when the food oJ
animals undergoes a similar change.
The result of these changes in the
organic nitrogen of the soil, is tha
separation of tho carbon and nitrogen,
and the combination ofTthe latter with
lnrdrogcn, forming ammonia, ano
with oxy-gen, forming nitric acid.
This uniting with potash forms
nitrate of pota Mi (saltpeter), or with
lime, nitrate of lime.
An E iglish journal states that,
"When Dr. Voelcker and Mr. Jenkins
made their report of the farming of
Belgium, thc3 remarked on the too
exclusive use of sewage, and recom
mended the 0001101113- of replacing it
with an occasional dose of nitrate of
soda; and it is quite in keeping with
this advice that the farmers in the
neighborhood of Edinburgh, who use
a large amount of town dung and sell
iyc grass, have found nitrate of soda
a vcty valuable manure, on account
of the large quantity of unused
minerals accumulated in the soil.
"Farm-y-nrd manure 3'ields minerals
ns well as nitrogen, and may be called
on that account a universal manure.
One hundred pounds of nitrate of soda
contains about the same amount of
nitrogen as a ton of good dung; but
(here is this difference between the two
manure? he nitrate of soda, after
y-ielding its nitrogen to the crop, 011I3
furnishes in addition soda, which has
little value; whereas in the liitrifico
tion of the nitrogen in the dung, there
arc about sixty-two pounds of mineral
set free, including twelve pounds of
potash and eleven pounds of phosphoric
acid. These figures are given in Sir
John Lawes; but they- vary according
lo the high or low feeding of the
animals, the quantity- of litter, and the
fresh or rotten cordition of the dung.
Taking the ca?e of ordinaiy farm-yard
dung, Mr. Bernard Dj-er finds that four
loads, each weighing a ton, contain
forty-live pounds of nitrogen, twent3--six
pounds of phosphoric acid, and
forty--live pounds of potash." Farm,
Field and Stockman..
Tho Right Way of l'uttiiijr Them Away for
Xext Year's Ue.
Every one thinks he can bury cab
bages, ami a good main- of them ttre
"buried" without any formality about
it. Now, like every thing else, there
is a wrong and a right way of doing
this. Cabbages, carefully stored, will
not lose aii3- thing, and often gain
much b3- being attended to in a proper
I prefer pulling and storing on the
same iUy. The general practice is to
pull, turn over with roots up, and al
low them time to "dry" before storing.
Now, a cabbage, if it lies a day in a
bright sun with tho roots up, loses
considerable of its moisture b' evapo
ration, leaving it in a willed condition,
and if kept long in this state
is unfit for use. By- pulling on a diy
da3 about the second week in "No
vember, and storing at once, they
have not had enough of frost to injure
them, nor are they allowed to get diy
and lose their succulent condition.
When pulling them, all hard heads
are selected and kept by themselves,
to be packed in trenches with tho
leaves carcfulty tucked around them,
and roots up, using for a covering
finely- pulverized soil. packed closely
around the heads. If the weather is
warm at the time, only about an inch
or two is put on, and more added as
the severity of the weather demands.
The loose heads are kept b' them
selves and buried with roots down
and heads up; in this condition the3
gain in solidity if not in size. The3'
must never be allowed to get very
dry, or have much of the soil
shaken from the roots when plant
ed. It takes a good deep furrow to
get them suitably set in, with roots
down, but it can mostly bo done with
the plow. Much of the covering can
also be done by bringing the soil up
against the plants with the plow, and
then shoveling it around them ns com
pactly as possible. If packed firmly
they keep belter, and mice are less
likely to injure them by burrowing
around and cutting them.
In order to get at them during win
ter, a covering of leaves or any rough
material which will keep out the frost,
is necessary.
When selecting a place to store cab
bages, it is necessary to have ground
where water does not stand, but passes
off freely and quickly; stagnant water
soons rots them, and they will not re
main long in good condition where
they axe not kept dry. M. Milton, in
Country Gentleman.
9 m m
Nothing is more appropriate for second-mourning
wear than sard onja
lace pins, set in flower, designs, wit
sprays of pearls.
An Indian Chief Present to the Governoi
of Nebraska.
Three stalwart Indians clad in heavy
woolen blankets, cast off tiles, and
- with the smell of a last year's tope
upon their garments, invaded the
second story" of tho capitol building,
and approached the open door to the
Executive Department. For souk
reason every reservation Indian in Ne
braska has taken a great liking to Gov
ernor Thayer, and the venerable ap
pearance of the Governor has undoubt
edly inspired the children of nature
with the impression that he is the
greatest chief that has ever held coun
cil in 1I13 State, and each band o:
traveling red men who come and sii
upon the bod' brussels of the Execu
tive oflice, undoubtedly return to theii
homes with complimentary reference
to the great chief, that immediately
starts others on a pilgrimage. The
Governor has treated all these native
visitors in the kindest manner, as ishij
custom with all visitors, and it has
brought them out in force. Some day--the
reception room has appeared like
a council of war, a dozen hearty- buck?
being seated on the floor, and thev novel
make their visits short, for begging is
generally good about the State-Houe.
There is a smell that lingers for dav
after a visit from a delegation, and if
requires tiie utmost vigilance of Cap
tain Hill to get the rooms aired for the
next delegation. The three who ar
rived the other day were of more than
usual note, as ignorant of English as
the wildest, and the chief drew from
tho breast pocket of his coat an
ancient broadcloth that had done
society- work in Omaha a well-worn
envelope that held an equally well
worn parchment, which, upon being
unfolded, proved to hs the written
treaty- made between the Government
and the Omaha Indians in 1825.
While the braves, disdaining the chair:
proffered, seated themselves upon the
floor, the newspaper men present ex
amined the faded parchment, and it
proved to be the original document well
preserved for sixty odd 3-ears. A note
to Ihe Governor explained to thai
official that tho chief wanted it copied,
as it Avas worn so badl3, and aftei
man3 gyrations and gesticulations, the
braves were made to understand that
it would be done and that the" should
return on the following day. The
treat3' is art interesting one
historically and remarkably- well
preserved. It yvas made at Foil
A'Jcinson and bore date of attestation,
October G. 1825. This Fort Atkinsor
was at the point afterward designal 'C
as Fort Calhoun, in Washingtor
County. The treaty-, after reciting ir
a long preamble the mutual admira
tion each race had for the other, stipu
lated in detail what each party to the
agreement should do. The white mer
were to establish a trading post, to as
sist them iu protection from native
enemies, and the Indians were to re
frain from numerous depredations, the
principal of yvhich seemed to be horse
stealing. On the part of the Govern
ment the treaty- was signed by Brigadier-General
Atkinson and B-Mijaniir
O. Fulton, adjutant Michael Burdear
made his mark as interpreter, and
long row of the names of chiefs yvith the
meanings of their names followed
Some of these names and meanings are
yvorth reproduction. For example
Opatoga, the big elk; Ohoshingo, the
man that cooks little in a small kettle
Shongisca, the white horse; Tarvettce.
the side of a buffalo; Mohpemanee, the
man that la3's on his arrows few, the
number that piorcj him. The ole
document would make a valuable ad
dition to relics for the State Ilistorica1
Societ3 Lincoln (Ae&.) Letter.
Suggestion for Itnyt Who Hate Decirted
to lio Navigators.
Having tlecided to be a navigator, i
a bo3" has nothing else, let him at least
start yvith the consent and blessing ol
his parents or guardians, ami then gc
to yvork with the determination of be
coming nothing else than the captair
of a ship.
At the outct it would bo a good
idea for a boy- to go on one of the
United States training-ships yvhere
young Americans are trained to be
seamen. Ho must be betyvcen fourteen
and eighteen 3-ears of age, and yvill
not be entitled to his discharge
until he has gone through
the whole course of in
struction. If onr yvould-be seafarer
pursues this course, he yvill find it tc
his advantage should he start life on a
European steamer. Still, he would be
possessed of a great tleal of knowledge
in reference to naval yvarfare which,
in that position, weruld be of no use to
him, and there would be veiy much
that he yvould have to learn, in addi
tion to what he already knew.
Starting as an ordinary- seaman, he
would skip the drudgery of a ship's
boy, and his promotion yvould be some
what more rapid, though not remarka
bly so, for on the sea yon have to be
horoughly competent in one position
before you can rise to a higher.
Of the four officers on an ocean
steamship the senior officers keep the
reckoning of the ship by observation,
that is, by means of the stars, the
moon, and the sun. The third and
fourth, or two junior officers, keep the
dead reckoning. By this is meant the
calculation of the ship's position, inde
pendently of celestial observations.
The pay of the captain of an ocean
steamer will be from two thousand five
hundred to three thousand dollars a
year. The first officer will receive
about nice hundred dollars a year, the
second seven hundred and twenty, tha
third and fourth four hundred and
eighty dollars a year. This will bs in
addition to living expenses on board
hip. -George J. Hanson, SL NickoU.
To Adam paradise was horns. To
the 3pod among his descendants home
13 pi.radise. Ilare.
O.ie of the most profitable ways of
applying ashes is sowing them broad
cast over newly- seeded, ground.
When clothes have acquired an
unpleasant odor by being kept from
the air, charcoal, laid in the folds, will
soon remove it
Kerosene excels for softening and
cleaning out the gummed and hard
ened oil in the boxes of mowers, reap
ers and other farm machinery.
Snow Drops: O le cup of butter,
two eiq of sugar, yvhitcs of five Cgga.
one small cup of milk, three curs of
prepared Hour; flavor yvith vanilla and
nutmeg. Bake in small, round tins.
Boston Biulgtt.
A handy- closet for harnesses is
made by simply boarding up the sido
of the stable, nailing the boards on the
main beams, which are usually a foot
yvide. Thus you get a closet a foot
deep, and can have it the full length of
the stable. It yvill make the "place
yvarmer in yviuter and cooler iu sum
mer. Farm and Home.
Salmon Sal ad. To a can of sal
mon take eight or ten stalks of celery;
cat the celery- into small pieces and
mix yvith thu salmon, yvhich slmnltl
also be picked intosinall bits; sprinkle
over a little salt and a very little pep
per and pour on some good viucar.
A small onion may be added if desired.
You can not restore rancid butter
to a sweet, good article. It 111:13- l'
someyrhat improved, hoyvevcr. 03
yvashing it first in ncyv milk, and after
that in cold yvater. Another plan is
lo beat up a quarter of a pound of
good fresh lime in a pail of yvater, and
after .-.lloyving it to stand for an hour,
until the impurities shall have settled,
pour off the clear portion and yvash
the rai.cid butter in that. Indianapolis
Jo iirna'.
According to Dr. Berillon. tho yvell
knoyvu French specialist, the practice
ot mucking the thumb at night, to
yyhichso many-children are addicted,
and of yvhich it is next to impossible t'
break them, can be put a stop to b3" r
single lrypnotization accompanied, cl
course, yyi ill the requisite suggestion.
The child never by- any- chance re turn J
to the habit again, though his memory
retains no trace of the order or prohibi
tion yvhich operates so poyvcrfull- oc
his yvill.
EggTimbaK: Six czs; half cup
milk; four tablespoonfuls grated
cheese; pepper and salt to taste; iineh
of soda in the milk. Beat the eggs veiy
light; add the milk, soda, j eppor and
salt, and last of all the u!iee?e. Pour
into finall buttered patt3 pans, set
these in a pan of boiling yvater and
bake in. the overt until the eg is- firm.
Turn out on a flat dish, stick a spr.13
of parsley in the center of each and
pour drayvn butter around them. Eat
veiy hot Farm, Field and Stockman.
Advantages and JDiaiIvnnta:;fof Sowing
Grass in Autumn.
Some prefer to soyy yvhatever grass
seed is to be sown in the fall, rather
than yvait until spring. There-is one
advantage about fall seeding. There
is nearly alivirys a better opportunity
for doing the yvork. Of course there is
t ahva3-s plenty do. and especially so
when a crop f yvheat is tobc-soyvn.
as is the case generally in I hose sec
tions yvhere yvinter yvheat is groyvn.
and a good crop of corn is to be taken
tare of. It is essential that a good
groyvth should be secured in-the fall,
so that the plants yvill be the better
able to yvithstaml the yvinter. And if
for any reason this can not be done, a
better plan yvould be to defer the seed
ing of grass until late in the winter or
early in the spring.
It is vcr3 necessary that a good even
stand of grass should be secured, and
this can only be done yrhcu the con
ditions are reasonably favorable. Not
011I3- must the soil be prepared in a
fine condition, but the seed mast be of
good quality-, sotvn evenly- and at a
time yvhciL there is sufficient moisture
in the soil to secure quick germination
of the seeiL
If there is not a sufficient amount of
moisture in the soil to insm-e a rapid
as yvell as a good germination of the
seeel, I consider it better not to sow.
While, of course, yve ma- have rain in
a feyv days, yet yve may not, and the
seed 111313- have to remain it the ground
entirely- too long. Sce.l left in the soil
ma3' germinate and gvoyv oven after
h-ing for some time, yet there is more
or less loss of vitality and this yvill. to
some extent, affect the groyvth and
vigor of the plant Then, when the
conditions of germination are unfavor
able, a per cent of the seeds yvill, of
course, fail to groyv. and in this way a.
good even stand yvill not bo secured.
When the fall yvork will admit of
thorough preparation of the soil, a
seediog down to grass demands, nittl
there is a sufficient amount of moisture
in the soil to induce a good germina
tion of the seed, and a good vigorous
start to grow, fall seeding will answer
but in addition to this I would con
sider it necessary that the seed should
be sown sufficiently early for the plants
to make' a good growth bafore cold
weather sets in. If, this can not be
done, abetter plan is to wait until
spring, rather than run tho risk of se
curing a poor stand, or of having the
plants injured by freezing. As a gen
eral rule, late sowing of grass seed is
not desirable, or when the conditions
necessary to securing a good start tc
grow are not favorable. Usually there
is less risk in spring seeding, but of tee
the work can not be as well dons on
-account of other world Vms JFidi
j -f"jj. - -&---
Alt ,?"

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