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ARIZOLA. ARIZONA, THURSDAY, JUNE i, 1S93 Xo. 1, Tl II- Ot.IV IS. rnoriT IX ITS 11 LTIVATIUX. Vrimilt ot It. ITodix tlmi. flip Market Hud Ilotv to Kwh It. ITIlC fiili 111.' fl IVHli ItttllH Ifll'ClllIU lit tin. S.Mitlu rn t iipfornl.i I'omol'n-'ii'i.l s,K-j(.V, Vdvi-ihU i- Ti-Si. I" '!. t.y .Ions f. t .tl.kl.ss of IVimomt. t 'iillfiiri,l.i. SEW METHOD (F ITJ"U1ATF: TIIK OI.IVE TKr.l.. In trratii1 of o!iw! culture in C'.ill fornh 1 will first !; a n1 method of propagating lie tjees, which has ciQi la'o use within a few years, and so far as I know is not pi ;nt k".L ont sideot this stati'. I ue out t ius ((f mature wood some (Lice inches h,ng wilh two leave- near t t These are plant eJ during autumn ami winter in gla-n-covered houses provided with bottom li-aT ; a portion of the cuttings will. usually produce roots in tin? course of four 1.0 eight month, but often iic-aily all of them lu-o th'ir leaves aiil decay. Viperous trees with excellent roots are irrowu by this method: trees ?n raised have produced oiivos in four years front the time of planting the cuttings in the house; tltc cutting in tlie houses require con stant attenti on, and even the most careful propagators . f 1 1 n meet with total loss; probably in no ot her branch of the nursery business Is success sn uncertain. The rooted cuttings are planted out in nursery rows from March, to l.eeemler; those planted early in the season attain a giowlh of tme to two feet the lirsi year; trees of i this size may he successfully trans-! planted and by many aie preferred to i those of any other age. '. THAKS PLANTING AN 11 rlUXl .. In transplanting dive trees from the nursery to the orchard the roots . should be carefully protected from the win and wind, and the top-, too: as much as possible. The work should not be done when a dry wind is pre vailing; they should be taken up in as dormant a condition as possible. They nr usually in this slate in Jan uary and February. If it is not con venient to plant thtui then, they may In taken up bi fore they commence to grow and heeled in and set out later in the season; at the time of planting the soil should be settled around the roots with water. The olive tive is very Htneious of life, and may be success fully transplanted at one year of age up to the size of lerge Ix'aring trees, this having often Ix-eu done. Al though ruost varictips are apt to grow unslinpely in the nurserv they become M'inrtrloal aft'T being out In the or chard two or three years. As some of the roots are cut oil' in digging some of the branches should ! removed at i the time of planting; after that but i little, priming will lie necessary tilli they begin to bear. Mr. hodrich. why has a bearing orchard near Santa j Clara, trim.', his trees in the form of a 1 :! t the c.ntii.' e:" Ua tree u li hoi-1 lowed oat t admit the r.i of ilu sun h ,:, ir.g sirlicieut moji! jr the ik-xt l wo year's crop.i. " - " DISTAXCii AFAIU To l'h VXT OLIVt T HE K.S The distpnee apart t-y plant s: as to get ths best results has been dcterm ned by I'll wood Cooper, an experi enced olite grower. He planted an !. vj I'd in 157? f"c:jty fevt jputt, but .o:jo fit ;'c:::s alto: !:i iV-::td it ::.'i'v i; p'l'n 0:0; ":" ;3v.-x vvi-. otLt'r (linoi.'a'ii ruV, iht A-juiiu- Ing trees t hen being about twenty eight feet apart. If it is neces.-ary Xv. thin out aain, he recommeiKis the removal of every other alternate straight row, the remaining trees will then be forty feet apart. As he still favors this p'an after ears of exwri enen. planters may safely follow his cxamnlc: this appears to be better th;.u to plant t he t rees farther apart .It ill t -Wit ll sn:i-; ttl.irt -lived treesur vin:s 'e. twe-fi tl em, as N sorm times recemmeiided. 'J'he trees which are removed may be reset into a new or chard v. here they will aain come into proii table l-arinjr. SOU. AND ('MM ATK As to the kind of -oil in which the olive succeeds, the sauu authority says that he has trees crow i rip with out Irripatiott iu black adobe, on sionv hillsides; on adoi.e hillsides, on table land with clay subsoil: in andy lands made from the wash of mouutains. with no difference in the bearing of the 1 rees or the oil made." They are known tosuec-.vd where peach, apricot and nectarine trees have been des troyed by the black alkali: and also iu h-ntj so rocky and .Mcep that it cannot be plowed. Our virgin soils of Cali fornia are rich in lime and potash, two of the chief constituents required by tie-olive tree. iw. llilpard has st;. led that the substance of olive oil is taken entirely from the air, and that if t he crop is made into oil and the jiomaccaud all ot her ottal returned to t lie land from the outset it needs no other manure, if the soil is a fairly good one. Itdoes not wear out the soil but if the fruit is pickled, returns should le made to the soil and then pota.-h and nitrogen aie especially called for. The olive tree flourishes under varied climatic conditions; it will withstand a temperature of four teen degrees above zero: it succeeds in J he dry interior valle.vs of the state where the murcery during summer often ranges from lot) to l Ji degrees in the shade, along the coast ami on the high foothills of our mountain ranges. In Algeria, latitude .V, it thrives at an elevation of 4sihi feet above the level of the s a: in Italy at a height of ."Ltmfeet, and there is a bearing orchard in about, the latitude of Pomona situated upward of ,'H.M'O feet :.love the sea. iKUlGATION. The olive is a deep-roofed tree, flourishing in arid countries, and if properly treated from its t'rst plant ing, requires but. little wafer in niois;, local ions oilier than the usual rainfall. There are many benriug trees in diil'er ent par's of the State (hat are not irrigate!; while there are localities that will give the best results with out irrigation, there are. no doubi oth "i" location.-; that need it, but in mo:4 of such lands careful tillage, and iu absence of be tier means, hauling water to th.'tii when needed will be tiniowdl spent, if the rewards of an olive orchard may thus be secured, lint while the trees will do fairly well under conditions iu which any other fruit tree would perish, it pays to give liieai generous culture. rotl TliK S l'I.V.FT. Tie: olive is coniiu into f,ivor a a a iticf.t tret, o;-!r:binir.s inxrvi good o-:o!''c; oul:-i(".j of it; riof.b'.crW; ;t i -..iCi-p'c IV tlc-v;-. .'::: b-Lorm'j; it CLWS :M Imi't -IV.c1 fvi w ith fallen h aves; its branches lo not rlroop and obstruct the walk if prop erly trimmed: it is not subject to have Its fruit stolen by jK-rsons passing: re quires little or no irrigation, and is generally regarded as a very suitable 'reeforthe pui'iKe wherever itha. been tested. OMVKOIL AND Ul.IVK riCKLi:.-. I'l ib-ye;ir sNi ,(,,,.,. M;M i r,,jirt ,., into th s coiiJiiry :':j.:t-4 j-all . f ;);. ieg.d dive oh: ihis S)ai.- prtMluced ti;e same year '..2"2 gallon; of piur '.live oil, and in the year lvl, U.4'5" gailons. Calif..rnia olive . i 1 lias the .istiiieti;.n of wiimit g prizes at th. .'aris World's Fair, and its stipe riorit iver Import "tl oil is conceiied. W lave it from :eli:;b author it h-ast foiir fifths (i tiie olives a,et r.itooe hi'- (: eoorai'i a v,or" wiiich is ground up and pressed villi the pi-matv ;i oil ;:;;4Ui:ig. from the eoitstiiar reports we lean, that it is a common practice abroad to mix cotton s,'d oil with the olive while l ing ground ft. r oil: va-t (pian titiesof this oil m (o Kntot.e front ill's country for tin Mirpose of adul terating olive oils. The process of re iining cotton st-edoil issaid to Iw such as to render its use as food deleterious f health anil even dangerous to lire. The department of agriculture at Washington caused teMs to be made of some sixty--Ix dii'erent. brands of imported oil labeleJ pure olive oil. not one. brand was found to bo pure, and several did licit, contain any olive oil. P.ut, C.jiifarn a producers an? f'e lermined that tile home oil shall 'oe put upon the market pore and nr. ad ilteratcd. To this end they l ave secired the passage f an act tt j ire vent the manufacture and sale in .the slate of impure oil, and have organ ised to aid in it:; enforcement, and I valuable acquisitions. J:y carf-jl observation the. diiTererit s.irt-; m:.y be list inguished from each (a her in tho nursery by their appearance, which w ill greatly assise the nurseryman '.a or.-eeily lalel:iig his ir. s. ot'TLot k r;a i ti: oi.r, k isKr.-ii;v. In t)iseii,jng the prtdi;. i f fruir raising it is customary to cite ci: i us orchard-! that have return .d from t-Vn ioiuor than -M.ft'J j.'eraci". .Hid iV ci'iuous trees tL.'u liae yielded i'ICi to more tha!iVoO p -r aer: iu a .-ingli" year, so we may here give the record of i-une olive trees; ""hVood Cooper of Santa Ili rl.ara. st ales that he tested one of hh-orchai ds seven years old fr.-m tl:e c.i'vt ir.;;s. .. . in Met. vielii.ftten 1:. rie lj,lMif lotlje tree; onet.e.j.arpentottte Is the. pres. nf. wholesale market price for California oil: this would ma've Sliwf Iht acre of lo t rees. l-'raulc Kimball of iSationa! City, San Diego coi'nty. states t hat be paid bis .leiyhbor 2ivan acre for his olive trees les., xhna four years old from the cuttings; that he had taken twenty-three gallons of fruit from a tree less than six years old: these if made into pickles and sold at 7o cents per gailon, would bring 10M per acre for that year; that lie had picked from a t ree at. t he old San I iegt mission, llcj j. allonsof olives in a siugb year. That t ree was probably 100 year old. Hiefori;. U. lirigjior c'resci nia, TiOs Angeles eoi.nty, has a t reel hat. bore one year when the Ue w:;?? Ibir teen years (.hi. o gallons of olives, if made into pickles and sold at 75 cer ts per gallon, they would bring S37.5C. Major li. H. Uttof lb-dian.ls, bits an orchard at l'ala, San Diego county, of l'JO trees, that when hi years old aver aged gailons of olives per tree that year. Mr. G. F. Havens of Santa Ana. w rites that he has an orchard in Or- te.ee b.telv OiLf ,, measures to l.,ve it ! W "miV 15 miles fr01" tl' "l soamerulJti as to rentier it more etlici-at :U1 'vation of 1.00 feet, planted at, ent in its operation. : "f :i" aOob.: lull. I he trees Large quani ities of forej.ru pickled : ,mv 'V'T , , olives come to the United States and to this state; they are sold here iu small hot ties at the rate of a'xnit 4 )er gallon. They are put up while tlie olive is green and are unlit for food, while the home olives are put up rijie or nearly so. and are a whole some and nutrious fond vastly supe rior to the foreign article. The last crop sold in the stores at l.'i.v per gal em: dealers paid t he grow crs from 'si cents to ?-l per gallon. They are put up in l'ounip.a by the follow inu' method For six gallons in' oiivos dissolve one pound ot Lewis' concentrated lvc in never wen miestea witti - tie otack scale. Tuey bore a little fruit the. t bird year from the cutting; the fourth year they bore one to four gallons per tree; rtthe aie of seven years some of thcni Ixue twenty gallons for the "ear. Thus it will be seen that the trees will show a little fruit, the third year from planting, and yield returns tlu fourth ear: the crop will increase from year to year for thirty years, and tiny will bear up to the age of !"( years.. I do not !eiieve the iiur v given a'oeve c;.u Iv safely lviied usmn every year, nor that olive orchards in six gLllomuif water, add four pounds j ' liko 1 come up to of salt: soak the berries in this inix- those figures one year with another . : .n.i- ii-..rj tl.ru. er.n tin ri ri mi i n f -c o-iven tine two days, then draw oft and "''' . . , replace it with ,:mu: kind lor t wodavs :'b,)V'- :ii r' uns 01 Cltrf auoc; lonircr drawing t he mixture off vt-ial i-J-3 orchards l uniioniily icaUze! limes dailv, and muring it ever the : ery ye.r; but if the enormous re oiives. ow draw off' the mixture v he, u'HUo,,i'-tl a t he olives in wau r ' ' umui"1;.' "'u' 1C-'U''-" show i no olive lQuustrv to oe anv.at again and iinruer-t from live tu ei rht days, then d:aw oS the water and put ou a brine of thre pounds of salt to six gallons of water for two days or until the last trace of lye is removed; tinally . cow r them with new brine of three pounds of salt to four and a-half gallons of water. VAKIETIKS. profitable ouc. Tln're has alw ays been a ready mar ket for all the olives produced here in Pomona; last year there were more, orders sent to thh market than could 1x3 filled, and orders are coming in for the crop for the ensuing season. Oiive growers iu this Fee, t ion have generally According to an Italian authority ! prepared their ow n fruit ready for use, there, are "00 varieties of olives. I hut there are now a numbf r of firm ha-vo up'.vards of f.0 r.cv vaiistko in in the field who proroso to buy tbe avr;o ..f rercri:: i- "-i:' uu:;e:x;. 1 fnzit z it ccrz--. frou th-t:e, -a-t i I ! !