Newspaper Page Text
l - vol. I. AIUZOLA, ARIZONA, THURSDAY, AUGUST 3, 1893. No. 13. PKK-lfHTOlUC llt lXK. The Vmit Irrigation Work of l'tmt Agr in Arlxoim. ', lty U. K. L. Koblnson in Vum Time. I So far few tie'iple. have given atten tion tot Ik; prehistoric ruins of Ari zona. Lieutenant dishing ient some time in a supertici il cxauiina tion of those in the Salt Kiver Valley In the immediate, vicinity of Plm'tiix, hut with that cxeptioii little investi gation lias Ix-en made, though this territory is tilled, from the head of Ton to basin to t he s mora line, with the iiiiinistakiihlc evidences of the existence of a people far sujM-rior in development of civilization to any found ill the time of the European discovery of t he continent. 1 Oi:e of the monster engineering im dei takings which they accomplished I has jii.t heen discovered in the valley a of tlie Salt river, on the same ground H where Mr. dishing conducted his exploration. It Is a well known fact to those iliving In the vicinity of Temp-' 1 liat ixevi-r.il sect ions of land adjoining the ilown have always Ix-en too wet for cultivation. No fruits of any kind coiild le raised, and even the produc ts ion of alfalfa could only he secured j by a regular system of drainage, sim ' ilar to that in operation in the low sections of Louisana. At the time ' Lieutenant dishing was doing his rework, he was asked to examine and explain t he cause for the rise of the water to Mich a height, hut he was unalile to determine the reason, and il soiemained unt il about two months ago. when I r. Chandler, of the Cou .olitLted Canal company, decided to 'til a ditch across this swampy por tion for the purpose of irrigating dry Jauds !eyond. Unring the work, at a depth of iaitout three feet, iney came upon what apjieared to lie an ancient wall. Thinking that they had discovered one of the ruins that alMiund in that section, the course of the wall was followed until it was found to he of greater length than any previously Encountered. Parties interested in ..iich investigation took the examina tion in charge and followed its down ward cot line to the Ixitloni, a distance of about twenty feet. The line of jt.he ancient location was taken up ! jt ml followed to its extremity, when . t he building was found to lie a suli ; merged dam. standing intact in every place. The work was made of clay, ,i( the height mentioned, and alioiit iMxteen feet in thickness at the top. After t he material had been put in .shaK large tires had been built on the top and sides and the whole thing burned to the hardness of a brick. It was thus impervious to the action of of water and so well withstood time ft hat during the thousands of years 'That It has stood It has so preserved it entirety that even after washes! and Hows covered It with sand and ,sllt it still bring the underflow of the Salt river to within one to three j feet of the surface, t hus causing the excess or water In that locality. It i evident that the river once ran ?tith of tho Tempo li.it te, a peak- that now rises out of the water's edge on the south side, and It was In tended to catch the undertow with tliU submerged dam. The dam itself Is three an 3 one -half miles in length, exfeodlpg from t)ie Tempe flutte al most south of the Double Ituttes on the southern limit of the valley. At this point t lie formation is pecu liar, the bed rock rising tint of the soil and forming a rocky mesa in the foothills, while along its sides the moist clay was placed In the form of n wall and afterwards burned, when jwrhaps the. earth was thrown around it In order to protect it from the weight of the water, which must have otherwise crushed it. As an exhibition of engineering skill there is nothing in Arizona to day t hat will etpial It, and it Is won derful that these ancient people, whom we say were barbarians, should have such knowledge, by which they took advantage of every -freak of nature, and made it assist them in the tilling of the soil. It may be well that modern engineers investigate and profit by this discovery, for it may be t he key to the supply of wa tcr wiili which every few it of Arizona's valleys were once Irrigated. drying Fruit. Santa Clara Co.. California, has an enviable reputation for getting top prices for her fruit. This is because the farmers up there have a live or ganization which meets often, ex changes ideas and then puts into practical use the information gath ered by experience. This organization, lias just issued the following circular anent the proper methods of drying frnlt, which will be of intrest here: Strict observance of the following directions will be found of great ad vantage to growers. Carelessness in these particulars may throw other wise excellent fruit into a low grade when it comes to be graded bv the exchange. Drying apricots and peaches All fruit should be ripe but tirm. I'nript fruit is no better dried than fresh, and is at once detected in the pile, over ripe iruit win run out over the tray and become what are called slabs." This fruit is usually good but not, pretty. It sells fairly well by itself, but, if left mingled with ot her fruit lowers the grade of the whole. Slabs should be picked out when the fruit Is taken from the tray and be Kepi ny itsen. au oilier oiacK or dark fruit should also lie picked from the trays mid kept by itself. If this Is not done the whole w ill go as dark fruit. In the same way if you wish to put up some "fancy" fruit, pick from t lie tray the largest and bright est pieces. All pitted fruit must be cut with a sharp knife clear around. Careless pltters w ill cut it nearly around and break the rest; often leaving the two pieces joined by the skiu. Those who do permit this should understand that It will lower the grade of their fruit. When the fruit. Is abjut three fourths dried it is well to stack the trays and allow the fruit to cure. It dries mora slowly and so requires more trays, but nukes better and heavier fruit. This should be done whenever the smallest pieces are nearly dry, otherwise the smaller fruit will become "chips." The fruit of two or three trays can he put on one and t he t rays should be stacked with the end projecting about sixinches over the one below Jt, backaud forth, to alJow circulation of Mr, It Is needless to say that fruit must le kept clean and free from dust if fair prices are expected. Nobody likes to eat dirt, and If he can see it lie won't Trays should be thoroughly cleaned before using. If you are a good farmer you washed them before putting them away In the fall. If you did not do It then you can do it now with not much more than double the work. In taking up fruit do not dump the trays, but scoop them up with the hands, or one hand and a wooden scoop, unless the trays are entirely free from dust and dirt, which seldom happens., When taken from the field all fruit should be put in bins in bulk, and not moved until it takes its "sweat.''! Sme put the fruit into sacks to sweat. All dried jruit should lie well cured, I but yet pliable, and not chippy. He yond this no directions for taking up can be given. It is a matter of judg ment ami ezperience, and those drying for the first time should visit the yard of some experienced drier, and learn this very itiijKirtant part of the busi ness, which, however, is soon acquired. Sulphuring. The trade demands bright, clean, well bleached fruit. Oroweis who do not furnish that will not get first prices. Sulphur boxes should be as tight as jiossjble. Well ripened fruit in tight boxes should bleach well in forty-five minutes, al though often left twice that time. It Is well when quitting at night to leave the boxes full to bleach until morning. Two cupfull of sulphur is the least that should be used: more will be necessary if the fruit is left in the boxes more than forty-five min utes. The sulphur should not be lighted with shavings or any material which will produce smoke. The best way is to put a small quant ity on a piece of paper about three inches square, place it on the sulphur in the dish and light the paper; this w ill set the whole on tire. Keep Moorpark apricots separate from others. In general, the more pains taken to produce clean, handsome, well cured fruit the more will be the profit in drying. The best fruit not only sells for most but sells first. There are so many careless, slovenly driers that there is tlways a glut of that kind ,of fruit. It permits of greater variety ot crops. It almost wholly eliminates risk from the operation of transplanting. It economises time and labor. It adds much to the health, com fort, leisure and life of a farmer. It economist's space and is used to level the soil. It increases the area of fertile soil. It increases the quality of the soil by its deposits of sediment. It increases the commercial value of the soil. It increases the average rainfall. It favorably affects the climate. It gives greater security and jier iiianence to the farm Invest ment. It elevates agriculture to a higher plane. Jt advances the farmer to a higher rank. ONKCOW TO THE ACKh. Southern Arizona ( an l'anture Three Cow To The Acre. ADVANTAOKH OK lltKKi TION. Vrom tin; Itiikcrslii'ld CaliforniuM. The following shows in concise form some, but not all. of the advan tages of irrigation: It softens I lie consistence of the soil, rendering it more penetrable by the roots of the plants. It facilitates decomposition of or ganic matter in the soil, promoting germination. It modifies the temperature of the soil. It furnishes more water to the plant and soil. It supplies moisture at the time most, needed by plant and soil. ir, supplies moisture to tlie crops which require excessive moisture. It encourages early and rapid growth. It insures a larger crop and more props. It Insures a better quality to the crop of fruit. It furnishes a systematic raet'.jod instead of Irregularity, It is only by comparison that Ari zonans or those who have lived here long enough to have orgotten their Eastern experience are able to fully realize the blessings they enjoy. A case in point is suggested by an article in a Mississippi valley agri cultural newspaper under the caption, "A Cow to Each Acre." '"One cow to each acre of land on the farm." says the article in question, "is the mark. set by a few, a very few, of our most progressive dairymen. They have succeeded in doing this and are in clined to intimate that those who do not do this are behind the times. Now let us examine this point for a minute. Intensive farming is all right and w ill grow more and more in favor, but we can go far enough to eat all the prolit, even if sale9 are large. There is a golden mean that brings the most clear ready money from any business. A cow to each acre can only be kept by high manur ing of land, soiling and heavy outlay oflalKir. If land is high in price and lalior is plenty, then this intensive form of dairying is all right; but on cheap land it may cost less to main tain a cow on two acres than one. She can do her own harvesting half the year. Pasture on fair soil furn ishes cheap food usually, and one may lose by undertaking to double the feed grown on such land when it must be harvested for the stock. Progress means increase of prolit." This is a t rue picture of the dimVtil ties under which the eastern farmer labors: "A cow to each acre of land can only be kept, by high manuring of land, soiling and heavy outlay of labor.'' Now in Southern Arizona It is nothing to keep two cows to the acre und with proper care as mauy as three may be kept upon the product of an acre this, too without high manuring and heavy outlay of labor. An acre of alfalfa, with a good, stand and regularly irrigated, will keep two or three cows the year round In this vicinity without any trouble. And It Is not more than truth to say that la pretty nearly every branch of agri culture the proportionate advantage enjoyed by the Southern Arizona farmer, over the east ern, U about the same. Arizona has neither ?nnifokes; nor baoU failure.