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THE OLDEST TOWN
IN THE UNITED STATES IS CAP ARRA IN PORTO RICO. PONCE DE LEONS PLACE In 1509 the Searcher for Eternal Youth Laid the Foundations of the Now Ruined Town —St- Augustine, Fla., Deprived twf me Old Reputa tion. The settlement of Ponce de Leon at Caparra, near the site of Pueblo Viejo, across San Juan bay from San Juan, is now, by more than fifty years, the first town established within the pres ent borders of the United States. His torians, therefore, must give the pres tige of antiquity, no*t to the Spanish town of St. Augustine, Fla., of 1565, as formerly, but to Caparra. founded in the year 150 b. Dr. M. W. Harrington if the San Juan weather office, • ivered the ex act location of the historical Caparra unexpectedly. On a pleasure walk into the country two weeks ago he happened to select the road to Pueblo Viejo, and when talking with the na tive residents learned their traditions of the first Spanish town in Porto Rico. He accordingly procured a guide and made an examination of the nearly ex tinct ruins. Of his interesting dis covery, Dr. Harrington says: “Without doubt the ruins I found are those of the first settlement es tablished by the explorer and colonizer, Ponce de Leon. Both local tradition and history name Caparra as the earli est town on the island, and agree, moreover, on this same site near Old Village, or Pueblo Viejo, Even the native negroes, some of whom could neither read nor write, knew the story of Caparra. My personal investigation further satisfied me of the correctness of their tradition.” The only remains of the original town visible now are the ruins of a church, hospital and a repaired lime stone furnace. Most of the stone from the church, hospital, and houses has been used, according to the natives, in the construction of highways. On a lit tle elevation from the shore swamps, the site of Caparra is hidden from San Juan bay, three miles distant, by a row of hills. Another historical land mark near by is the reputed gold mine worked by the first Spanish settlers. Ponce de Loon greatly enriched him self, says tradition, and also history, by the compulsory labor of the native Indians in mines. Although attacked by hordes of mosquitoes, the gray haired old warrior and explorer re mained in Caparra until 1512, and then set sail for the miraculous fountain of youth. Ills voyage ended on Sunday, March 27, 1512, In the discovery of the present peninsula of Florida. Out the greater part of the original colony stayed in Caparra until compelled a few years later to abandon the towm in order to escape the hot fever weather and an army of mosquitos. The final evacuation is said to have been in 1552. The story of the foundation of Caparra is told at length in The His tory of Porto Rico, published in 1866 by Fray Inigo Abbaday Lasierra and re vised by Jose Julian de Costa y Culbo. Under the title of the First Colonizer, the authors say: “When Ponce de Leon was in possession of the government of the island he decided to establish a town separate from the Indians. He chose a place near the mines they were working and started to build a town which he called Caparra. It was sit uated on the north coast opposite the sea of St. John, near Pueblo Vieio. The ruins are seen in the vicinity of the plantation of Hon Manuel Diaz, near the brook named Margarita, a place surrounded by swamps. So difficult was the work of bringing supplies there from the ships in the bay, a dis tance of only a league, that their cost was more than that of getting them from Spain to Porto Rico. But the op portunity this place gave the Spaniards to satisfy their desire for gold made light for them the hardships which they endured in this town for ten years. The historians Herrera and Oviedo disagree about the year of the establishment of Caparra, the former saying in 1510 and the latter in 1509.” In The Elementary Geography of Porto Rico, the author makes the fol lowing remarks concerning Caparra: “Ponce de Leon was the first coloni zer in 1509. The first settlement was the city of Caparra, in the place named Quebrada Margarita, near Pueblo Vie jo, and of which town no more re mains than the ruins, worthy of worship as the cradle of the Spanish race on the island. This city w'as abandoned in 1552.” Dr. Harrington has already called the attention of educators in the United States to Caparra in the hopes of sav ing the ruins from further destruction. Such a historical settlement, he thinks, At least ought to be marked by a mon ument. Even thus early the American relic hunters have begun • to chip oft pieces of the church foundation stones for souvenirs. MORE MEN THAN WOMEN COME. From 1819, the year of the passage by congress of the law for the registra tion of immigrants arriving in the United States, until the present time, there have been 18,500,000 immigrants registered in the various ports of the country? and of these, taking the average through the whole course of years, 60 per cent, were men and 40 per cent women, a disparity representing a total difference of nearly 3,700,000. It has been frequently pointed out as a matter of interest and importance that the proportion of male immi grants is highest where such immigra tion is least desirable, particularly in the case of Chinese and Sicilians, while it is lowest among the Germans and Irish. The reasons assigned for thL disparity have been many. Among them have been the perils and incon veniences of a residence on the frontir before the complete settlement of the country, emigration from continental countries to escape conscription in European armies, the danger and dis comforts of ocean travel before the establishment of fast and commodious steamers and the natural reluctance of women to seek homes in new lands. It has popularly been supposed, how ever, that as these reasons for the ex cess of male immigration either dis appeared or were diminished the totals of the two sexes would be more nearly even, a conclusion which the tables just published by the immigration bureau in Washington for the year ending March 1, 1899, completely over throw. During the year the actual number of immigrants coming into the United States was 31U,0U0, an increase of 80,- 000 compared with a year ago. Ac cording to the ordinary division be tween male and female immigrants there should have been 186,000 of the former and 124,000 of the latter. In stead of this there were 193,277 male immigrants, or more than 60 per cent., and 117,437 female immigrants, less than 40 per cent. From England there were 6,700 male and 4,000 female immi grants, about the average ratio; from Germany,l4,7oo male and 11,800 female imigrants, less than the average num ber; from Scandinavia there were 12,747 male and 10,502 female immi grants and from Finland, a country from which there has been recently extensive emigration to the United States in consequence of the serious conflict between the Russian govern ment and the Finns, 3,900 male and 2.100 female immigrants came. From two countries feale immigration to the United States perponderates, Ireland and Bohemia. There were last year 13,700 male and 18,600 female immi grants from Ireland, and from Bohe mia the nunuer of male and female immigrants was almost identical, 1,262 of the former and 1,264 of the latter. The long disputed question among immigrant officials as to the designa tion to be given to Polish Hebrew im migrants, whether they should be de scribed as Polish or under the head if German, Russian or Austrian immi grants, as the case might be, has been settled by the adoption of a generic term for all such immigrants, the word Hebrew. There were 21,000 male and 16,000 female Hebrew immigrants last year. From Russian Poland there were in addition 18,000 male and 10,000 female immigrants, while from Italy, now the chief contributing country to ted States there were 52,000 male and 23,000 female immigrants. Italian im migration is very largely responsible for the disparity of the sexes in the matter of immigration. Twice as many male Syrians as female Syrians came over last year, and five times as many male Slavonians. There were 2,200 male Greeks and only 132 females, but the record of all other countries it distanced by China, 1,627 male immi grants and 11 female immigrants onlv Cuban immigration to the United States last year was 1,400, including 1.100 male and 300 female immigrants. From Hawaii there were more women than male immigrants, though the number of either was not large, and from Japan there come 3,175 male im migrants and 275 female. —New York Sun. AFTER ALEXANDER’S DEATH. A New Era Introduced by the Great Macedonian Conqueror. When Alexander came upon the scene, writes Prof. Wheeler in closing his Alexander the Great in the Cen tury, Greece was still the old Greece, the composite of autonomous cities and cantons. In this form it was past the bloom, and was ripening to seed. All that the little communities could ac complish for history through living for themselves had been accomplished. In the miniature life of their isolated valleys, opening to the sea, they had developed a special system in which, as individual achievements directly counted, and individual responsibility was directly assessed, personality gathered to itself unwonted conscious ness of power. So it was that here man first, as it were, discovered him self—first saw witii clearness the power and the right of the free human soul. Man as a base-line for measur ing the universe, man as a source of governing power, arose in Greece; it was Greece that shaped the law of beauty from which came the arts of form, the law of speculative truth from which by ordered observations came the sciences, the law of liberty from which came the democratic state. This was what the old Greece held in keep ing for the world. Alexander was the strong wind that scattered the seed; again, he was the willing hand of the sower. When he planted seventy cities of the Greek type on Oriental soil he acted with plan and purpose. The city was Hellenism in the con crete. Asa principle of social order, Hellenism was tne government of com munities of men located in territory, and the source of authority was from within; orientalism was the govern ment of territory in which lived men, and the source of authority was from without. The story of Alexander has become a story of death. He died him self before his time. With his life he brought the Old Greece to its end; with his death the state he had founded. But they all three, Alexander, Greece, the Grand Empire, each after its sort, set forth, as history judges men and things, the inner value of the saying, “Except a grain of wheat fall into the earth and die, it abideth alone.” BACK UP JAPAN. Think what it would be if. by virtue of the laissez faire of England and other powers. Japan came to be per suaded that she could no longer make head against Russia’s power. What would occur? This, of course. Russia would make common cause with Jap an, promise an alliance and point out to Japan that her legitimate field for expansion was not Korea or the Man churian mainland, but —the Philip pines. These islands would be held up to Japan as her legitimate appen dage. and the United States, whether as sovereign or protector, would be exhibited as an intrusive hindrance to the legitimate “expansion” career of Japan. How could the Vnited States, with Russia and Japan in front of her. and the Filipinos behind her. venture to hold her position at Manila? It would be absolutely untenable. Then, with Russia and China solid, and with Japan as an ally holding the Philip pines. what would be the position of Australia, of India? It is enough to pose the question; it needs no answer. Considering all the above —no mere speculation, but the most obvious of political contingencies—what is to be done? Sweeping aside all the ridicul ous hand-to-mouth diplomatic tinker ing over Peking railways and spheres of influence —areas held at the enemy’s will —let us come to the bedrock of action and force, for right there is none in politics; and it is only the de liberate nincompoop that pretends there is. There is no doubt in any right-thinking and right-seeing mind. If Japan is challenged by Russia —and she is tb-day— it is the duty of Britain and the United States and China ffor what she is worth) to uphold Japan in war. and to expend all their resources in driving Russia, once for all. back from the Pacific coast. Japan should be invited to make her field of expan sion the Amoor valley and Korea, and, with Chinese consent. Manchuria, i? need be. It is now no time for the laborious compiling of empty diplomatic cackle in the shape of blue books, that serve to record nothing but the plasticity of the British foreign office and the de termination of the Russian chancell ery. While yet the Siberian railway is ineffective as a military route, it is Japan’s chance to pick up the Russian glove and smite her declared enemy in the face with it. As to the part to be instanly played by Britain and the United States there can be no doubt at all. That is to back up Japan to the full extent of the power of both nations — in the interest of eventual peace and the defeat of a deliberately mischievous power. As to the mention of Germany in this con nection, it is enough to say that until it is certain Germany will face -war with Russia in Europe, Germany must stand aside and look on. Still with a reconstructed Austria, and a liberated Poland as a buffer between Russia and western Europe, that may also hap pen. But this is quite outside the scope of this article. He is blind, in deed, who cannot see that we are at a parting of the ways if Russia once gains over or terrorizes Japan?—Sin gapore Free Press. MEDALS ARE IN DEMAND. Anything That Will Serve as a Me mento Finds Ready Sale. War medals, mostly won at the cost of peril and privation, are pawned by possessors and never redeemed, or are sent to the hammer by needy relatives on the decease of the veterans. It may be here noted that no man on the army active strength is allowed to pledge his medals. As is well knowm, war deco rations that pass by the means stated and otherwise into commerce are eagerly purchased by dealers, who dis pose of them to museums, also to pri vate collectors of every grade, from American millionaires to British pub licans. These discs of silver, especially those awarded for modern campaigns, from the Crimean war downward, are oc casionally put by dealers to novel use. By the aid of a blowpipe the inscrip tion on the edge can be filled with sil ver, when the surface if need be Is ready for re-engraving. Doctoring of the name, rank and regiment by the method mentioned is common in the trade, so it may he that the virtuoso who imagines he possesses a memento of the late gallant General Fitz Car nage, K. C. 8., who distinguished him self at Balaklava, would be shocked if he knew that his pet curio is a fraud and that it belonged to old Tommy Atkins of the Onety-oneth Foot, who pawned it before he retired into the workhouse to die. Again, officers serving or retired sometimes lose their medals, or have tihem feloniously annexed. Sooner than go through the war office red tape mill to procure duplicates relet tered medals are obtained from dealers. Mendicants get hold of the medals in order to exhibit them to credulous and benevolent folks and thus extract more liberal alms. War decorations are also occasionally sported by one armed or single-legged organ grinders. Such gentry warrant themselves to be British, and plead for patronage as a matter of national sentiment and as opposed to the claims of the Suffron Hill musical contingent of invaders. These medal-displaying humbugs are seldom ex-soldiers, far less have they been disabled in active service. They are at times considerably “out” in re spect of a bit of medal ribbon shown. For instance, an organ grinder of about 25 years of age was observed in Holborn the other day sporting the Crimean and Mutiny ribbons. Sometimes an actor possessed of a passion for realism, who may have to impersonate on the stage the hero of 100 fights, invests in real medals with which to cover the breast of his tunic. Also genuine war decorations adorn the uniformed presentments of emi nent warriors in the best-class wax exhibitions throughout the country. A year or two ago a paragraph went the rounds of the papers to the effect that a king of a tribe on the west coast of Africa had a mania for col lecting British war medals, and that a city firm had a standing order to supply his sable majesty. The king owned a major general’s tunic on which were sewn —both back and front and from collar to tails —medals and clasps from those of the peninsula and Waterloo downward. This garment the monarch proudly sported on extra special state occasions.—Regiment. AUSTRIAN TELEGRAM CARDS. Professor Emanuel Hermann has proposed the introduction of a tele gram card, which wil undoubtedly be used by the Austrian postotfice. The idea of Privy Councillor Herrmann is to cheapen rapid communication by a combination letter and ‘"legram, and special cards to be used for the pur pose. These cards are to be sent at half the price of the ordinary telegram. Tney may oe dropped in letter boxes or may be handed into postoffices, pro vided they are duly stamped. They are picked out at once and the mes sage, which is no longer than that in the ordinary telegram, is handed over to the telegraph operator, who sends it to its destination. The telegram is written on a special form and delivered by the letter carrier.—Scientific Ameri can. SEALED ORDERS. Death Is a Spirit! Those who have seen him nearest Hold him dearest. For the rareness of his choice When, at his Master’s voice, He seeks, for his own call, The bravest, best of all. When it seems unbetimes That one both good and great Should pass the shadowy gate Opening to stranger climes, Then may ye feel full sure The soul has grown so pure That it must needs incline Into the vast Divine. Death is a spirit! We deem his pace too swift; To our eyes, Though we be passing wise. It is not given To see across the rift Between ourselves and Heaven! On earth we hear a knell — Elsewhere there peals a bell In welcome for a guest, New to the Wondrous Quest Whereof no man on earth May ever know the birth. Only God knows, and they Who have joined His Great Array. —Walter Herries Pollock FONETIC SPELLING. Inquirers Want to Know What Cer tain Words Mean. Since the publication in The Chi cago Chronicle of the definitions of certain slang words and phrases and an exposition of their use by the mas ters of English literature so many re quests have poured in from Wellesley, Ferry Hall at Evanston and other ladies’ seminaries for a supplementary dictionary, inclosing several words and phrases which puzzled the fair correspondents, that the following brief addendum to the dictionary is presented. It would appear that the spread of highly expressive slang is very rapid in institutions of learning and the use of phrases which, while obscure at first hearing, are full of meaning to the initiated, is far more common than some of the learned pro fessors are aware. The attempts of Superintendent Andrews to simplify spelling by adopt ing to a certain extend the fonetic system have been met with a ready response by teachers and pupils alike and there is reason to believe that a broadening of the idea to include the use of such slang phrases as are ex pressive to a high degree is not among the impossibilities. A. ALL OUT, adj. Tired; the condition of being broke or winded; unable to get up before the count of ten; Mal achyed. B. BAT, n. A state of inebriety lasting several days; a good one. (b.) A blow administered with the clenched fist. Six rogues in buchram —each one did I bat. BALL, n. A drink made with ice, seltzer and other materials. The trumpets are sounding from castle and hall And gayly each henchman is copping a ball. —Tennyson. BITE, v. i. To accept as truth a fic titious story; to stand for the bull con. BREAK, n. An re mark, tending to the embarrassment of some listener. Across the fields their pensive way they take, Silent and fearful lest they make a break. —Pope. C. CINCH, n. A certainty: a horse that cannot lose the third race; a job in the hall. All day he struggled, yielding inch by inch, And grimly muttered; ’S death! this is no cinch. —Scott. CREEPERS, n. Rubber shoes or rubber heels affected by porch climbers and second-story workers to facilitate their labors. CHOP, v, i. To quit; to cease work or any other disagreeable task. To chop or not to chop? That is the question. Shak. D. DUCAT, n. A ticket of admission to a race track or other inclosure; the goods to get by the boy on the gate. DAFFY, adj. Not of sound mind; nanny; a little to the bad in the gar ret. And the loud laugh that tips che daffy guy. Goldsmith. F. FROST, n. A theatrical production which receives scant favor; a turn down; the delivery of the cracked ice. When other lips and ocher hearts To you but a frost. Moore. FAKE, n. A twenty-round fight end ing in a draw; anything not genuine; a phony; a cablegram quoting Ad miral Dewey on international ques tions. Fake! Fake! Fake! In ije cold gray dawn, Oh, see! And I know that my tongue ne’er uttered The things they ascribe to me. Dewey. G. GEEZER, n. Anyone described in a conversation. Syn., “guy.” GAZABO, n. A descriptive term ap plied to mankind generally; a hobo. Here rests his head upon the lap of earth A poor gazabo who was always broke. —Gray. GOOD THING, n. A horse that will open at 6 to 1, go to 20 to 1 at the post and finish a bad last; any easy source of money; a mark. The lark is up to meet the sun, the bee is on the wing. And out to Hariem I must run, for I have a good thing. Old Rhyme. GRAFT, n. A calling which brings in money without great physical effort; the introduction of farmers to seduc tive games Oi. chance. The skipper blew a whiff from his pipe and a scornful laugh he laughed, ‘“Just tell the police to come,” said he, “it’s each man to his graft.” Idylls of the Ivanhoe. KICK, n. A pocket; any place of con cealment for money or valuables. Dig deep while sluggards sleep And in your kick the coin you'll keep. Franklin. KILLING, n. Gathering in much coin from bookmakers; getting the soft down on a horse at a long price. KIP, v. i. To sleep; to give the pad a game; to put the alarm clock out of business. To die—to kip. To kip—-perhaps to dream — Ah, there’s the game. Shak. L. LIFT, v. t. To take surreptitiously; to cop; vulgarly, to “steal.” As some tall gun who lifts a bunch of lace, sneaks for the door and straightway leaves ehe place. Goldsmith. LID, n. A hat; any head covering. Syn., “bonnet,” skypiece.” LIT UP, adj. Attired in a gorgeous manner; decked out with the glad rags. "Hold!” cried Khorhassan. “ere we start to sup. Just tell me why you’re all lit up.” Moore. M. MAIN STEM, n. The principal per sonage in a city or assemblage; the works. Syn., Jim Jeffries, Mark Hannah, the prince of Wales. Lives of great men still remind us We can’t all be the main stem. Longfellow. MOP, v. t. To drink up i in large quantities as beer, water or other fluid; to dispose of by drinking. Thus does the fool break loose on Sun day night And try to mop in everything in sight. Pope. R. RINGER, n. One who takes another’s place; (b) one who bears a remark able resemblance to another; a double. I am but a humble ringer, Curfew shall not ring tonight. * Ruskin. P. PIPE, v. i. To take notice; to rubber, b. An exclamation of warning intended to direct the attention. Angels and ministers of grace defend us. Pipe! where it comes again! Shak. PACKAGE, n. A gathering of joyful mixtures which cause temporary lo comotor ataxia; a jag; a bunch of the Willies. The landlady an’ Tam grew gracious Until his package was a peach. Burns. N. NIT, adv. A word of negation. Syn., “Nix.” b. A worthless fellow; one who hasn’t got the change in his clothes; a lobster. Yet Brutus says that Caesar was a nit. Shak. NEXT, adj. Having an understand ing of what is going forward; wise; hep to the game. Robert of Sicily slowly read the text, Then raised his head and murmured, “I am next.” Longfellow. S. SLEEPERS, n. Money left on the bar by careless customers; checks un claimed on a roulette table and cop ped by wise boys. STEM, n. The bamboo pipe used by opium smokers. STEM TALK, n. Conversation of a fanciful nature seemingly inspired by a long dally with the dope. STAND FOR, v. i. To allow; to ac cept without comment. “This is more than I can stand for,” Quoth the raven; “Cut it out!” Poe. ANTS THAT CARRY UMBRELLAS. Of all the insects in South America the umbrella ants are the most curious and interesting. They are also called wee-wees. They throw up great mounds of earth along the forest paths, and from the mounds radiate well-beaten roads four or five inches wide, running in all directions. The umbrella ants, when they build near a garden, give rise to the question which is to survive —themselves or the garden —for they will eat up the plants. They will strip a good-sized orange tree in a night and carry off the spoil cut in thumb-nail pieces, which they store up in their homes.. It was necessary, in one instance, to remove a mound of the umbrella ants’ building, and 250 cubic yards of earth had to be dug before the task was accomplished. The ants have four classes —queens, driv ers, workers and builders. When once they have made up their minds to strip a certain tree nothing but death will stop them. A faint idea of the numbers of ants in a hill can be gained from the statement that one of their paths to a tree, nearly half a mile long, will be thronged with the multi tudes carrying their umbrella-like liads above their heads, while thous ands upon thousands are swarming in the doomed tree. If caught in the rain they drop their loads and scurry home, for they hate water. —Perason’s Weekly. DEWEY AND HIS YELLOW SHOES. Wore a Pair, and Wouldn't be Laugh ed Out of Them. When russet shoes of a bright yellow hue were introduced, Dewey wore the first pair that was seen in Washing ton. They at once became the subject of jest of all the officers of the Navy Department. Early in the afternoon one of Dewey’s feet began to swell, and his suffering from his new shoes was acute. In an interval between the calls of friends who were still “run ning” him on his shoes the Commo dore sought his chief clerk’s room. He walked with a limp, and finally loos ened the strmgs, to relieve his feet “I suppose I can’t take these things off now,” he remarked with a bitter smile, “for those fellows ’ll think they have driven me to it” And for hours the Commodore sat at his desk in perfect torture. —October Ladies’ Home Journal. The Beau —And don’t you think that the automobile will supplant the wheel? The Bell —I hope not! You don’t have to learn to ride automobiles. — Kansas City Independent. ADDRESS TO THE TOOTHACHE. My curse upon thy venomed stang. That shoote my tortured gums alang; An through my lugs goes mony a twang, Wi' gnawing vengeance! Tearing my nerves wi’ bitter pang, Like racking engines. When fevers burn, or ague freezes, Rheumatics gnaw, or colic squeezes; Our neighbor's sympathy may ease us, Wi’ pitying moan; But thee—thou hell o’ a’ diseases, Aye mocks our Adown by beard the slavers trickle; 1 throw the wee stools o’er the mickle, As round the fire the giglets keckle To see me loup; While, raving mad I wish a heckle Were in their doup. O' a’ the numerous human dools, 111 har'sts, daft bargains, cutty stools, Orr worthy friends raked i' the mools, Sad, sight to see! The tricks o’ knaves or fash o’ fools. Thou bear'st the gree. —Robert Burns. TUBERCULOSIS AND DIET. bhown Meat Eating Is Not Conducive to Consumption. Curious facts noted in London zoo logical gardens seem to bear hard against the theories of the believers in a vegetable diet for human beings. They are still more opposed to the growing belief that tuberculosis, com monly called consumption, is a scourge fostered largely by the use of milk and beef for food. It has been found that about 25 per cent, of all the birds and animals that die in the famous Regent Park “Zoo" perish from tuberculosis. That is a proportion twice as great as the aver age for human beings, though it is not much in excess of the ratio for man when allowance is made for deaths in infancy and early youth. In many parts of the w r orld about one adult in every four dies of tuberculosis, direct ly or indirectly. The animals differ greatly, how'ever, in their liability to this scourge. Rep tiles are practically exempt. Their low temperature seems fatal to the germs of tuberculosis. The mammals show a very large per cent, of all deaths as the result of this one disease. Birds are also much affected. In both the great clases the meat eaters are far less likely to tuberculosis than the vegetarians. Among the mammals that eat only vegetable food, like monkeys, ante lopes, deer and kangaroos, tuberculosis causes 26 •'er cent, of the deaths. Among the meat-eating beasts, such as lions, wolves, leopards and wildcats, the loss from tuberculosis is only about 3 per cent of the whole death rate. The grain-eating birds lost by tuberculosis is 30 per cent of all that die. The meat-eating eagles, owls, vultures and other birds of prey suffer only 11 per cent, of their total loss as the w r ork of this terrible destroyer. These contrasts are certainly impres sive. They are calculated to offset a good many of the ills attributed to a diet consisting in large part of flesh, and they will surely trouble the believ ers in the theory that consumption is • spread greatly by the use of beef pro ducts as food. The tests in the little animal world of the London zoo agree pretty well with certain broad facts in human! experience. Consumption greatly disappears in Iceland and among the Eskimos everywhere. There only flesh is eaten, broadly speaking. The scourge of tuberculosis is rare among the nomad tribes of central Asia. It is not common with the Arabs of the desert. In both cases animal food is the chief dependence of the tribes. These are facts seeming to point somewhat in the other direction, but the balance of evidence appears to be in favor of the belief that free eating of meat and much open air living are good defenses against consumption.— Cleveland Leader. THE DEVIL LOOKED AFTER HIS OWN. A negro in Alabama had a quart?', with a white man who in the end pounded him unmercifully with a club. To get even on the score and set one notch over for good measure, the negro soon afterwards burned the white man’s home; whereupon all the neigh borhood of whites rose as one person and w r ent gunning for Buck, the fire bug, and in a lonely wood shot him, so that he lay spread out as flat, limp, and as full of holes as a fish-net. There they left him. A month later another house w r as burned. The cul prit was tracked from the embers to a distant cabin, where he was cap tured. Everybody’s eyes grew large of a sudden and stared wudly; every body’s under jaw sagged like a fool’s for it was Buck they had in hand. He was yet sore enough of his many wounds, but vigorous and lively. When confronted by his accusers, the leader of whom was his old enemy, Buck confessed and begged for mercy. His plea did not find favor in the mob’s mind; it was thought safer to hang him and add a few more bullet holes to the many already troubling him, which was forthwith done. Dur ing the process of hauling him on high there was a merry fusillade, and just as he reached the extreme altitude, ■with the pistol-balls raising a great dust out of his baggy garments, one missile hit the rope at his neck, and snip! down he came. His sudden descent took the crowd by surprise; but the further fact that he “struck the ground a-runnin’;” as the man who told me expressed it, actually dazed them. In short, Buck escaped by plunging into a dense wood, and could not be found again, although the search lasted for nearly a week night and day. Five years later a man who Knew Buck well dropped into a hardware store in Nashville, Tenn essee, and while transacting some business chanced to catch a familiar ray from the grinning face of the firm’s black porter. It was Buck, and the observer held his peace, preferring not to renew the old acquaintance just then. —Maurice Thompson in Lippin cott’s. | OLD IMPERIAL BODYGUARD. The Cent Guards founded with the second empire in 1870. The corps dated from tie time of the Crimean war, when a visit from Queen Victoria was expected. The tallest and finest looking men and officers were selected from the cavalry. There were 137 of the former and eleven of the latter, but the number of men was increased to 208. Their function was purely decorative, and they chiefly served within the palace. What swells the officers were in their sky blue uniform bedight with golden lace! The corps had regulations of their own. They were on no account, when on duty, to stir unless to salute the emperor or emprejo, and only then when specially ordered. The worst breach of dis cipline would have been to forget they were to be as motionless as caryatides. One day Marshal Castellane, a vain, old, peppery personage, had occasion to see the emperor soon after the crea tion of the Cent Guards. Two of them kept guard beside the door open ing from the anteroom on the presence chamber. They remained in the regu lation attitude—that is to say, with the right arm horizontally stretched out and holding a musket by the bayonet. "I he butt end rested on the ground, tne marshal was in uniform. Furi ous at not being saluted, he asked the one nearest to him what it meant. The Cent Guard seemed neither to see nor to hear. Castellane lost self-restraint and abused him. Still the soldier re mained impassive. The irate marshal sent for Colonel Vorly to complain. The colonel failed to make him un derstand that approval and not chas tisement was due. Thus the matter was brought before the emperor, who gave the complainant a sharp rap on the knuckles by expressing his pleasure at the Spartan attitude of a household guard who was bound to ignore every rank but the imperial.—London Truth. WHY JEWS ARE DISLIKED. The Dreyfus case and the allied anti semiticism now so much in evidence In France have brought out a discussion on the subject of the almost universal and more or less bitter prejudice against the Jews. Mark Twain think? that their religion has very little to do with the prejudice. He finds the reason in the thrift, shrewdness, com mercial eadership and successful money getting propensity of the Jews. Some confirmation of this view is found in the fact that in coutries like America, where the Christains are as good or better than the Jews at money making, there is no hatred and but little antipathy for Jews. The New York Independent, while admitting that what Mr. Clemens says is sub stantially true, thinks that the real ex planation lies deeper. It says: “We can hardly doubt that it is because Jews make themselves into a caste as no other people do. It is of the es sence of caste to keep one’s race or guild socially separate from tne rest of the people; and the final test of caste, and the chief way in which a caste asserts distinctiveness and superiority is by its laws of marriage. A Brahmin cannot marry into the caste next below; and so on down through all the grades, each caste holds itself above that which is next to it. The Jews substantially declare that they are of a blood too pure and sacred to be profaned by a mixture with any other race. It may not be as serted, but it is an assumed superior ity. This might not give any special offense, and might even be laughed at if this fact did not produce a social separation along all lines. All society, with its parties and entertainments and grander or more humble functions, is in the last analysis arranged and provided for with a view to such mu tual acquaintance of young people as shall result in marriage and the form ing of new households. When Jews declare that they will not marry with those not of their religion, tney make themselves a special caste and shut themselves out from social relations with other people. There may be ;e --lations of business and esteem, and even personal friendship, but not such as can really break down the barriers of castes. We all know how this works to a less extent, within Chris tianity, by the attempt to forbid ‘ lies to marry Protestants. It separates in a considerable degree the Catholic socially from the Protestant. Now, when the people who are especially successful in business belong to one separate caste that holds itself apart from the rest of the population, that whole caste (in this case a religious one) will get all the kicks and curses which otherwise would go to certain individuals. We agree with Mark Twain that it is not religious prejudice that is involved, but there Is involved, we think, a little resentment against what appears to be a claim of super iority, and a good deal of that hostility which is likely to be aroused, espe cially among the ignorant, against those who are strangers, or who make themselves strangers, by holding aloof from the social life in the midst of which they live.” NOVEL WAY TO DESTROY A CHIM NEY. Here is a novel and economical way of destroying a large brick smoke stack. Tbe stack was 266 feet in height and 21 feet in diameter, and its removal was accomplished in the fol lowing manner. The brick was re moved from one side at about three feet from the ground, and the opening thus formed filled with built-up wooden blocks between which were packed tar, sawdust and paraffin. This material was then set on fire and caused the chimney to crack and fall within a space that had previously been marked on the ground. Not only was the cost much less than if the brick had been torn down, but there was also recovered much mater ial in good condition for future use. MEXICANS GO EAST. Chicago, Oct. 12. —After a visit of five days, Don Lignaccee Mariscal, vice president and mir’’ster of foreign af fairs of Mexico and the Mexican party left for the east Wednesday to make an extended tour before returnSSf to their own country.