JOHN H OBERLY, PUBLISHER
CAIRO, ILLINOIS, SUNDAY, DECEMBER 8, 1872.
l'rcachlnjr, Sabbath nt Ml a.m. and 7) p.m
Prayer meeting, Wednesday at 7 p. m.
Sabbath .School, .1 p.m. .!. M. I.anwlcn, Su
perintendent. Hkv. II. Tiuykr, Tutor
MKTIIODIST.-Cor. Kilitli and Walnut SU.
1'reachlng, Sabbath at 10) a.m., and 7 p. m
Prayer meeting, Wednesday, 74 p.m.
Sabbath School, 3. p.m. L. W. Still well,
Superintendent. Hkv. F. L. Thompson,
CIIUUCH OK T1IK IlEDEEMKH-(Kplco-
Morning prayers. Sabbath 101 a.in-
HvcuItiK prayera, "J p.tn.
Sabbath School, 0 a.m.
ItKV. K. Co an, Hector.
ST. I'ATItlCK'9 CIIUUCH Ninth St. and
Public ecrvlco, Sabbath 8:10 and 101
Vetpcrs, 7 p.m.
Sabbath School, i! p.m.
Service every day, 8 a.m.
ItEV. P. J. O'llALLOKAN, Priest.
ST. JOSEPH'S OIIUIlCH.-tUennan,) cor
ner of VVulnut und Cross streets,
iluss, every Sabbuth at 10 o'clock a. in.
Vespers, i! p. in.
Man during week (In) f, fi o'clock a. in.
Hkv. c. HomiA.v, Prleat.
trcet between Washington Avenue and
Walnut afreet. , , ,
Prrschltur Sunday morning at 10 o'clock.
Sabbath School at i! o'clock p. m. 11. C.
Hr.v. Hoii't. Hki.dio, Pastor.
VOUNO MEN'S CHUISTIAN ASSOCIA
TION. Itcgulur meeting accond Monday
each month at their room over Hockweli
& Co'a book store, Commercial avenue.
Weekly Prayer meeting, Friday, 71 p.m. at
I,. W. Stillwell. Prcildcnt.
SECOND MISSIONARY HAPTIST
CIIUHCII. Corner Syeaniore and Forty
llrt streets. Preaching Sabbath at 11
o'clock h. m. ami 3 o'clock p. m.
Sunday School 1 o'clock p. tit.
The church It connected with the IlllnoH
Aaoclatlon, by tbi' Flrt Missionary Hap
tlat Church ol Cairo.
Hkv. Solomon I.r.ONAltD, Pastor.
FHICAN Mr7IIIOI)IST. Fourteenth, be
"cell Walnut and Cedar,
crvlcea, Sabbath. 11 a.m.
Miuth School, 11 p.m.
,ai meets at '! p.m.
iCCONI) FIUX WILL HAITIST'-Flf-Uentb
Street., between Walnut and Cedar.
Service Sabbath. 11 and 3 p. in.
Hkv. N. kicks, Paator.
KHEK WILL HAPTIST HOME MISSION
SAI1HATII SCHOOL. Corner Walnut
and Cedar Streett.
Sabbath .school, II a.m.
FIHST FKEE WILL HAPTIS T CI1UHC1I
Services, Sabbath 11 a.m.. 3 p.m. fc 71 p. in.
ItEV. Wm. KKI.I.EV, Pastor.
FIRST MISSIONARY IIA1TIST CHURCH.
-Cedar, between Ninth anil Tenth Sta.
Presetting Sabbath, 10) a,tn. and 71 p.m.
Prayer meeting. cduesdsy evening.
Preaching, Friday evening.
Sabbath School, 1) p.m. John anliazter
aud Mary Stephcua. Suprrlntendenta.
Hkv. T. J. Siiokes, Pator.
SECOND HAPTIST CHUHCH-Fourteenth
Street, between Cedar and Walnut. The
ouly UaptUt church recognized by the As
sociation. Services, Sabbath, 11 a.m. 3 p,m. and 7 p.m.
Hrv. Jacoii Huadi.kv. Elder.
S ECiTet" O It D E RS .
AIRO COMMANDER Y, No. 13.-Stated
Assembly at the Asylwu Maonlc Hall, tlrst
and third Saturday In each month.
2AIRO COUNCIL, No. 24. Regular Convo
cation at Maaonlc Hall, the accond Friday
In each month.
CAIRO CHAPTER No. 71. Itegular Con
vocation at Maronlc Hall, on the third
Tuesday ol every month,
CAIRO LODGE, No. '237 F.& A. M. Regu
lar Communication! at Mutoulc Hall, the
second and fourth Monday of each month.
ALEXANDER LODGE, H'jy Meets In Odd
Fellows' Hall, In Arter'a building, every
Thursday evening at 9 o'clock.
Governor John M. Palmer ;
Lieutenant-Governor John Dougherty ;
secretary of State Edmund Hummel ;
Auditor bf State C. E. Llpplncott :
Stale Treasurer E. N. Hates ;
Supt. Public lnatructlon-Newton Hateman
Senator Lymau Trumbull and John A.
leprcjcntatlvci for the State-at-Largc S.
Hepreieutative Thirteenth District John
MKMBERS GENERAL ASSEMHLY.
Sena ton, First District T. A. K. Holcomb,
f Union, and S. K. Gibson, of Gallatin.
Ropreientatlve, First District 11. Watson
Judge D. J. Uaker, of Alexander.
Prosecuting Attorney J. F. McCartney,
Clerk R. S. Yocum.
Shcriir-A. II. lrvlu.
Wm. Martin Assessor and Treasurer.
Judge F. Hrost.
Associate J. E. McCrite and S. Marchll
don. Clerk Jacob G. Lynch.
Coroner John II. Uossinan.
Mayor John M. Lanidcn.
Treusiirer II. A. Cunningham.
Comptroller!!. A. Hurnett.
Clerk Michael Howluy.
Marshal Andrew Cain.
Attorney P. II. Pope.
Police Magistrates F. llrost and 11. Shan
ncasy. Chief of Police L. II. Myers.
Mayor John M. Landen.
First Wnrd-P. G. Schuh.
Second Wanl C. H. Woodward.
Third Ward-Jno. Wood.
Fourth Ward S. Stuatit Taylor.
Clty-at-Large W. P. Halllday and D.
nOAHl) OF ALDE1IMEN.
First Ward -James Rearden, A. H. Saf
lord, Isaac Walder.
Second AVard K. II. Cunningham, E. Ru
der, O. Stance), James Swnyne.
Third Wnrd-Wm. Strutton, J. B. Phillla.
Fourth Ward-Jno. H. Robinson, G. II.
Scasc, J. II. Mctcnlf.
It, S. HRIGHAM, M. D
Homeopathic Physician uud Surgeon. Of
lice 130 Commercial avenue. Residence on
Teutli street, threo doom west of C. R.
DR. B. U. TABER,
Will resume the practice of bis profession
with especial reference to the cluctricu
treatment ol diseases In all the new and Im
proved methods of application.
In all cases of tcmalo complaints a lady
will bu In attendance.
Ofllce, 128 Commercial avenue, up stairs.
WILLIAM 11. SMITH, M. D.
ME8IDKN0K-Nn. Thirteenth HtrMt, be
XV twsea WsihiDRiotf avenue ana Walnut street.
uraoeUi) Commercial avenue, up stairs.
0. W. DUNNING, M. D.
TiKBIDKNCE-oornerNinth and Walnut sts,
jAiOftee corner Sixth street and Ohio levee,
OfBoe hours from a.m. to la m and 9 p. m
H. WARDNER, M. I).
BUIDKNOP,-Corner Mnettenlh street and
JLV Washington avenue, near court house. Of.
flco over Arter'a Grocery Store, OlMoe Hours Iroro
10a.m. to M m. and "om J to o. m.
DR. R, BLUM,
Surgeon nnd Mechanical
ID IEZLsT T 1ST!
Office. Commercial Avcuuo between Ninth
mill TAnth ntronto
REPININO OF SUGAR.
Sugar is all article of such general
consumption, that every one is more or
less familiar with its uses. Compar
atively few of our readers, however,
nre well verged in the history of its
production, and fewer still have par
ticular information relative to the pro
cesses it kocs through in refining, the
better to fit it for use.
The latter class is the one to he more
especially interested in the engraving
upon the following page, illustrating
an apparatus for use in a specific part
of the process of refining; viz., for dry
ing or hardening the sugar crystal
when it is desired to produce it in the
condition called granulated sugar.
As any matter relating to the sub
ject or the article itself, in any
state of its production, should be in
teresting, we propose to preface its
description with a few general remarks
oil tho history of the production of raw
or commercial sugar, such ns is mostly
imported into this country. Such
sugar is produced wholly from the
sugar-cane grown within the limits or
the tropical latitudes ; and the nearer
the equator, nil other conditions being
equal, the better is the sugar. Our
supplies of raw KUgar are brought
chiefly from tho West Indies, a con
siderable portion from Java and Manila
in the East ludics, and the remainder
mostly from several parts of South
There is a considerable amount of
sugar produced in the Gulf States of
thif country, principally Louisiana and
Texas ; hut its quality varies somewhat
from that imported, and finds a market
chiefly in the Western Sfates.
It may not be necessary to explain
the cause, but it i-eeuis to bo the fuct,
that all the improvements made to fa
cilitate production of raw sugar have
been to increase quantity, which tends
to depreciate quality in almost equal
ratio. The consequence is, therefore,
that no raw sugar is fit lor domestic
tiR'9, and the business of refining it is
absolutely necessary; while, lor all
other uses, a gain is made by substitu
ting the refined where formerly some
kinds of raw or partly refined sugar
had to be used, as no other could be
obtained in sufficient quantities.
There arc some semi-refined or clari
fied sugars imported, and it is this de
scription which is chiefly produced in
our Southern States; but the processes
it goes through, being less perfect than
those used in the Northern States, do
not result m the production of au arti
cle equal in quality to that generally
turned out by our refineries in Boston,
New York, and Philadelphia. The
tcmi-refincd or clarified sugars so
called, whether imported or of home
production, are not so good for any
purpose as the regular refined sugar,
because they are clarified and blanched
by a chemical process which is not so
effectual as tho method of clarification
and discolorizatiou practised by the re
finers. Sugar is a crystallizable substance ;
hence, when pure, is will form in regu
lar, well-defined crystals, aud, being
perfectly eoluble, will readily dissolve
in almost any proportional quantity of
water, and make a perfectly clear so
lution, leaving no sediment; therefore
the admixture of any foreign substanco
canuot be made without being readily
detected. There is no useful article
tho production of which offers less op
portunity for adulteration thau refined
After the raw sugar has been prop
erly clarified and discolorizcd, which
is done while in a liquid state, it passes
into an apparatus where it is boiled
uuder a vacuum until granulation or
cry.Mnllizatiou has boen sufficiently eff
ected. It is thun purged of its liquor
of crystallization, nnd passes thence
through tins drying-apparatus, from
which it comes out in the form of those
beautiful hard white grains so familiarly
known as granulated sugar.
By evergreens is commonly under
stood the family of coniferous trees,
becauso, in northern latitudes, there
are the only trees which retain their
foliage throughout tho year. Tho de
ciduous trees give us shade and shelter
during the summer, hut in our prairio
regions, during the coldest half of the
year, these trees aro leafless and afford
ouly partial protection from tho fierce
blasts of winter. This consideration
ulouo should recommend the cultiva
tion of overgreens to every dweller
upon prairie-soil, lor not only is the
personal comfort of man and beast con
cerned, but also practical economy, as
it is won understood by intelligent lur
mors that tho abstraction ot animal
heat by cold winds must bo counter
balanced by an increased supply of
lood. iiut tho lact that these conifer
ous trees furnish our most valuable
building-material, that our native sup
ply of them is rapidly disappearing, aud
tho market valuo advancing, affords
strong aud urgent argument for tho
attention ol trco-growors.
Tho white, Austrian, aud the Scotch
pines aro considered tho best for gen
eral cultivation. Mr. Bryant says of
tno wluto pine," do ono ot our nattvo
loresi trees is more generally useful
anu no ono better merits careful pre
servation and extensive culture. As
an ornameutal treo, it is surpassed by
few, if auy, of tho cenus. Its foliace
is soft, its huo agreeablo, and the
wholo appearance of tho treo graceful."
Tho Scotch pine is ono of tho most
rapidly growing species, and succeeds
iu very variable Boils, being perfectly
hurdy, oven in tho most northern .parts
of our country. It boars transplanting
with nioio facility, perhaps, thur auy
other species. Its thick, dcuso foliage
adapts it woll for screens or bolts for
the protection ol orchards, On ac
count of its rapid growth, its valuable
resists the most violent wind and does
not i uffer under tho hcrvy accumula
tions of sleet and ice, which sometimes
greatly injure moro slender species.
It has been extensively planted for
ornamentation, and although rigid and
ungraceful iu habit, its dense and dark
foliage in winter renders it very pleas
ant to look upon.
The whito and black spruce, tho
Norway spruco, and the hemlock, or
hemlock-spruce, aro the most important
species of this genus, (Alia.) Tho
Norway spruce iu particular baa been
highly recommended byt several wes
tern horticultural societies as the most
suitable tree lor belts for the protec
tion of orchards. It is perfectly hardy,
bears transplanting, is vigorous in
growth, and adapted to all common
The white und the black tpruces arc
among the most valuable ornamental
evergreens, and their presence in the
vicinity of tho farm-houso or dwelling
is at once an evidence of taste, and
materially, not only to the market
value of place, but presents agreeable
objects for the eye, and relieves the
dreariness of the winter landscape.
Among ornamental evergreens per
haps none is more deserving of a placo
than the hemlock. Its delicate light
green aud silvery foliage and slender,
drooping, graceful branches from a
pleasing contrast with the stiffer and
more rigid pines nnd spruces. Per
haps on account of its commonness in
the Northern and Eastern States, it has
been neglected as an ornamental tree.
Mr. Median says of it that " it would
be no exaggeration to pronouce it tho
most beautiful evergreen in cultiva
tion." It has been recommended as
a screen, or ornamental hedge, but for
this purpose there is probably no ever
green equal to the arbor vittc. This
bears close planting, may be communed
into any desired shape, and forms a
dense, compact wall of tho deepest
green. Tho Siberian and Chinese ar
bor vitals are considerably cultivated,
and may perhaps suit some localities
better than the American.
EARLY FEMALE PRINTERS IN
Although not earliest in time, Mrs.
Margaret Draper may well claim pre
cedence in mention on account of her
connection with the first newspaper in
the United States.
The Boston ' News-Letter ' passed
from the worthy and manly direction
of Bartholomew Green, at his death,
into the hands of his son-in-law, John
Draper, and thence in lineal succession
to his sou Richard. Richard Draper
was the stauncnest ot 'lories, and
heartily advocated in bis paper all the
incidental consequences of the British
rule, lie was in partnership with
John Boyle at the time of his death
in li (4, anu the partnership was con
tinucd with the widow, Margaret Dra
per. Coming events were casting
their shadows belore at least to the
oyes of John Boyle; and he dissolved
the connection, leaving Mrs. Draper to
struL'i'lc uuder her oppressive and un
welcome burden. A young liostonian,
named John Howe, was, however, ready
to be as rapidly 'lory as the emergency
required, aud under his management
the journal continued to be the only
paper published in Boston during the
scige. The old age of the 1 News-Let
ter was not venerable ; in its seventy-
second year it could not rocognize the
new light kindled on lsunkcr Hill, and
iguomiuiously closed its long career
with the departure of Margaret Draper
I T-l. II 1 .1
anu uuuu nunc, uuuer iuc protection
of the British soldiery. Howe received
the wages of his services in the post of
government printer at Halifax, and
Mrs. Draper found a final shelter in
England, where she lived for a quarter
of a ccuturv as a monument of Torv
'fidelity on a pension from the British
Tho 'American Weekly Mercury,'
of Philadelphia, and the 1 Gazette, '
must divide the honors of the second
place iu the annals of American jour
nalism, being both begun in December,
1719. Tho ' Mercury, the first paper
iu the Middle States, was successfully
supported by its fouuder, Andrew
Bradford, uutil his death in 1742.
His widow, Cornelia Bradford, as
sumed the entire ooutrol for some
months ; she then entered, for a short
period, into partnership with Isaiah
Warner, but afterwards resumed tho
solo responsibility of the journal, sup
porting it for some years with ability.
The fiist woman directly mentioned
as personally engaged in printing in
the United States, is Elizabeth, wife
of Samuel Green, the second. John
Dunton, tho English traveller, in his
" Life and Errors, '' gives an exquisite
and elaborate description of his charac
ter aud conduct as a model woman,
wife and mother, aud as part of the
culogium says that " she labored in her
husband's oflico with a skill as if sho
had never bceu in n kitchen, whilo she
worked in her house as if cho had nev
er been out of it."
In -tho samo great typographical
family of the Greens, Jonas becamo
Stato printer for Maryland in 1740.
Ho married a Hollandish immigrant,
aud upon his death, in 1707, sho as
sumed his business us printer as well as
the conduct of his newspaper, the
' Marylaud Gazette,' Soon afterwards
sho admitted her son William as part
ner, with tno urm name of Anne
Catherine Green & Bon. William
died in a short time, and sho continued
her labors alono until her death in
1875, leaving tho office to her sons,
Froderiek aud Samuel Green.
Tho family of Franklin also con
tained at least 'three female composi
tors, the best known being Anne, tho
widow,of James Fruuklin. After his
uufortunato expericuco with the ' Cou
raut, 'James l'rauklin abandoned Bos
ton, and became State printer at New-
?ort, Rhodo Island. He died there in
785, and his office was eoutinued to
1754, became a partner. They estab
lished the. Newport Mercury ' in 1758,
and the mother still continued it after
tho death of James in 17G2. Sho
afterwards formed a partnership with
Samuel Hall, under tho namo of
Franklin & Hall, thus, by a curious
coincidence, repeating tho title of the
firm of which her brother-in-law,
Benjamin, was a member in Philadel
phia. Mrs. Anne Franklin died ia
1863, at the ago of sixty-three, having
just printed a folio editiou of the laws
of tho state.
Mrs. Sarah Goddard and her daugh
ter wtro also widelv known in the pro
fession. The mother was a member of
the Updike family of Rhode Island,
and received a remarkably thorough
education. She married a physician
named Goddard, who died iu a few
years ; and under her direction her sou
William was trained ns a printer. He
became the first printer in Provideucc,
Rhode Island, aud established in 1702,
the Providence ' Gazette and ' Country
Journal.' His mother became his
partner, under the firm name of Sarah
and William Goddard, aud the entile
business devolved upon her when her
son removed to Philadelphia. She
afterwards became associated with Join
Carter in the firm ol Goddard & Co.,
and successfully pursued her avocation
until 17C9, shortly before her death.
William Goddard subsequently es
tablished himself in Baltimore, pub
lishing the Maryland 'Journal,' and
officiating as postmaster. Benjamin
Franklin appointed him as a surveyor
of post-roads and controller of post
offices, and in order to devote himself
to this important service, ho relin
quished his business into tho hands
ot bis master, Mary ivatncnne iiod
dard, who conducted the ' Journal' in
her own name, from 1775 to 1784.
Miss Jane Aitken, ot V niladelpnia,
deserves special and honorable men
tion for the fine character and excellent
typographical execution of her publi
cations. Her father was a printer ot
celebrity, especially known for pub
lishing the Bible in Philadelphia iu
1728 : the business descended to her,
and she. sustained it most creditably
for many years.
The calamities which attended the
introduction of printing into South
Carolina, forced the wives and widows
of the unfortunate typographers into
uuexpected publicity. Between 1730
and 1733 two priuters had died, and
their place was supplied by a third,
Lewis Timothy. He was a French
Protestant refugee, who had learned to
print in Holland, and alter wards found
employment in Franklin's printing
office in Philadelphia, where he also
officiated as first custodian ot the Phil
adelphia Library. Anglocizing his
name of Louis Timothce into plain
Lewis Timothy, he, undeterred by the
sad fate ot his predecessors, estab
lished himself in Charleston, where he
also died in a very short time. His
widow, Elizabeth Timothy, by her
own exertions maintained the omco
through the minority of her child, and
upon reaching bis majority relinquished
it to ker son Peter. This typographer
enthusiastically adopted the cause of
the Colonies ; was taken prisoner in
Charleston by the British, and was
drowned at sea on his passage home,
alter being exobanged. Ann 'limothy,
his widow, under tho pressure of ne
cessity, revived the ' Gazette, ' a paper
formerly established by the father ot
her husband, and obtained the position
of State printer, a station which she
held until death in IV i)-'.
Charles Crouch, a native of Charles
ton, opened an office iu that city iu
1765. aud devoted his paper to the op
position of tho Stamp Act. Just at
the commencement of hostilities he
was drowned while on his way to New
York. His widow, Mary Crouch, born
in Providence, Rhodo Island, imme
diately assumed the conduct of his
press, and succeeded in escaping with
all the material of tho office just as
Charleston fell into the hands of the
British. Mrs. Crouch carried her
press aud types to Salem, Massachu
setts, where sho published a paper in
January, 1781, called tho Salem ' Ga
zette and General ' Advertiser; ' she
soon afterwards sold her office aud re
tired to Providence, her birthplace.
The list of early femalu printers
might readily be lengthened by the
names of those widows who were com
pelled by circumstauccs to assumo tho
business as the only means of support
ing their families, without making any
endeavor to achieve a distinguished
position among tho craft. Among
these Iwas Joanna Perry, of Bostou.
who directed her husband's office for
soveral years subsequent to his death.
Clementina Rind also succeeded her
husbaud for( soveral years as priutcr
of tho Virginia ' Gazette.' In New
York, Elizabeth Holt and Anu Green
leaf each conduoted journals for a few
years after tho decease of their hus
bands; and Cathcrino Zcugcr,' tho
widow of the celebrated John Peter
Zenger, supported his printing offico
aud tho New York Weokly Journal.'
Her son, during the period, completed
his apprenticeship under her direotion,
and sho resigucd in his favor, opouing
on her own occount a houso for the
sale of pamphlets and stationary.
Printer a Circular.
The belt of land around the globe,
500 miles north and' 600 miles 'south
of the equator, abounds in trees pro
ducing the gutn 'of India-rubber. They
can bo tapped, it is stated, for twenty
successive soasous without injury ; and
they stand so close that ono man can
gather tho sap of eighty in a day, each
treo yielding, on un average, 8 tublo.
spoonfuls a day. Forty-three thousand
of theso trees have been counted in a
tract of country a mile long by eit'ht
America more than 150 manufactories
of india-rubber articles, employing 500
Singing birds and noisy insects aro
quite familiar objects, but musical
quadrupeds aro an anomaly. Horses
and several species of serpents evident
ly receive pleasure from sweet sounds.
Anatomists ascertained long ngo that
when that division of tho internal car
technically called cochlea existed,
which is fully developed iu man, a
marked susceptibility to musical im
pressions existed. Whero a choclcal
spiral appears, even in an elementary
form, it pro-supposes a corresponding
organization of the brain. It is a law
in organic life that the special organs
of sense bear a definite relation to tho
nervous system, the great controlling
organ of the whole being within the
skull. It seems that the larger the
surface over which tho accoustic ncrvu
is expanded, the greater the musical
canacitv in birds. In vcrv distin
guished musical characters the power
is in their brain, the car being simply
an instrument through which the
mind maintains a relation with the air,
by which vibrations are transmitted to
the apparatus within.
Musical mice do not sing by a cur
rent of air passing through the larynx
or musical box that prominent pro
tuberance in the upper part of our
throat. On the contrary, an equivalent
for vocal cords arc vibrating folds of
the skin just at the outlet of each nos
tril. By forcing air with a littlo ex
tra force, entirely depending on the
will of the mouse, such is the tension
of those valvular folds, a shrill note is
produced. The performer varies tho
tone lroma grave to an acuto bound at
will. There is a curious rcscrablanco
to the varying Harmony of tho Eoliau
harp, and the songster is undisturbed
wheu a concert has been fairly com
menced. When caged and the per
forming prisoners become familiar with
the surroundings, they will sometimes
sing with the ardor of a vetcrau ca
bitictng mice are not very common.
Usually, they arc found in a range of
country between the -i-aa and 00th
degrees of latitude north. Houses
have been superstitious supposed to
be haunted by ghosts of murdered la
dies, who thus announced themselves
by a soft wail between ceilings, under
the hearth, in cellar walls, chamber
closets, or a dismal garret, the terror
of chambermaids and all heroic ser
vants. The mechanism by which the
siuging is accomplished is thought to
bear some analogy to that by which n
cat purs. Both, when in opcratiou,
indicate a quiet, pleasant state of feel
ing on the part of the individual.
Poscssing this rare musical talent,
which is an elevation above ordinary
mice, tho singers are quite as prone to
mischievous nibbling depredations as
their less accomplished relatives with
PRICES AND STYLE OF FURS.
Serviceable and haudsomc furs have
come within tho reach of moderate
purses, owing, perhaps, to the iugenuity
displayed by furriers in the adaptation
of skins formerly unheard of.
Seal-skin sets of a fine quality are to
bo had very low. These look well
with walkiug dresses, soften tho com
plexion, aud last, though not least, do
not attract moths.
They are preferable to the coarse
qualities of mink, which wear lighter,
aud are hard to protect. Tho fur
known as the Alaska sable is somewhat
lower in price than seal-skin. It has
a very rich affect and is preferred by
The price of Russian sable puts it
beyond general reach, a muff and boa
costing from 8150 to 8800.
Ermine has decreased in price. This
is the most becoming of all furs, but it
is reserved for carriago dress and even
For use. no fur excels tho black
Astrachan, and the price is very mod
crate. In this climate such a set is
very desirable. Thus muffled ouo can
face all weather, as raiu docs uot
burt tno lur.
Trimming furs urc sold by the yard,
and aro very effective on tho velvet
overdresses and sacques. It is allowa
ble to put them on heavy woolen stuffs,
but thoy should bo chosen with care
us to color. A black velvet polonaise,
trimmed with sable, is a beautiful win
ter garment, and is not in danger of
growing common. The variety of furs
lor children is very largo this season.
A V hole sets, sacque, muff and turban,
are very much woru. Whether or uot
this style of clothing is healthy, is a
question lor physicians to answer.
There is certainly ground for debate.
Theso sots come in ermine, French
ermine, Iceland lamb, Persian lamb
The putting away of furs, after tho
season, is an important matter. Ac
coring to fur dealers camphor should
not be used. Tho furs should bo hung
iu the air for several days, beaten thor
oughly with a light switch, rolled in
brown paper, put in boxes, aud placed
in a dry closet. At intervals, through
the summer, it is well to take them out,
and examine aud air them. This is
all that is necessary for their preserva
tion from moths.
TELEGRAPHING BY SOUND
In 1828 Sturm and Colladou mmln
a Bories of experiments at Lako Geneva.
Switzerland, to determiuo tho rato of
transmission ot sound through water.
Tho sounds wero produced by strikiug
a, bell suspended from a boat at u
buiuiuiu uujiiu iu uiu waiur, wuno
tbo obsorvers wero stationed in another
boat at a distauco aud received the
Bonorous impressions through a long
Uietallio tube, tho lower cud of which
was uloscd by u membrunu and im
mersed ut a considerable depth iu tho
water. In theso oxperiuionts tho bell
weighed about ouo hundred and thirty
pbunds and the sound was heard at a
dhtauce of about 14,000 yards.
the following results: The experi
ments wero conducted ns in tho former
instance and made in the River Seine,
Two bells wero employed, one of about
eighty pounds and the other of seven
hundred pounds weight. In tho caso
of the first the sound was transmitted
to a distanco of about 1,800 yards,
whilo iu the case of the second or
larger hell only to 1,500 yards. There
was therefore no advantage gained by
the increase in the size of tho bell iu
fact there was a loss. Tho great de
munition in the distance to which tho
sound was conveyed in his experiments
is accredited by M. Lucas to want of
depth in the waters of the Seine as
compared with those of Lake Ge
neva. Naturo and Science; tScrib
ner's for December.
A GOOD WORD FOB THE PRESI
DENT. The stand which the president has
taken against the Ring politicians in
Pennsylvania, iu his deter initiation to
enforce the civil-service rules, meets
with the approbation of the butter men
of all parties, and many Democrats
who opposed Gcueral Grant's re-election
are free to commend his action.
Tho Boston 1 Post, ' one of tho strong
est Democratic journals in the country,
" Coining directly after his re-election,
lor which President Grant is re
minded that ho is the special debtor to
Pennsylvania, this reported attitude is
qtiito ns commendable us it is remarka
ble. It is an excellent resolution for
an administration to start off on, pro
vided it is kept up to the end. The
promotion of trusty and capable subor
diuatcs is the very secret of securing
faithful service. There is an clement
of trustworthiness in public office, on
that basis, which will have an imme
diate effect, if not immediately visible,
ou the character of the public service.
Thcro is a widely prevalent opiuion
that it is timu the public business of
tho country was transacted on some
thing besides a party basis. As there
are uo politics whatever iu the service, it
is becoming more uud moro conclutuvo
that there should be no politics iu the
considerations that govern appointment
and promotion. This broader and
juster sentiment must begin nt some
tunc, aud what better thau at the open
ing of a ucw administration, which can
not plead the poor excuse that it has
uot everything in its hands. Tho
country, regardless of party, will en
thusiastically co-operate with tho
president in his endeavors to bring
over the civil service to n better basis ;
and if this vigorous declension of the
officious intermeddling of tho Cameron
clan is an honest beginning on his part,
he may count on a popular support iu
that matter without the slightest visi
ble tinge of partisan feeling."
AN AWFUL LONESOME MAN
In the shauty which, iu California's
early days did duty us office for the
buukiui; postal, aud express business of
Wells, Fargo Co., iu Maryville, there
sat, one Saturday evening, a inisati
thropicaud dejected lookiug individual,
whose long aud unkempt hair aud
beard, cowhide boots and rough dress
bespoke the miner. I' or over uu hour
he set there the picture of despair,
with not a word or a look for any one
present, timers came, leu their
" dust," took their coin in return, and
exchanged greeting with nil present,
save the one morose man whoso npatliy
nothing, it seemed, could disturb.
Finally there entered a youug man
with a beaming face, who, after com
pleting his business at the counter,
turned to tho agent in charge aud re
marked that on the previous Saturday
he had soino dealings with the bank,
and thought that some mistake had
bceu made in his account.
"Guess not, "6aid tho agent. "Our
cash was all right, and I reckon wo
keep our books pretty straight."
But upon tho request of tho miner
that tho account should bo examined,
the account was looked nt, and it wus
found that through a cluneal error tho
miner had been paid just S50 too
" That's just what I mako it, " said
tho latter, " and hero's your money."
With this he threw down the gold, and
received the thanks of tho agent.
While this convcrsatiou was in pro
gross, the misanthropic miner had pre
served his look of utter indifference ;
but, when ho saw tho money actually
returned, his face brightened up, he
roso slowlj', walked toward the honest
miner with slow aud solemn step, and
" Young man, don't you feel awful
louesomo iu this country?"
MYSTERY OF AMERICAN WIN
TER STORMS. AN ATMOS
A telegram from Washington an
uouuecs that tho researches of the Sig
nal Office have just been rewarded by
a beautiful and highly important me
On tho coast of England, from time
immemorial, tno pncuomeiiou ol the
great November atiuosphcrio wavo has
been tho speculation of scicutists aud
seamou ; but Sir John ilor.-chel and
others have supposed it was peculiar,
and coufiucd to England and Western
Europo, which it roaches from tho
South Atlantic, aud over which it rolls
in long-continued undulations from
October to January, constituting an
important element in tho pheuomenal
charcter of Europeau wiuter. On tho
12th of November, a similar atmospher
ic wave began to break over tho shores
of Oregon aud British Columbia, as
showu by the weather telegrams. By
the evening of tho 13th, it hud spread
over nearly nil of tho Paoifio States
and Territories, Utah and Novadu, and
at midnight was pouring through the
passes of tho Rocky Mountains. Ou
Thursday, tho 14th, it descended upon
uoiorauo, ixcurasica, ivansas, aim iuc
thcuco to the Lower Missouri and low
er Mississippi valleys, and over tho
western shore of tho Mexican Gulf.
This discovery will enablo me
teorologists to anticipate by many
days tho approach of winter, as it ad
vances lrom tho Pacific coast eastward
in tho great current ot westerly winds.
It serves to clear up the old mystery of
American winter storms, showing that
they originate in tho Rocky Moun
tains, upon whoso cold and loftiest
summits in Nevada, Utah, Colorado,
I U.....I ll .1. ' l. .1 '
unu uuuuiuru i) yomiug mu vapor lauen
air of this wave, coming from over tho
warm Pacific, is now seen to bo con
densed in the overwhelming snows of
the forty-first parallel. As the 7ast
aerial wavo is probably like tho En
glish wave, continued in succcssiuo un
dulations for two or threo months, it
may assist in explaining tho compar
atively high temperature and light
precipitation in winter along Puget
Sound ami eastward. "From Ameri
can Artisan, Nov. 30th,
LAKE ERIE DRYING UP.
It is predicted that Lake Erie, now
the pathway of a mighty commerce,
will, in time, dry up, and become the
homo of a teeming population. Careful.
surveys havo showu that whilo Lako
Michigan has an average depth of 120
feet, which is said to be constantly de
creasing. 'JLho bottom ol tho lako is
quite level, and composed of soft clay.
This clay is constantly accumulating
from Kcdimcnt carried down by tri
butary str.'ams. Tho south shore is
composed of easily disintegrating blue,
gray and olive shoals and gray sand
stone. The western coasts aro mado
up of limestouo of tho Hcidcrbcrg
group, which quickly yields to tho ac
tion of the waves. Consequently both
shores aro eoustantly contributing to
hll up the bed nt the lake. Die work
is not rapid, but it is said to bo as cer
tain as fate.
A Bkiilin lithographer has, after
years of study, succeeded in inveuting
inimitable paper money. I he color
of tho paper is the ouly secret on
on which tho invention rests. The
inventor says the colors cannot be
chemically analyzed ; on applying tho
magnifying glass they can bo distin
guished from all other colors ; and in
their quality as colors they caunot be
imitated by photography, nor in auy
other way. The iuventcr says that lie
will enablo each individual Stato to
have its own composition, and that this
process is not a more expensive one,
than tho prescut paper preparation for
securities or treasury notes.
Don't. Dou't spit on the floor;
don't spit at all if you can help it;
don't drum with fingers or feet ; don't
sit with your feet higher than your
head ; don't go with dirty nails ; dou't
trim or clean your nails in company ;
dou't clean your nose, or cars in the
presence of others ; don't cat with your
knife; don't blow your nose at tho ta
ble ; dou't mako sipping tea or eating
soup a vocal exercise ; don't cut fast ,
dou't interrupt others iu conversation :
don't use profuuu lauguage ; don't
whisper in church or at couccrts; don't
pull out your watch iu church ; dou't
sleep in church tinlcse the minister is
asleep ; don't run iu debt, but ifyou do,
den't forget to pay ; dou't borrow your
iiLiuuui n iiunsw.'ipcrs.
ES-Tennyson introduces the hero
of his forthcoming Arthurian Idyl,
" Gureth and Lyuette, " in this fash
'llin Inst I nit sun nf l .ni timl 1l..lltnnn
And tallest, nareth.lnasliOWcrtulHpring
Started at u spate."
Started at what ? have asked the puz
zled critics. What iu thu world is n
"spate?" Webster nnd Worcester
shed no light on it. But from Peter
Levius' " Manipulus Vocabulorum, "
published in 1570, when Shakspeare
was six years out, it is discovered that
" a spato " is a turbulent stream, a
stream swollen by rains.
PlllNTIN'Q in Italy during thelastfew
years has presented a singular specta
cle. Recently, with the chango of tho
seat of government from Turin to Flor
ence, and, during the last year ngaiu
to Romo, a complete migration of letter-press
and lithcgraphie printers has
taken place. "Notwithstanding,"
savs Ij inwrimerie. " tho two first
cities will always retain, iu spite of
tllCSO U1SII accmciits. llin mnd nntivn
and most extousive establishments."
Tin: lute fire, at Erfurt having des
troyed Luther's Bible, it was at first
feared that thero was no other copy
extant. It has been ascertained, how.
over, that thero are still five Biblos
witu ins uutograpii anu Holograph ex
tract preccdiug tho title-page. Ono
of these is in the Queen's library at
Windsor, another in tho Uerliu library
another iu tho library of Munich, a
fourth in the British Museum, aud a
fifth is owned by a private English
The Tiiiuulk, Tho name of this
littlo instrument was originally de
rived from tho words " thum " " bell "
hllillL' ut first tllllllllinl mill nfWururila
thimble. It is of Chiueso invention,
1 J l . in i i
uuu nua luiruuuccu into jugianu
about the year 1C05, by John Lotting
who came from Holland, and com
meuccd its manufacture iu Islington,
near Loudou, pursuing it with great
profit and success. Formerly iron and
lir.is.4 worn used, but latelv rIpk! ailn.
and gold havo taken thoir places.
Tun reputation of thu Stclnway piano Is
known all over thu world,
ll-23tf. N, I', CuiiTica, Agent.
Fkatiikus in large or mall quantities
at very low figures at II. Levi's hide
store, on Ohio Lovo. io lfcVltf
wish to wcnl
co, kid or pij
style, go li
Rov. II. II. '
St. Louis Lcl
gifts, may bl
or gnlters, i
nnd iu any I
Tin: St. ll
tor of his
Ho lins bcnrl
calls for md
nnd ICth Hil
four good lo
where hn is I
cash for pel
brute, lead i
ho, the hil
for hide;, fil
To nJd to
tho public 1
of lagor, pul
Jerry, or id
Arm ot Uo
has been nil
ter dry gool
bororo tho '.
foro tho Ind
toll at pried
public to cil
no ono will
body, is nd
fers to the!
liquors to 1
see Louis ll
come for ja
a cordial ol
ers havo til
and a tluoy
Uuder 11 rJ
a loss in ,
tnoir uno i
and ho cat
or a littH
suited to 1
nucs, has J
stock of I
men In i
had a la
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