''. ---,-.- ; j ....... A . . V I.J .l 4
' ", " ' " ' '. vt
DOWAGIAC, CASS COMTI, MICHIGAN,, SATURDAY, FEIillUARY 15, 1862.
t' il1 ' a Published every 'Saturday; -
.At Dowagiac, . Cass County, Michigan.
f fl. r ' Tino. jC rV.' Voir TtriU Ttln-L-.
.-i. ,-. - Terms of Subscription ' -.
To office and raailsnbscTibers$l,OOperannum,
" When left by the Carrier, Fifty Cents additional
vill be charged on regular rates. - v
" X Rates of Advertising. '' 1 ;
f. Twelve lines or less considered as a Square.)
v . -"'II vr.3w.w. 8m. m. lyr.
f,-.,.r I . Sol 1.001 1.25 I 2.501 8.50 I 5.00
TjamT S55T ff.WJk0O 6.00 8.00 1 15.00
, i?-rZ3n T3MYi75 I 4.50" I 7.00 1 12.00 I 20.00
vnoTinlCTlOO I 5.00 1 6.00 1 10.00 15.00 25.
1 Colmnn.....",00. 1 7.00 1 3.00 15.00 25.00 50.00
" je privilege of yearly advertisers will be con
fined rcridly to their bosiiaess, and all other adver
tisement not pertaining to their regular business,
iTuransieni advertisements to be paid for in
'advance. ,: r '.' ' '"'
rf-Tas aiovs Tkrhs ivili. be strictlt AD-
l"JeWoac every description nentiy exe-
cuted -with pronptDes!T o
terms. Orders solicited...
t: P. SEELEV.! A. n.y M. D.,
Office! at his tesidenceVon Commercial Street,
second buildius northwest of the Post Qthce..
Iowaiac. Sept. 19, 1SS1. sepl9-22jl- .
Commfasioner of Dod for the SUteof Sew York,
Notarv Public, and Agent of the Phoenix Insur
ance Companr, vi Hartford," Conn. . Oiiice with
James Sullivftii, front room, second floor of
sIonc' Crick Ulock.. !. V marl4-44mt
C. 31. O'DELL, M. D.
liomeopathio PhysiciaVv" Surgeon
' 1 t 'and Obstetrician, '
lfavin bt.n"lit out Dr. Barxes and tukinR his
Pradice, ieels happy- to say to the citizens of
,l)Qwaioac and vicinity, that he is prepared to
' Vracttce his Profession in all it brandies. He
'also keeps Medicines by the case or single phial
for sale and Family Uuides. , Office over the
Center Market. - , .
Dowagiac, January 28th,1861. jan31-41yl
; M. PORTER, 31. T. .
OtHce at Ahvard's B.wk Store," Denison Block,
Front Street. .Residence first door below the
Methodist .Church. Commercial St, Downsiac,
Tlicli. , . . ' ,ap25v4yl
;; : GEO. W. FOSDICK.3X. D. :
Oilip; over Mr.' Bates'-: Trovisirn Store, - Front
Street, Dowagiac. - . - ,pov22-SU1
y PuWie and sreneral Afnt for the exchange
. transfer. vC Villare. Lots, and sale of . real
Brick. Block. .
;.!!. i -! Wi II.' CAMPBELL", sri"
Notary Public.- ' Vill attend to. all kinds of Con
vcjincinRepublican Oficef Dowagiac. Mich.
CLARKE & SPENCER,
Vtloirvjy and Counsellors at Law, and Solicitors
,-tCiiancery. OiTice -in O. C. Jones A Co. s
lUock. Dowagiac, Michigan. , aspeciai uueunuu
ifrven to coll ctions tbroivrhoHt the ortli-west.
Joskpii B. Cl.ARae. -i sp23v4 , Jj-u M. Sraxcen
AWaev'and Counsellor at Law, and Solicitor in
Jiowaviac. Mich, OlSce on front
1 " CLIFFORD SIIANAllAN,-
Attornev and Counsellor "at Law, and Solicitor in
Chancery, Cassapolis, Cass county, Michi .
i ' , I TUTIIILL & STURGIS,
Dealers ia Drv Ooods, Groceries. Boots and Shoes,
. liars and Caps, Clothing, Crockery, Ac, Ac.
Dowactfac, Mich. : i ' i..' i,
.f!T.n, Tlthill... , 1 . Wm. B. Stcrgis.
- - 'GEORGE SMITH, ! '
r..YiA- 4r.nTi-nn (lior east of lloward k Com-
- stock's. Cuttiu? and Making done to order, and
warranted to tt..-,;,- ? - -J"u-r'
'V Gi C. JONES & CO. - r '
Dealers in Dry Goods, Groceries, Boots and Shoes,
Crockerr, Glassware, Hats: and Caps. 3rront
Street; Dowagiac, Micu.. r. - .
: . n.vi.inzr.i.EnE & CO.
. . ;n iirvtinds. Groceries. Boots aud Shoes
Crockery, ilats and , Caps, Glassware, Paints
and Oils, ilaraware, c, . a,c. v. v
n T.,VLKiie. . ; I -William Laeibls.
! v A; X.ALWARD, r . ; ''
General Dealer in Books, Stationery, Periodicals
Wall Paper, Window Shades, Wrapping Paper,
Pocket Cutlery, 4c. Dennison Block, Dowagiac,
Mich.- v '. ,v-; . V.P5T
MI S C EL.1UA3S-EOTJS :
u; ,'p. D. BECKW1TII,
.dachinist and Engineer. . Foundry and Machine
' Shonat tliefoot oi iruuti,ur run
road bridge. Dowagiac, Mich. , - : ap25v4 ' '
fc,-r-t, II. B.DEN3IAN,
ranking and fcxcbshge --2
Bay and sell Exchange, Gold, DJ
xJnt Warrants. Pay. interest on School and
Swanin Lands, and taxes in H.partrof the
' State. i .'. ? .
JB X? STIES.
Patent Jletalic Air Tight -r
. BTJ . R X AXi ; ; C AS E S
' i tept constantly on hand by . .. . . -
BOTJSE & SONS,
Opposite the Post Office., ' Dowagiac. '-
Also a good assortment of Wooden Coflins. '
Dowagiac", October 10th, 1861. " octlfc-25tf '
'-M. 1 BALDWIN PROPRIETOR, f- ' '
C 4SSAPOLIS, - - s -;'- ' - - X1VH1QAN.
rf'Qood accommodations for man and beast.
Board by' the day and week. - ' - .
eXSEC -FOB EA.GS
k: - --; ' - at .. i; -';.-.
AL WARD'S BOOKSTORE. "
Estate AC'iit fr tue .Mannauan ana irving
Insurance C .Mip-nies, of New York, Office with
James Sullivan, frout room, second Boor. Jon
; ' ' Sonc ol Treason. '
; We Eiid the following in the New Years Address
of the Louisville Ectning ' Bulletin. It is called
the song of treason, and we doubt if anything can
be found in the language which will compare with
it in its conception of the awful: . " '
Fiends,' who in the lurid gloom -. ' , -
Of hell do ply the fatal loom,
Weave a banner of despair '
. For Columbia's tainted air. .
: r lake the boding raven's wing - ' ! '
AH the land o'ershadowing. : " - ;
t . , In the murky woof embroider, .
. Darkness, death, and Hell's' disorder.-:
On the fatal standard show ' ' ' " '
' Every form of guilt and woe" ' r
' . Murder drinking deep of blood, ' '
Rolling round him like a flood, A " T " "
Faction's diabolical art, ; , .. "
Perjured tongue and traitor heart
'. '" All the foetid gall that drips r : '
. From the land's infected lips, . .' . N ,
,' ' In the murky. woof embroider -
Darkness, death,' and Ilell's disorder.
v Weave wc in the magic loom . .... -
- Tiles of slain without a tomb, . . , -
Cities lit with midnight fires,: ' . ..
;. Crashing walls and toppling spires, .
Famine's sunken, ghastly cheek,' r
Outraged woman's helpless shriek, t-
Iloary age and infancy, . :
Plunged in one wide misery ; , . . . 4 . . -
' In the muiky woof embroider - , .
Darkness,' death, and Hell's disorder. ' '
Let the banner's folds be bound ; . '
i With a fiery serpent round;- . ; f. - i
Eden's destroyer shall recall . - ' - .
The new temptation, sin, and falL
We have changed the stripes of flame , . . .
To the burning blush of shame; ; . . .
And the streaks of spotless white .
' ' To the pallor of affright ; : ; . , .
" And the stars which blazoned all ( ,(.
To Wormwood, in its endless fidL ,
- ' n A Sterling Old Poem. '-' ' ' "
; Who shall judge a man from manners ?. .
' Who shall know him by his dress ?
' Paupers may be fit for princes
Princes fit for something less ;
Crumpled shirt and dirty jacket t
May beclothe the golden ore "'
Of the deepest thoughts and feelings
- Satin vests can do no more ;
There are springs of crystal nectar
: ' Ever welling out of stone
, There are purple buds and golden - -r
. Hidden, crushed and overgrown ; - f
God, who counts .by souls not dresses, .
. Loves and prospers you and me, -While
he values thrones the highest ' -'
But as pebles of the sea.
Man upraised above Lis fellows,
Oft forgets his fellows then, '
Masters rulers lords, remember
Thut your meanest kinds of men
'. Men by labor, men by feeling, ... '
Men by thought and men by fame,
Claiming eqnal rights to sunsLine, .
In a man's ennobling name; ,
- There arc foam-embroidered oceans,
" There are little weed clad rills "
There are feeble inch-high siiplin;,'
There are cedar on the hills ; '-
. : God,' who counts by souls not stations,
. . Loves and prospers you aud me.
For to him all vaiu distinctions - '
- - Are us pebles in the sea. . - :, A
. Toiling .tands alone are builders "?
1 ' Of a nation's wealth and fame,
.Tilted, laziness is pensioned, " ' "
, Fed and fattened on the same, ' ! -
By the sweat of other's foreheads, ..- I .
, Living ouly to rejoice. 7
While the poor man for his freedom -. ,
Vainly lii'ttth up his voice. -. . . , . : . . ; .
Truth and justice are eternal,
Born with loveliness and light ; . ,f
Secret wrongs shall never prosper ,
- ' Where there is a sunny right.' : '
, God, whose world-heard voice is singing
' "; : Boundless love to yon and me,1' ' ' 1
Sinks oppression with its titles, , r
i b ; As the pebles in the sen. ' ' ; '
. 7 .-Partner Wanted. ,-
:- Almost every day as the eye glances
over the columns of the advertiserheuts,
it rests upbn'Parttier Wanted ;" some
times in great capitals, with a file of
astonishers ;. then in Lillipats of letters
with a single exclamation point to chal
lenge admiration aiid again with' a plain;
sober period, and nothing more. "
.' "Partner wanted !" . Of .coarse eve
rybody wants a partner,' from' the rag
man with ; his : bagr and. hook, to him
whose ships' flock into port like 'doves
to the. windows."'' : .7'-: t
: Partner wanted in everything lovely
and 'of good - report, in : every thing
worthy and unworthy ; in t rime J and
Christianity ; - in lumber a literature.
What could be done without the little
word 4'and,?'r- Strike it out of exist
ence, and enterprise would be a wreck
the world over; coal would boast no
Lehigh,, lakes no commerce ; - schoolrooms-
would be childless, and pulpits
without a voice. -
Every day one sees three line notices
of partners found,. i when December
marries May, or January is wedded to
June, and the device is an altar and a
cradle."-- ! , ... 1 s
Every day beneath a willow and an
urn; the eye rests upon notices of part
ners lost, when quenched in the morn
ing, or long summer days are hidden
behind the sold- gray - cloud bf night
ana aeain; -t.. ,. : - n .
. "Partner's wanted T Why. down
through the scale of being to the brink
of dreary nothing, everything advertis
es for partners. The voice of the tur
tle calls for its mate in the shadows ;
clouds in pairs are wedded at the gates
of day ; the arms of the "forest: trees
extend and interlock and build up the
strong old Gothic of the woods, and de
fies the tempest and time; lovetokens
and pledges of partnership float as in
visibly as thought, through the orchard
white with Spring's sweet drift of life.
Partnership is ft synonym for life.
There is but one thing to be made
alone, and yet that . one dissolves all
partnerships ; for youth and age, night
and morning, soob or later, to-day or
to-morrow ; will . be married unta it
''married unto Death ! B. F. Taylor.
Sleeting of Teachers and School Officers
, of Cass County.
; Pursuant to previous notice a Con
vention of Teachers and School Officers
of Cass County, was held at Cassapolis,
February 4th, 1862. - The Convention
was called to order by Mr. Tripp, and
Mr. Blackman chosen Chairman. ., On
taking the chair, Mr. Blackman stated
the objeci'of "the Convention to. be, to
gather some facts concerning the con
dition of our public Behools, , to listen
to our State Superintendent of Public
Instruction; concerning some improved
methods of. teaching in our primary
schools, to enlist more interest in the
cause of popular education,' and lastly j
to see if there is sufficient interest in
this county in this enterprise, to warrant
our Superintendent in appointing one
of the Spring Institutes in our vicinity.
J. A. Ban field was then chsen Secretary.
A few minutes were taken in which
the teachers and school officers of the
county present were requested to regis
ter their names. During this time, the
following names were enrolled : . -
' ; : OFFICERS.,' ' V.:'
E. B. Sherman, Moderator, District
No. 1, Lagrange. -
. II. 11. Schutt, Director, Dist No. 3,
JefTerson. - . ' . V v
. Samuel Patrick, Assessor, Dist. No.
7, Jefferson. ; '. : , S
. Justus Gage Director, Dist. No. 7,
Silver Creek. .
G. S. Wilbur, Trustee, Dist. No. 7,
Silver Creek .
; Lagrange, Dist. No. 1 IS. II. Tripp;
Miss Shurter, Miss Sears. '
Lagrange Dist. No. 4. II. C. Banks,
Wm.'L. Jakeway; "-s' '
" Silver Creek, Dist. No. 7. J. A.
Banfield, Minnie Spencer, Susan M.
Cox, Jennie Fyfe," Emily Diefendorf,
Jefferson; Dist. No. 4. A, C. Car
michaol. " '
Jefferson; Dist. No. 6. D. W. Ilunl.
While the names were being registered
Mr. Gregory addressed the convention
on the importance of collecting facts
relating to the working of our schools.
Had sometimes seen intense interest
produced in county conventions by the
simple statement of a few facts.' ...
. Mr. Blackman addressed the conven
tion briefly on the faults of schools
which he had observed while visiting
them as Inspector. Principal among
these he considered non and irregular
ity of attendauce ; also m complained
of a lack of uniformity of text books,
and American works in our District
Libraries... ." , - . . .
. Mr. Gage responded to a call, in a
few: practical thought?, on the origin
and end of the faults complained of by
Mr. Blackman. Thought they "were
caused by a lack of appreciation of the
privileges that we enjoy on the part of
parents. In proof of this he refered
to the well known fact, the shadow of
parents hardly ever ' darken school
house doors, . by asking and . emphati
cally .repeating ihe question : "How
often have you, parents, been into your
schhol this winter? " Not often t he be
lieved would be the true answer. ,
; The Secretstry then stated some facts
in regard to -the working of the
Dowagiac Graded School, ' and was
followed by Mr. Tripp -with a similar
report of the Cassapolis Union School.
J Mr. Schutt made. remarks upon the
correction of tlie faults mentioned by
Messrs. Blackman and Gage.
Mr.Gregory, . State Superintendent
of Pnblio Instrustion, then addressed
the convention upon the topics sugested
by the remarks made by the gentlemen
which had preceeded him. - In regard
to the cause of the evils mentioned, he
considered : it to be a false public opin
ion, which s, in turn, the offspring of
a false public sentiment. This, false
public opinion is, that the parent owns
his child,, and has a right to send it to
school when, as long as, and no longer
than he pleases." v Hence, parent's ob
jections to enforcing 'rules for prompt
and regular attendance. Now we can
never accomplish what we ought to
accomplish, what we can see and al
most Teach, untiL wc throw away the
no'tion that the parent owns his child,
and acknowledge that the child himself
does and ought to own the intellect that
God has given himVj that so far from
the parents owning the child, he is laid
under obligation by the -very relation
which "he sustains; to his offspring to
educate it to the extent of his ability ;
and that since society lays claims upon
the child at twenty-one years of age,
it oughtf if need be, to aid in the fitting
him to properly discharge those claims.
To correct these evils then, we must
unite in a crusade, against this, false
public opinion. The absurdity of this
error; he J illustrated by , applying v its
principles to different kinds of manual
labor. ; Tins copartnership . illustration
does not, however, show the true state
of the case. If five men are equal
owners and joint managers of a thresh
ing machine, and one remains at home
each, morning one half or a whole hour
after the'others are ready to work, he
only injures the four, to the . value of
their time while the:parent who de
tains his child, at home after school,
calls, or now and then 'an entire "day,
not only unjustly injures every one in
the class in which his child recites by
requiring the teacher to take the time
of, the next reeitation to explain what
the rest of the class weut over before,
but also' in nine cases out of ten) in
flicts a lasting injury .upon "the child
himself. t: Seeing all this in this light,
the law of the State has wisely put the
remedy for all this evil in he right
place, viz, in the bands of the District
Boards. They have the power to say
that children shall come to school reg
ularly and punctually or not at all.
This question has been decided by the
. . , .. .. ' s l'7 w m
oesi legal antinnty in tne otate. ; i nere
is no longer any question on this point.
This settles one difficulty. Another,
that of diversityiof text books is dis
posed of in the same way. 7The law
makes it the duty, of every School
Board to select text books for their
schools; and not allow them to be
changed within two years unless by
vote of the District. ,
Another thing concerning which we
want a change in public sentiment is,
that teaching is a trade that cannot be
practiced until it is learned. It has
sometimes been supposed that one
could teach if he could do nothing
else, and any special training or fitting
for this most responsible, profession
has heretofore been hardly thought
of. The physician has to do with the
well being of the body; the lawyer
with justice between man and 'man
as members of society ; the theologian
with the ' relations of man to bis
Maker; all of these suppose a mind
developed, , formed, ready to grasp
these thoughts but the teacher is he
who calls out the latent powers of the
intellect and starts them into action in
a given direction,-he who holds the des
tiny of all the others in hi hand, and
he, according to public opinion, may be
as near a nobody a? man can be. 7 Th
first general principle of all mental
culture is, "That alone educates that
causes to think." ' 'J'
Another thought that needs some
consideration is physical education.
It is the key to both health and mental
activity and should receive careful at
tention in all of our schools, not only
in the village, but also in rural districts.
.Upon the Library question, he
claimed that ten dollars invested in
books is equal to twenty dollars in any
other part of the work.'- He thought
none of us would take the job to edu
cate the people of a County, Town or
District without putting some. of our
funds into a library.
The question was then raised in re
gard to holding an Institute in this vi
cinity sometime in the coming spring.
On motion of Mr.: Clisbee, all those
wishing the-Superintendent to make
such appointment manifested their wish
by rising. Vote was almost unanimous.
; ' Adjourned until eveinng. ,r
. ; EVEX1XG SESSIOXV ' ' '' -
The Convention was called to order
by the Chairman and Prayer offered by
Rev. Mr. Miles. Mr,' Gregory then
addressed the; Convention on the gene
ral subject of Education. '. ';
"Deeply as I feel' interested in this
subject, I do not forget that we. are a
nation in the midst .of a convulsive
revolution. I do not forget that along
the Potomac, the Green River and the
western frontier, there are now six hun
dred thousand brave hearts, goneforth
from among us, defending our liberties,
our rights and our homes." But this
only inspired him to a deeper solicitude,
and caused him to look more' carefully
to the place where our national sheet
anchor lies. . That, he could not doubt
is in'the intelligence, the virtue and the
patriotism of our people.' ! Although
nations'1 have : lived, grown' and died,
humanity lives on, bringing' through
every, convulsion . that which is igood
and valuable and throwing away that
which1 is effete and injurious. And
well do we know that in this struggle,
humanity, unchecked ; in ; its ,- march,
with crowded, squadrons and locked
step columns will rabye right ort to a
truer, better and purer life. " In the ed
ucat'ion of mind we reach" down below
nationality -we ; reach : human hearts
with their warm glowing impulses, hu
man" intellects with their God-given
powers of combination and comprehen
sion : we build, on broad and .lasting
foundations. Ue thought therefore,
that although' he might call attention
aw ay from those active preparations
for our national defenses, it is that we
may dig "down deeper and lay so broad
a foundation that on it humanity may
in the future build a superstructure in
which it will save all that is great arid
good in our Country. , ' '.;t"'5'."r-;vv ;
He then took tip the subject promised
in the early part of the day. ' . Said he
had no desire to -charm with brilliant
generalities, but' would say something
to help make our School System better
to enable us to go beyond old meth
ods to' something more excellent. In
doing this he ; thought' be might per
haps say somethings that some would
not believe.t ;His advice to such was
"Prove all things, hold fast that which
is good." ' .--i '' "Ar- r-.t r. -.
Education consists in catling put and
putting into exercise the mind's native
powers hence whatever does this edu
cates us, and, we are educuted just' in
the direction that these agencies incite
our powers to action. We are educa
ted," in this view, by brooks, rivers and
mountains, by storms; Bunshine and
tears. ' We are educated by everything
by which we are ' surrounded.. . (How
do some of our School Houses educate
our children ? Sec.) He did not think
that the first schools were devised to
educate men, but to teach them things,
to fit them to' become dextrous instru
ments. We are now coming to a riper
experience to a' period when ' our
schools are seen to wield the destiny of
the world. - If the wdrld goes np, then,
our schools must lead the way. v
Taking education in is broadest sense
it does not begin in'the school but in
the nursery. Hence, the necessity of
here enunciating the first fundamental
law of education ; it is this The intel
lectual faculties have their seasons of
growth. They do not all grow at once
because they do not all exist, at once."
This thought, he illustrated by refer
ence to the growth, of the. different
parts of. the body hair,. teeth,- beard,
&c. In this view it is foolish to give
children some studies . that they often
are given in their- early childhood be
cause thev have not then the faculties
by which to learn those 6ludies. This
principle we have not heretfore recog
nize. What shall we do ; first then ?
Investigate. Investigation : teaches us
that the senses are all awake, from the
first hence; the first age of growth is
the growth of the senses, and. the first
teaching the child should receive should
be directed principally to the awaken
ing of these primary ; mental' powers.
Teach nothing at this time that is ab-
struct or difficult.1 : This is the ace' of
experience, the age 'of gleaning facts.'
. How very wide from the truth, in the
light of this rule, has been our practice
heretofore. We have taught children
letters, first, things unlike any thing
else in the world, and for which the
child has no love and in which he takes
no interest, then words,representatives
of things of. which it has not the first
glimmering of a conception, in fine a
printed language before a spoken lan
guage, which it must be acknowledged
is beginning at the end.; When this
country - was settled, this old theory
was the one universally adopted, but
since that time there has grown up a
different' system, from which the cele
brated German Schools have' sprung.
In these schools, children attend six
mouths' before having a 'book at all.
What: do they do during' that time?
you may ask. The reply is, they learn
about things by their senses and lan
guage by talking. They learn things
first, then'- about things, then their
names, afterward the printed or written
word which reuresents them. The
studies which they pursue are Geome
try, Arithmetic, Zoology, Botany,'fcc.
Not however, in their philosophy,' but
in their facts. , -We need not fear long
names, for but. few, words in these
studies are longer than grandmother
and grandfather and these words
nearly allchildren learn at a very "early
age. V During ; this period,' the r child
learns to count, to weigh," forms, sizes,
north, south.east, west, and a quite ex
tensive spoken language preparatory to
a written one. ? I . 7 '
( Query- How well informed ought
a primqry teacher to be 7 Sec.) " This
is no fancy scetch.. ' There are at least
a dozen . schools 'in this State now at
work on .this plan and.: with the best
success.. In the ' next period of tha
mind's' growth,; the child' begins to
classify ;tbf arrange,' to, take the first
steps in scientific investigations; after:
ward comes the reasoning period, the
time of forming-judgments; and last
comes !, the immaginativo -powers with
their .-' ideal pictures" and self-formed
models. This order should determine
the classification and. course of study
in all of our graded schools, and the
course of instrr.ction whereevcracbild
The adoption of this plan supposes
a great yes, an entire revolution in our
school system, as regards its methods,
but it bases itself upon the philosophy
of the mind, and hence, must be essen
tially true. ' We have also erred in our
have kept tliem too lo'ng'confined to one
thin or. J :We have required , of thern,
twenty or thirty minutes clo-e ap?licaT
tiori,Jwhen they wVrb'prepared for only
five; to we have educated five minutes
and stupefied" fifteen to twenty-five
minutes! V Finally the grand, error in
our educational system is, we'have not
exercised the mental powers at allwe
have not caused: the children to think,
but . have .required : them to memorize
the most heterogenerous mass of things,
and called them dunces if they did not
accomplish it.-3 ;j; ; . ... .; .
Another, department ? of. v powers
toward which-we should direct atten
tion is -, the moral sentiments. ,They
need calllngopt and developing educa
tion. .The speaker referred to - Wash
ington to his early -education by his
mother, as a good illustration of the
controlling pdwer for good there is in the
early cultivation of those sentircents
upon , which1 rest our love of friend
home,' country, justice) truth and God.
After some further explanations con
cerning the Teachers Institute and its
appointment in this vicinity, the eon-
vention adjourned.'4. ' : ' " .
. . i i i - .."- i .-.
. :. ' Correspondence of Republican, .
From the Second Michigan Regiment.
. Camp of tbk Second Regt., Mien. Vol. .
'- " - Jan. 23th, 1862. J
Mr. Editor : If the following letter
ia worthy of your notice you will please
give it an insertion in your paper, per
haps it will interest" some of your pat
rons to hear from the Michigan Secbnd.
We are encamped in a Jarge hollow,
about ten miles from Washington and
three miles from Alexandria. "It is a
place calculated to keep us warm, be
ing sheltered by high elevations" from
the cold winds, on the North, East and
West. It has been raining for over a
week and Teing situated as we are in a
low clayey hollow makes it worse than
muddy, and many a poor soldier gets
an extra guard on account of having
his boots shining with the saered soil
of Virginia,, instead of " Mason's im
proved polish blacking." -The health
of the Regiment is very good at pres
ent, we having' but comparatively few
on the sick list. The most of the boys
are ensconced in log. huts built to ac
commodate from two to sixteen men,
which we find keeps us much warmer
than the tents, each having a good old
family fireplace or stove, which keeps
us as comfortable" as though we were
sitting by our " home fire-side ; but as
they are shingled with nothing but a
few poles, covered with old .Virginia
soil, although- very ."warm it does not
prove to be water proof,' but it is the
best the country affords. TJncle Sam
has been very liberal this winter in fujr-
nisnmg us wuu ino necessaries oi me,
always having plenty of clothing and
provisions, so taking everything 'into
consideration -we live very well and
have first rate" times in general." Our
Regiment's picket line extends from
Fairfax to the, Potomac, taking in the
left wing of the Army ou this side of
the river, a' distance of about eight
miles, we are' now picketing by Regi
ment having formerly done so by de
tailing an equal number from each Reg
iment. The hew rule they have adopt
ed is much easier for the men, as their
turn comes but once in forty eight days,
there being 'sixteen Regiments in this
division ; each Regiment remaining on
picket duty three days. Our pickets
bring in1 more or less prisoners every
day, some of them coming voluntarily
and giving 'themselves up,' trusting io
the mercy of our troops, rather than'
fighting for the "Rattlesnake confeder
acy." Our worthy Colonel, (C. M! Poe,)
has been for the last few" weeks endeav
oring to get 'us transferred from Infan
try to Heavy -Artillery, and 'would ?re
this have accomplished his design had
the brigadier " General, (I. B. Richard
son) signed the transfer. I believe.he
has given it tip for the present.' Our
Regiment is now being famished .with
the Minnie' musket in exchange for the
Springfield and Harper's Ferry, which
pleases the boys very much. The Minnie
being far superior to the' old, it also
adding "greatly to the efficiency and
strength of the Regiment, and all the
boys want is a chance to use them, but
they fear they will not have the chance
very soon. But Hark Inhere is the taps, j
the lights must go out and I must close.
Vours fce., DO PEDRO,
processes as well aa raetliods. . Wehaye
t 'only given to our classes, studies
for which they were not prepared, but
Volunteer Relief Act.'
An Act to Amenla?i Act'entitled"'An
Act - to - Provide for' the Relief by
..'counties, of the Families of Volun-
: 'teers ; Mustered front ; this State into
the Military Service of the United
JSlates :or of this - State, 'Approved
)May 10, 1S61," and to ackl certain
sections thereto.-: -.: ;'- i. "J
. Section 1. '-.. The people rf the State
of : Michigan enact, 'That" section one
of said act be amended so as to read aa
follows : ' '- v-Vi-! ; M- i i-x i
Sec. .1, It 8h all be the duty of the
boards of supervisors of each organs
ized county, at their sessions to be heldi
in the month of .June, in the year eighi
teen hundred and sixty-one and, at
eaeh ; subsequent session, 1 whenever
necessary, to make adequate provision
for all requisite relief and support of
of the families of the non-commissioned-
omcers, musicians: .and, privates, en
listed from their counties, and mustered
into the military 'service of the United
State8,:6r of this State; and for such
purposes the said boards of supervisors
are severally : authorized to borrovr
money, at a rate of interest not exceed
ing ten per centum per annum, and to
issue bonds or'other eeeuritieg.for the
sums borrowed, payable at, some time
therein to be mentioned, not exceeding
three years from the date thereof, and
to assess, levy and' collect Itaxes upon
the real and personal nroDertv of sairl
counties rftt exempt from taxation, suf
ficient to pay such moneys borrowed.
and; to provide the relief hereby au
thorized. t- J.: ? . !' -
Sec. 2. That section three' of said
at stand as section two,' and read as
lotto ws ? - '--- - :-- ' '
;SEa .2, It shall -be the dutv "of thA.
board of. supervisors of any countv. at
the first regular or special meeting held
after this act shall take effect, to estab
lish a separate -fund, into which the
moneys, so borrowed, or collected by
tax, shall be paid, "and be lawful for.
them to directthe transferofany moneys
in the treasury not otherwise anoroDri
ated, atany time, to such fund. :. When
ever such separate fund shall have been
established,, it shall be known as the.
Volunteers Family Relief Fund."
and all orders thereafter drawn, . shall
be drawn payable out of such fund- .
dec. 3. . lhat section-two of said act
stand as section three, and be amended
to read as follows:' '' ' : -"':''
Sec. 3. It shall be the dutv :':of.iha!.
supervisees of each township, and each'
supervisor, alderman, -or other officer
representing any city or ward upon the.
board of supervisors . of his countyv
from time to time, to afford such tem
porary relief as may, be necessary for
the support of such family, not exceed
ing fifteen dollars per month to any one
family, and not exceeding in any case
to any family or person, the actual sum:
necessary, in 'connection with his, terr
or their other means of support, to' rev
lieve such' family or 'person. ' Whiclu
support - shall be afforded : only in the
manner prescribed by this act) and in'
no greater snm than shall be necessarv:
to afford the necessary relief In case,
of the decease of any 'non-commis-.
sioned officer, musician or private while
in the service of the United States, or,
f this State,' his family shall be cntT-:-tied
for one year, and no longer, afier".
his decease, ' to the same ' measure ' or
relief as his family, would be. entUlecV
to receive if he had not deceased. '
: Sec. 4. : It shall be the ;duty of theK
supervisor or other offie'er)1 before giv-4.
ing any orderfor.snch'relief, to ascer,
tairi and report to the county treasurer "
of his county,1 in writing; the following
particulars in reference to the person!'
and family seeking relief. " 'r'' !L !
v The name,1 rank,, company and"
regiment, and time, as near as may be,"
of enlisting into the military service of
the officer or soldier on whom tbefarn
ily or persons Seeking relief are depen-1-dent
for 'support, and his place of resi
dence at the time of bis enlistment J -2.
The name and age of the persons-'
for the time being -remaining the bead, ;
of the. family, and his or her residence j '
,3. The name; and age of each mem
ber of the - family for whom relief i'
sought ;.pv-.;. y-L
4. The.amount received frora,Vnd'.
the proyisions made by the soldier for i
or toward the support of bis family and.
those dependent on him ;
- 5-. The measures of relief that thi
particular family or persons, in bis opms
ion require pe.r week or month. ' .
The person seeking such relief, and ;
any member of the family of years of
discretion, shall answer all questions,
and give all information to the superv''
vi$or or other officer, touching the. mat
ters aforesaid, .aiid:-all: other thincrs fr
touching his, her, or their means ofU
sujtport, circumstances and necessities,
which . answer . shall be given on oath)..
when required by the supervisor or oth.-- i
er officer affording relief, which oath : j
said supervisor or.other. officer is here
by . authorized . to- adnnnister, and in .,
case the board of supervisors of any Zi
county shall -so direct, said oath shall
be administered in all cases of applica--T
tion for r relief "as' aforesaid, and , any; -falso
statement or, untruthful represen- t.
tatio"n,"' or withholding information.- .;
sought and inquired after by such su-,-pervieor
or other officer,, at any, time
intended to deceive such officer, or pro
xmro . a larger' measure of relief than
otherwise' would be afforded, shall fort;
feit by such person or family all further
relief under this act, and the supervisor
or other officer may incorporate in the .
same report such, information and par
ticulars, of one or more families, and.
shall from time to Jime re-mquire and ,;;
report in reference to any family ox per-t
sons, and change the measure of relief, '
a3 nj8 nerj or their circumstances and
'necessities may seem to require,
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