Newspaper Page Text
Established July (, ! 859.
A Map of Busy Life ; Its Fluctuations and Its Vast Concerns. Subscription, S I .QO a Year, in Advance. VOL. XXXV BENTON, LOUISIANA, THURSDAY. JULY 16, 1896. NO. 21. INDIAN PUEBLOS. QUAINT aboriginal dwell ings IN THE SOUTHWEST. Town and 'Country Homos—TIow They Are Built—Bricks of Mud —Odd-Looking Ovens lor Bailing Bread. I N the valley of the Rio Grande del Norte, writes a correspondent of the Chicago Record from Taos, New Mexico, there is nothing more interesting than its Indian pueblos. Pueblo is merely the Span ish word for town, and this name was given to these Indians because they were the first whom the early Span iards saw in permanent settlements. Most of the pueblos are in the Rio Grande Valley ; there are a tew farther west along the line of tue Santa Pe II Ü ■ *7 A t pu: /, If trT) & / . // /// , gA litflP mm INDIAN FAMILÏ IN HOLIDAY DRESS. Bailroad, and one group of seven in j Northeastern Arizona. Here they have been, too, for 350 years at least, for ! here the Spaniards found them when they first came up into this country ; a from Mexico in the first half of the sixteenth century. Many of the : pueblos have been moved a few miles | to Dew sites ; from some of these the people have disappeared and left no trace or record of themselves. Others have as large a population as they ever had and retain to a large extent their old customs in spite of 300 years of influence from the whites. They build their houses of adobe just as they always have, but the four and five story buildings have in most places disappeared. Most of them, too, now liuve doors. In former times when tho danger from marauding In dians was great a town had very few houses, often only two of them. These houses were .very large, andjevery fam ily had its own rooms in the common house. The only entrance to these rooms was by means of a ladder through a trap door in the roof. In case of attack the women and children were all shut up in the innermost rooms, while men remained on the roof to fight. Tho pueblo of Taos is one of the best reminders of the old times. It lies about eight miles from the Rio Grande, just at the foot of mountains 13,000 feet high. Through the middle of tho town runs Pueblo Creek, a mountain stream which fails not offener the.n once in half a century. There are 400 Indians here, about equally divided on tho two sides of the creek. The higher of the two principal houses has live stories ; the other Has four. They have the ap pearance of irregular, stejipcd pyra mids. Of course there arc many rooms in tho first story and a fewer number in tbe stories above, which can have neither sunlight nor air. These dark rooms are used for storage, principally oi corn, wheat, oats and beans. Occasionally ono can still find a house which has no door, but they are not common. Most of tho houses have a low door hung on iron hinges. A piece of rawhide serves as a handle. Tho rooms are about nine feet high Vy'C Du m — -2 wCav-jy, , THE PUERLO OF TAOS, NEW MEXICO. and vary in size. A room fifteen feet i 6quaro will serve very well as kitchen, i Bleeping-room and general living- j room for four persons. Many families ; have houses in addition to the "town j houses." This second house is a mere hut built near the fields. Here the | family lives in summer to keep watch j over the crops in unfenced fields. In j winter time, however, the family I comes back to the pueblo, loads of woo# are brought from tho hills on j burros, the doors are shut and all is ! made ready for the cold season. At j this time the light and air in the j rooms come through the trap door ! and a small window, less than a loot square, near the roof. When the trap j door has to be closed the little window is the only opening. Long before the Spaniards appeared here the Indians knew how to use adobe to build their houses ; but now they find it moie convenient to hire tho Mexicans to make the bricks for them. They say the Mexicans can make them better. It is a simple pro cess. Water from one of the irrigat ing ditches, which runs in almost every direction through tho fields, is turned onto a small piece of land. With spade and hoe the earth and water are thoroughly mixed until a loose mud is made. Then fine straw is brought from a thrashing place near by and mixed with the mud. The raw material is ready. It is put into molds, enrried a few feet and dumped on tho ground in the form of bricks to dry in tbo sun. These bricks are loft for two days and then are ready for use. A Mexican is paid 80 for making 81000 brick, each fifteen by ten by four inches. In building a bouse these bricks are cemented together with adobe. The walls are smoothed outside and inside, and within are covered with a wash of a white or light drab color. This wash is made of earth found in the hills, : and when fresh it gives the walls a | neat appearance. For the roof large poles are first laid on, then smaller ones, then a layer of weeds and lastly adobe. This makes a rocf which may let through a few drops when tbe first rain of the season comes, but after that it is water tight. Just outside tho houses are the ovens in which the broad is baked. They are odd-looking, dome-shaped things from four to six feet in diameter, made of adobe. One small opening is left at the bottom for buildiDg the fire and putting in the bread, and an other smaller one near the top for the smoke to come Tout. In this oven a fire is built and kept burning until the walls are heated through and through. ' The fire is then drawn out and the fine ashes are removed with a wet rag on the end of a stick. The bread is put in with a wooden shovel and both openings are carefully closed. As tho walls retain the heat for a long time the bread bakes quickly and well I have seen dogs sleeping in these ovens, fortunately not in the one in which the bread which I eat is baked. But perhaps I have not yet caught the dog which sleeps in that particular oven. The stumpy little chimneys which are seen all over the lieuses are of adobe, too, but they are often topped witü a broken pottery vessel. At the fireplace below the cooking is done. A little iron stand, a frying-pan and a few black pots, with a knife or two, are all tho cookiDg utensils. But they are enough for such simple cooking; some of the poor families of Indians have only tortillas and coffee threo times a day. Mix flour with water, put in a little salt, cook the mixture over the lire and you hare tho tortil las. The coffee, of course, has neither milk nor sugar. But I am living with one of the first families in town. Here! get fat pork and one fried egg three times a day, frijoles, canned tomatoes, bread and i these things, to be sure, are bought i especially for me and are not shared j by the family. It is all right, since I ; eat alone, sitting at a table, while the j family is in another room sitting on the floor. | The ordinary bed is tho floor, or j possibly a platform raised a foot from j the floor. Rawhides are laid down I and on these the Indians sleep, rolled up in blankets. But there are at least j two beds at this pueblo and one cot. ! In winter time the tire gives the light j in the evening. Jn summer a pine j stick, in a few cases a candle, and in ! still rarer instances a very poor lamp, takes the place of the tire. As a con j the people of Taos are early to bed and are up almost with the sun. Only the boys are out late at night on the rude little foot bridges which span the creek, singing and making night hideous. They are not so very differ ent from the boys of civilized peoples. FAULTS OF ORNAMENTATION. A Plea for Architectural Simplicity in Dwellings. Ornamentation may be beautiful in Itself, and when applied to architec ture may not offend tho eye at the first glance, and yet as one lives within its presence, grows tiresome and cre ates resentment. If ono builds a house and its general lines are strong, ho should insist, before everything else, on a freedom from petty details of ornamentation. There should be nc tawdry cornices, flimsy brackets and spindle work. In design these may seem attractive, and may be deemed necessary to cover bare spaces of stone or wood ; when they are in place, however, they prove a torment to the eye. In the matter of interior finish tiio samo rule holds good. There can not be but general regret at tho pass ing of tho honest handiwork in wood. The workman was an artisan, if not an artist, and he rarely sinned against good taste, everything being in keep ing and general harmony of design. One must be chary. Now in the use of machine work, mouldings and carv ings are practically turned out by wholesale without regard to its partic ular use or location, and they fre quently clash with themselves and surroundings. There should be plain casings and door panels, and no elaborate base boards if tho best effects aro to be ob tained; in particular, ono should guard against ornate mantels and the "built in corner" cabinets glittering with ^lass or mirrors. Plain walls ' give the best background for pictures, and artificial Ailments virtually kill one's furniture, no matter how hand some it may be. The passiug of tho style of ornamental plaster work is matter for congratulation. A simple is % -fed HHH'lj ill cr-r teur llfliillll Ço^OOET/lé YjijSS^ PERSPECTIVE VIEW. centre piece for the chandelier in a large room is permissable, if it is un obtrusive, but even this is not neces sary. There is no longer any need for plaster cornices. These gather dust and dirt and consequently become un healthy as well as ugly. The modern method of paper hanging covers the break between ceiling and side walls, and furnishes an artistic substitute for the old time cornices. There is a less need for the warn ings over ornamentation at this time inasmuch as popular taste is steadily moving in the direction of rich and simple effects. Every year brings a notable improvement in architectural style. We illustrate an attractive resident and describe its principal features a follows : General Dimensions : Width, through sitting-room and dining-room, 31 ft. G ins. ; depth, including veranda, 53 ft. Heights of Stories: Cellar, 7 ft. 6 ins. ; first story, 9 ft. 6 ins. ; second story, 9 ft. ; attic, 7 ft. Exterior Materials : Foundation, stone ; first story, clapboards ; second story, gables and roof, shingles. clos KitcHttO Porch I Z X 5 itt i DQ K R. Omi °S 12X12 I 7« nm'.uiigm sWh ' 'i 2 'x • 5 ' Pd r lor 14' «XI*-»' Vest: VerAodd t'Wid e FIRST FLOOR. j backs under windows in parlor, din Interior Finish : Hard, white plas ter ; plaster cornices ana centers in parlor, dining and sitting-rooms. Donble floor in first story with paper between finished floor, soft wood. Trim in hall and vestibule, quartered oak. Main staircase, oak. Panel ing-room and sitting-room. Picture molding in principal rooms and hall of first story. Chair-rail in dining room. Rath-room and kitchen, wains is Bat-b co 7<£*t CIO Hail Bed R. Bed R. I 4- x l V 10X12 HdH Bed R Bed R I 2 15 X I 5 Nor including bdv Bay Ro SECOND FLOOD. coted. Interior wood-work stained to suit owner and finished in hard oil. Colors: Clapboards, seal browD. Trim, including water table, corner boards, cornices, casings, bands, ver anda posts and rails, outside blinde, rain conductors, etc., chocolate. Out side doors finished with hard oi!. Sashes, Pompeiian red. Veranda floor and ceiling and all brickwork, oilei.. Wall shingles dipped in and brush coated with light sienna stain. Roo* shingles dipped in and brush coated dark red stain. Accommodations: The principal rooms and their sizes, closets, etc., are shown by the floor plans. Cellar under the whole house, with inside and outside entrances and concrete floor. One room finished in attic ; space for two more. Attractive main staircase. Sliding doors connect hall and parlor, dining-room and sitting room. Attractive circular bay in sec ond story. Cost : $3400, not including mantels, range or heater. The estimate is based on Now York prises for mater ials and labor. In many sections of the country the cost should be less. 1896. Copyright 1896. 6 Garries a Lion on His Back. Carrying an ugly lion around on your back isn't a pleasant sort of oc cupation. Jules Seeth, the lion tamer of the Circus Shnmann, no w showing at the 1 industrial Exposition iQ Berlin, is the man who takes all this savage responsi bility on his shoulders. And the lion that figures here is the ugliest beast in the whole show. Herr Seeth, when he has finished putting w m JULES SEETH AND 1US LION. his group of lions through their paces, turns them all back to their individual cages—all save this one, "Sultan," the biggest, fiercest and most intractable of all the lot. Herr Seeth is not a giant, but is powerfully built and has no end of courage, and the lions are in utter dread of him. He makes this great tawny beast stand motionless while he lifts him to his shoulders, and so walks about the cage. 'Jlie Great Frilled Lizard. The great frilled lizard, of Western Australia, reminds ono in its habit o running on its hind feet alone, an making a three-toed Impression, of the extinct dinosaurs which mado the fa mous "bird" tracts of the Connecticut Valley. Instantaneous photographs are reproduced by Mr. Kent in Na ture, which are exceedingly striking and suggestive. _ Aspen Leaves. It is said that the quivering of the aspen's leaves is due to the fact of tue leaf stalk being fiat on the sides, am. so thin about the middle that the lightest breath of wind sets all the leaves wagging horizontally. A single leaf plucked off and taken by the end of the leaf-stalk between the thumb and forefingers admirably illustrates the peculiarity of the aspen. Latost Health Fad. in | | The latest health fad is paper pil lows. The paper is torn into very ■ small pieces and then put into pillow sacking of drilling or light ticking, ; The pillows are very cooling in hot SUMMER MODES. SOME SEASONABLE GARMENTS FOR WARM WEATHER. Natty Traveling Suit for a Bride Handsome Waist With Fancy Collar, Which is Re movable. M AY MANTON snys that mixed novelty suiting that shades from tan to tabac brown made the natty trav eling suit for a bride, the vest being of green broadcloth and the full plastron of changeable brown and green silk. ; is At? iu. - Ki >2 m m Vs?, Ü % as w 2^5 m ca TRAVELING SUIT FOR A BRJ^PE The stylish ripple coat back fits with glove like exactness to the waist line, the loose fitting fronts flaring slightly apart over tho low cut vest. Broad, square shaped lapels stand out from eaoh front at the shoulders, narrow ing to the lower edges where small change pockets are inserted on each side. The full plastron is arranged on fitted lining fronts that close in centro under the box plait, the vest closing invisibly over the lower edge of plas tron. The high collar and straps in front are of tbe mixed goods, lined with silk, that is displayed on the rolled edge. Stylishly full gigot sleeves are gathered at the top over fitted linings and plainly completed at the wrists. The fashionable skirt is shaped with a narrow front gore, wide side and three back gores, or godets, that flare stylishly at the foot in latest mode. The front and sides fit smooth y at the top, the back being arranged :n small box plaits with the placket finished m the seam at the right side of centre back. The mode is adapted for walking, shopping, or general wear, and will develop styiishly in broadcloth, chev'ot, tweed, diagonal, i 't 'T n m m ms m WiTZ mn fä I rif> ii mu F • 1 vl* m, Mi i ? vfi. T 1 ! ■ 1 . 1 £ ■W / i LVD1KY WAIST WITH FANCY COLLAR. Ber g 0 Q r crepon, in plain, mixed or j checked varieties. Buttons or other garniture can be added and the revers and vest made of velvet or silk if a more elaborate effect is desired. The quantity of material 44 inches wide required to make this jacket basque for a lady having a 36-inch bust measure is 3; yards. To make the skirt it will require of the same width material 6 yards for a 2G-incb waist measure. LADIES WAIST WITH FANCY COLLAR. In the ladies' waist depicted in the second large engraving flowered challis, violets on a cream ground, is daintily decorated with Valenciennes lace. The stylish collar, which is re movable, is of creamy mull edged with a frill of lace, headed by insertion. A stock of violet ribbon is tied in a bow at the back of -neck and a belt to match is tied in a bow in front. Tha full fronts and back are stylishly dis posed over fitted linings and the olos ing is conceuled under the decoration of lace in centre front. The standing collar has Haring laps of lace and in sertion joined on at the top. The full lower edges are usually worn under the Bkirt, but can be belted over if eo is in preferred. The full bishop sleeves are supplied with two seamed linings that fit the arm comfortably. Gathers at the top gracefully arrange the fulness of tli6 bishop sleeve, and the wrists are finished with cuffs of insertion and frills of lace. The mode is desirable for summer wash gowns of lawn, or gandie, batiste, Swiss, gingham, grass linen, or other cotton or linen fabrics. Embroidery can be used to trim In place of the lace hero shown. The quantity of material 44 inches wide required to make this waist for a lady having a 36-inch bust measure is 2J yards. THE SAILOR HAT. The sailor hat has appeared again os usual at this time of year, and the monotony of style is relieved a little by two shapes instead of one. The line straw sailor has a narrower brim and a higher crown than the one worn last season, and the pretty rough straw sailor, with a wider brim and a low crown and trimmed with flowers and ribbon is ono of the prettiest hats worn. Of course, the sailor proper has no trimming except the band, and blue, white and brown are the favor j ite colors. Two quills are added to | the plain white sailor to distinguish it as a bicycling hat. i — ; With a woolen gown the summer ! maiden will wear a skirt of changeable I silk. Perhaps this will be a bewil 1 dering mirror effect in blue and green | with tbe soft shimmer that seems to hi ve been borrowed from the dove'* i wing.