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Established July I, 1859.
VOL. XXXV. «Wj % ♦ Subscriotion, $I -OO a Year, in Advance. A Map of Busy Life ; Its Fluctuations and Its vast Concerns. SEPTEMBER nirusDAl 24. I 89b. NO BENTON. LOI I SIAN A. T 0 V F I V ! ■L '>■' ' -IjA* £ A ^ * i VENEZEKL VS SOME OF 1 1'S CAPITAL A\T> \TI UAElIONj.. Hornes of (Le Inhabitants —All Im pressive Capito! A Famous Coffee Region istatucs uf Wash ington and Bolivar. A RAC AS, years tin ■■ presents chanting for three hundred capital of Venezuela, tseli to view With e n■ dramatic effect, writes Almont Barnes in the Washing ton Star. One goes by rail or other road up from the calc«; of the sea at La Gtuiyra, winding ainon an<l lift-- of lire mountains unt il he is five thons ml feet i • ■ • v. that city, be yond which, the Caribbean looks like a mill pond, ami its lieets like "painted ships on a paiufe i ocean," but five or six miles away. The peak of Naiguita and La Si!In Mountains tower above Metra elles three thou-and feet. But he wines along through the di vide, amid shrubbery and forests of ! the curves plSSju 11 * IM t 8u >C ax' 1 '/ % /I «r 'Wife » Hi satt W\ *. Ü il thiW mmwmmr* THE UNIVERSITY OF CARACAS. perfect growth nnd loveliness, and a ; bewildering profusion of wild flower-, in view of a plantation, protected on one side bv a sheer declivity of 150 > feet, and with flocks of swift parrots and more brilliant bird« above 1rs head, and all at once at h:s feet, a thousand feet below, lies Caracas, spread out in a basin of which all j sides are apparently mountains to the : south, hazy, golden, far-away, as in j dreams, but hold and dominantjwhere you are passing and along to the nine- j mile distant coast. AVhat a city that is for a new world—a mosaic of white m. UM mit ^ I iff ill THE CAP1TOI walls and red roofs, with patches of trees in the plazas, palms beyond the city edges, and outlined against the clearest of skies the spires and towers of public buildings and churches, and then agaiu, beyond the city, coffee grows on the mountain side and emerald green crops of alfalfa end cane upon the plain—the city antique as the crusades, its setting new and fresh as the youngest babe of time. Santiago de Leon «le Caracas (St. James of the Lion of Caracas) has its last name worthily from an Indian chief. It is a city of romantic history. While the buccaneers swept ihe South ern seas it never had a carriage road to it from the coast, yet it was cap- i > ff 4 V , A4 ll m fr* i-O NT \ re»-'! -B • 5»« w Of t 'irf li 1 TI - - i as m rT \ i A STREET IN CARACAS. tured and saoked by Sir Francis Drake. Then, in lSli, on the 5th of July, the revolutionary assembly there passed its declaration of independence of Spain. There Bolivar was born, liberated his slaves, was President, Dictator ami otter achieving the independence of Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, "Bo- j llfT) ü nnil TV. vn n r> il i n nirtlrt 1 livia nnd Peru, and dying in exile and poverty, there his bones are gathered m the Pantheon, and his bronze statue udornesthe principal plaza. Above and extending down into the newer city are the ruins of the old nno, strayed in 1812 in an earthquake of a few moments 1 duration, with twelve thousand or more of its people. The earthquake delayed independence, ns the people were taught that thus deity manifested Hie displeasure. The importation of the Spanish method of domestic architecture into tropical America was manifestly wise. No style of dwellings can be more comfortable and healthy outside a snowy zone. High and commodious rooms limit around a large open cen tra! court or patio secure privacy, shade, open air and light, with room for plants and flowers, where women hildron are at home out of doors. Caracas is full of such homes, usually neatly plain outside, but elegant and inviting within. They are eminently social homes, suited to the inhab itants. The canitol is a massive buildim ; stone and stucco, the legislative part to its left, which contains portraits in oil of all the most distinguished citizens of the country, mostly by native artists, you may look out upon a statue of Washington, whilo still farther to the left, in the beautiful I being one grand story, the part for j offices of two, and all the building, | inclosing a largo open square, of equal j height. The style of architecture is j Grecian. From the impressive trout j entrance, or from an immense salon j plaza fronting the Casa Amarilla (yel- ; low house) of the President, on one j side, an«l public offices of large pro- j portions on another, you may see the j splendid equestrian statue of Bolivar. : The 5th of July is celebrated in Venezuela officially in each city with i orations in the legislative or municipal ! chambers, processions headed by the chief officials and foreign representa tives, to the churches, ending with a mass and fireworks. The writer can never forget one such celebration, in hieh the orator, as is usual, lauded Washington and Bolivar as the grea f liberators, and in which, side by side with General Carabano, he aided in officially representing t-ho two Re publics. We of the. older Republic do not sufficiently appreciate how th best people of the new ones love the I liberties they have and the ancient ! difficulties they have to combat in sustaining them. On the western edgej'of' the city of Caracas is a round hill of considerable extent, upon which is located the dis tributing reservoir of the city water works, and a fine public garden, adorned with flowers and shrubbery along open and shaded walks, center ing at a heroic statue of Guzman Blanco, the self-styled and to some ex tent real "illustre Americano" and "regenerador" of his country, certainly gave it a vigorous forward impulse, and took his pay as he went along. From the hill, which is reached Bv beautiful carriage ways and walks, one may study at leisure nearly th He I whole city spread below, the greater extent of the plain, and the surround ing mountain masses. The view is one of mingled loveliness and grandeur, and when the bells from the numerous churches ring out their chimes and the mnsio comes back in softened echoas, repeated from the mountains, ; ! ! , j until the air is saturated with softest .m l «1 m in ,1 ,1 v« rvl rt.l »• til A tin. and almost saddest melody, the un reality of it all becomes intense. And then, beneath it all, sleeps the earth quake and the possible ruin. This thought- returns and makes paradise imperfect. Toward the capitol is the splendid church of Santa Ana, ami the face of its 'pictured Virgin is as the face of the wife of Guzman Blanco. Nearer is the new theater, the finest in South America. Far to the front is the isonic Ti tuple, with its twisted and ungraceful columns, and on ground near the foothills of La Silia (the an idle) where the earthquake made havoc, stands the Pantheon, where the bones of heroes of the independence are enshrined, fn removals thereof the remains of General Ruez, once "resident, and Admiral Brion, com patriots of Bolivar, the writer was privileged to take part and to hear noble orations in honor of liberty and republican institutions, worthy of any land, ff Washington City knew ; Caracas as Caracas does Washington City, the latter would bo always a more interested and willing neighbor. Caracas has street car lines for its BO.OOi! people ; railways reaching in ! land, nnd to its seaport at La Guaira |and its bathing resort at Macuto ; I electric light- and telephone service, j and the telegraph, of course. Its pub | lie and National schools, including the j University of Caracas, are of well : known excellence. It basa large pub | lie library, and its book stores and current publications are well patron : i/ed. Its people are highly cuitivat j cd, intelligent, active, honorable, hos | pi table and have a genius and destiny 1 of their own. Caracas is flanked and backed bv a 1 famous coffee and cacao region, and as I these products are the principal ones ! id the country's so called agriculture, ; the city becomes the only point of • convergence for them before they are ! shot down the seaward side of the , ; mountain, through La Guaira, into ; the export steamers. Caracas cacao is econd only to that of Ecuador in the ; foreign market, though the Alexican j ; i- peiiiajis as good ; and "La Guaira" I eofleo was famous before it became i I simply false Mocha and Java. I In 1877 coffee was so cheap in all ! j markets—four cents and less per pound | in La Guaira — that large numbers of | j plantations were destroyed and reset j j with cacao trees. But since the nse of j coffee now increases faster than the j production, coffee raising has become ; irofitable beyond most products, and & /JK smv m ■M OF.N'F.KAI, BOLIVAR S STATUE. Venezuela is gaining greatly in pros perity, and Caracas planters in easily earned wealth, many citizens having country plantations, and taking life more without care than the old cotton ! planters. The enchanting A'enezuelan capital would be, with th*e sauitary care of this capital city, one of the healthiest cities of the world. At present it is one of the safest of South American cities, seldom being troubled even with yellow fever, and then in mild form. Latterly more cure has been given to sanitation, with obvious ben efit. But usually it. is a safe as well as a delightful city to visit, where "Eng lish is spoke" as well as Spanish, and I an American may chance to meet sev eral of his countrywomen married and happy there, among them Mrs. San tana, a daughter of Josh Billings, who, with her family, sometimes makes a visit "home." Another Mammoth Cave. Another mammoth cave has been discovered in Kentucky. James Hoar : no, E. N. Ingram and John H. Hurst made an exploration of a cave at the limestone quarry near Pineville. They r< port going into tho earth half a milo and finding a small lake some eight i-en or twenty feet square, of ice •.miter. They brought out with them -unit* stalactites and other peculiar formations. It is at present wet and muddy, and after leaving the entrance aud going back about, one hundred feet, one comes to a precipice about twenty-five or thirty feet, high, and • town which people must let them ;wives with a rope or ladder. It is not ; et known how far back the cave ex tends, nor if it will become popular as a place of resort.—Atlanta Constitu tion. A Station Indicator. The introduction of a<dvertisements on the walls of the railroad stations ; in London has made it necessary for ! the Metropolitan Railway to introduce ! a station indicator to announce to the passengers the name of the station , which the tram he is riding in is ap* j proaehing. KILL YKPS LLITLIL HOrr. ( ANGELS A GREAT Ml MIEDE OF TROU 111.KS. Keep Your Hooks Balance«!, But Don't Record Small Things. It is I ance up good plan for a man to bal his books onoe or twice in a while and see how the account stands. I don't mean liis money accounts nor 1rs debts and credits, but his blessings and afflictions. In doing this he should toto fair with himself and his Creator. He should not magnify his troubles nor m nify his blessing? and privileges. It 100 is the maximum on either side, then Sight afflictions which are but for a moment, as St. an! says, should not be set down at 7.5. If the cook quits and the cow runs away, I wouldn't put it down at all, for both have come back jnst as I expected. Hope cancels a great many troubles. My turnip seed have been in the ground eighteen dnys, with not a drop of rain to sprout them, but I am still hoping, and so I won't put the turnips down as a lost crop— not yet I won't, some dog with two legs, or four, killed my peafowl while she was setting, and I put that down at 5, for it was a great aggravation, and it iasfs a long time; nothing frets j me more than cruelty to animals, ex- j oept cruelty to children. I see young j bucks driving fast horses past my ; house, and they press thorn to their utmost speed, and if the horse breaks they jerk him nnd whip him unmer cifully, and think it is smart. I would like to see one of them fellows reined up with a bit in his mouth and a check rein drawn over his head and fastened somewhere, just to let him feel the agony for a few minutes. Good health in the family ought to be put down everyday at not less than 50, for that is the greatest blessing in life, nnd perhaps the least appreciate d, until we get sick. One of our boys is sick now from the effects of sunstroke in Chattanooga a month ago, and his mother sat up with him all night last nicht, and her anxiety is very great. You see, he is her boy, and she knows it. There is never any doubt about who is the mother of a child. But I won't pip thatdown at more than20on the trouble side, for hope comes in liope that he will be better tomorrow. Then, again, we are all out of jail, and that is worth something. There are lots of folks in jail or in the lunatic asylum or in the poorhouse, and that is a grear affliction, and mighty nigh takes all the figures to count the mis - cry. I met an old man in Arkansas who said : "Mr. Arp, I am eighty four years old. Me and ray old 'ornan have been livin' together sixty-two years and have thirteen living child rou and lots of grand children, and nary one hain't been called to court for anything they've done—put that «town— au i you may say that me and her have belonged to the same Baptist church for sixty years, and ali thar time I have voted the Democratic ticket —put that down." "Hain't never been called lo court." AYell, that is a big thing—no lawsuit* in the family, no crimes nor bonds nor jails. That is worth 10 every day on the credit side. Then, there 75 peace with the nabors, and good will all around is another big thing. And hav ing a home and shade trees and vines and flowers and good water and gentle breezes and friends to come and go,and a faithful dog to warn intruders, and a Jersey cow—these are ail blessings that ncTinf <1 in A 11 ,1 1 It n B, i b .. _ ! count up. And then there is the privi lege of living in a Christian land under Christian laws and' rulers; and going to church aud worsbini according to our conscience. Dur for fathers away back couldn't do that Speaking of worshiping God reminds mo of an eccentric friend who didn't belong to any church, but sometimes attended and paiil devout attention. 1 met him one Sabbath morning walk ttig fast in that direction, and I said : "AVhere are you going in such n hurry?" "I'm going to church," said he; "going to church to worship God — not. tne preacher." "Neither poverty or riches!" That's another blessing. Pinching poverty wo have nevar known at our house u' G 1 *! f 10 though it looks like itis coining,an«l i.< almost in hailing distance. ff Mr. Bryan or Mr. McKinley r>i Romebodv don't do something very soon I don't know what will beoom of us. Homebody is to blame al all this depression, and if 1 knew who it was T would use language on th on A Republican friend told me today th t it was the want of protection to our industries, and that McKinley won! l straighten it all out next year. H said that Vermont had started the bn! 1 to rolling, and would roll on from th Atlantic to the Pacific ocean. He be lieves that, and furthermore, that V will roll into our little postoffice next year. That's all right. He may put down five for hope on h s credit side and I'll sign his pe tition if his side wins, for he is about as clever a man a? a Republican can be, ind that is not flattering him ver Dinah. But Vermont don't prove ary »b ug, fo> they all want protection m 1 j j j ; 1 I I ' - ; ; j ; j J [ j i 1 I | i | I ; ; j Hl I 1 1 Ç JÎ t". there where there is a little mill on every branch and waterfall making fishhooks or hairpins or jewsharps m suspender buckles or something. Jtt-r wait till the west is heard from, where oats are now selling for 13 cents n bushel and the railroads get 7 cents n | bushel for hauling them to market. AVhat is protection going to do f -r them? A writer in The Review of Re views, a gold standard monthly, says he has just come from there, and yen might as well sing psalm? to a dea horse as to try to convert them ir 1 .ti the silver craze. He says that al gulden literature you .-end them is thrown into the fire without reading. The argument is exhautsed, and they are almost fighting mod But what troubles some ot us ts that we are consumers. We don't piroduce anything, and if free silver at 16 to 1 makes prices go up, we will be the sufferers. Reckon I will have to go back to farming again. There are a good many of us in the same fix that the fellow was when we heard that the town bank had broke—ran all the way home to see how many of its bills ho had. AVhen ha got home he found he diden't have any bills on that bank nor any other bank. When our bank failed in Carter ville last year Tom Lyon took on and lamented more than anybody. He almost cried. I took him aside and asked him how much he had on deposit in that bank. "Narv dollar," said he; "nary dollar, but if I had had any money, major, it would have been in there, and that's what's the matter with me." But hope is a good invention—and "God tempers the wind to tho shorn lamb," and "the Lord loveth whom He ebasteneth," and "sufficient unto the day is the evil thereof." And so I'm not going to cross the bridge be fore I get to it. I dug a little basket ful of Irish potatoes out of the weeds and grass yesterday, and set it on the back piazza and old Sis Cow came nloug and ate them all up, but she didn't know any better, and Sicily smiled, and said I would get it all back 'n milk, and so I didn't put that down, but it was very aggravating. May the Lord help us all to bear the ills of life. —Biiiii Akp, in Atlanta Constitution. HARVESTING RHUBARB. In picking rhubarb, sa.ts an author ity, take care to select Ute stalks which have attained their growth. These are mostly on tho outside of the hill and can be detected by Hie smoothness and dull color of the leaf, and by the greenness of tin' stalk.. The stalks which are still red. and which have small, crumpled leaves, should be left to grow. The cutter should keep watch for blossom stems and pull them out or out them off near the ground as soon as seen. Not a seed should be allowed to form, during the entire season. In gathering the stalks take them away witli a straight, quick pull, whip off the leaf and scrape the root and stem, and leave the stalks in small heaps, all pointed in one direction ready for the man who comes after to gather into baskets or boxes. The leaves should be spread over the weeds near the plants. Rhubarb leaves will smother all weeds nnd grass. HORSE TALK. ! The teased colt is the sire to the ill I tempered horse. i The man that would have sound, nicely-formed hoofs on his horses when he comes to sell them, must give I attention to the hoofs of his colts. The best-fed work horse has the heavy grain ration in the morning and at noon, and the bulk of his hay at j j I j I j I I j If the horse's slioiihbu's arc washed •lean and bathed every evening with ; strong salt water (it is all the better if j i n 1'ttlc alum is added), only a ill t l 1 s fitting collar can make galls j Stuff the pads with timothy hay— ! it remains springy. Button or wool be ! comes hard, and often forms into ! lumps. Look out for the buffalo gnats, and j grease the cars and other parts of the j horses most infested. When you have a good horse stick to I him. He may not lie fast, he may not. j In* completely sound, but lie does ali I you need of a horse, is safe ami ! healthy. Why change, even if some jockey with a mote showy horse does 1 offer to trade? You know nothing of , the other horse, and you do"know your ! own is fully honest. The chances are 1 that ihe man who deals in horses knows more about them than you do, and that you will make nothing liv the transac i tion. and will in all probability lose. He is in the business for what he can ; get out of it. We prefer to have the eolt in the field with the mare, if the eolt is Brut in the stable both it and the mure will fret. Besides, the eolt should suck every two or three hours. Give the work horses a night pasture near the stables. After the day's work j they should receive the same care in the stabie as if they were to remain there—and after being cooled, fed and j cleaned, turn them in the pasture or j large paddock where they ean get a i generous bite of grass and roll and I rest. They should receive the same amount of feed in the stable. It is eru I el to expect them to work all day and 1 pick around all night to satisfy their ; hunger.—Farm Journal. CONI FEUS FOR LAWN AND WIND BREAK. All lovers of trees have a particular liking for conifers, and these should never be omitted from lawns of moder ate or large size, says Professor L. H. Paurcl, of Iowa. Evergreens give ex pression, and are especially desirable during winter, when everything is dreary. In large grounds, fully ono half the trees should lie evergreens. The grounds of the agricultural college at Ames furnish an excellent illustra tion of the proper method of planting and grouping trees. Three-fourths of the trees are conifers. Many choice species are fine trees after a quarter of a century's growth. 'The following species were planted: Black Spruce, White Spruce. Norway Spruce, Balsam Fir, White Pine, Scotch Pine, Austrian Pine, Norway Pino, Red t'edar. Hem lock, European Larch, Blue Spruce, Douglas Spruce. AVhite Fir, Yellow Pine, Scrub riue. Dwarf Pine, and Frazer's Spruce. For the early planting, of spruces I should give first place to AVhite Spruce, a beautiful, symmetrical tree. Black Spruce is scrawny, and not a pleasant looking tree. The Norway is not as vigorous and healthy as the White, al though it is taller. It is irregular, with many dead branches, and should not be planted. Of the pines, the first place sliouid be given to the AVhite, as it has a graceful habit, soft leaves, and a beau tiful green color. The Scotch Pine is also an admirable tree, hut its effects tire not so pleasing. 'The Austrian is hardy, but its expression is more bold. All these piues are desirable, but when space is limited the White Pine should have the preference. The Norway is more desirable than the Scotch and Austrian, and should be given second place. The European Larch is much more desirable than Tamarack. Hem lock is one of the most desirable of all our conifers. If I were to plant but a single conifer, I would choose a Hem lock. Of the later plantings on the college grounds, the Dwarf Mountain Pirte is a most desirable tree. It can be planted in small lots, ns it will not ob struct views. The Yellow Pine, the Douglas Spruce, and the Blue Spruce are also doing well, and perhaps will be planted extensively in the future. For large and spacious grounds, any of the conifers named above can be chosen. Plant more of the AA'hite Spruce than any of the others.—New England Homestead. TRANSPLANTING FLOWERING SHRUBS. After the spring season for trans planting is past, it is often discovered that certain shrubs are not in the proper place, or that some shrub is de sired in a vacant spot. To wait until the following spring is a source of con stant annoyance. Now those who wish to get a little ahead of the regular sea son need not be afraid to transplant their shrubs at any time during early summer. The method to pursue is to dig around the clump and roots as care fully as possible, transplant the clump to the previously dug hole, work fine soil among the roots, press down firmly, level flic remaining soil all around, and cut off the entire top of the shrub. If the season be dry, it is well to water the roots thoroughly at the time of setting and put thick mulch around the shrub. In a very short time, young shoots will start up and make an astonishingly rapid and strong growth, which will, not rarely, produce flowers the next spring.—Amercan Agriculturist AVHAT SIXTY HENS DID. We have T. Parsons about sixty which are liens, writes J. •ross lx"tween j t )j 0 Plymouth Rook and Buff Cochin, ,yj ot - ( j, m » are pullets, except, perhaps. ! 1 , ! 1 half-dozen, which will be two years old this spring. On ,1aunary i we be gan keeping systematic account of the receipts and expenses from <utr poultry, nnd find that even in the winter months we are able to realize fully 00 cents a bushel for corn, oats and buckwheat. AA'c feed out poultry twice a day a two gallon I.....I of Corn, oats and buck wheat in nearly equal quantities, the two former varieties of feed licing a lit tle the stronger. AA '«• give our chickens plenty of fresh wtikr. lime and gravel mixed, and occasi "i.ully warm slops, and in real cold weather the prepon derance of feed is col 11 . ( Utr hencoop is not nearly so warm as it ought to be. but the fowls have a good run and plenty of opportunity for exercise. AA'itli this brief synopsis of our perhaps imperfect methods of keeping and feed ing poultry, we sum up this brief article by stating that we have received from thes«> sixty in ns from January 1 to March l''. a period of two and one-half months. EPS»» eggs, or 105 dozen. At one cent each this amounts to nearly $20, and we consider that we are well paid for our trouble and expense in caring for ottr fowls. Many people faff in egg production in their neglect to give the hens a proper supply of water, lime and gravel.—Interstate Poultry man. It is estimated that the Pan-Ameri can railway to the southern extremity of South America would extend about 4500 miles an«l cost 313 ! ,OM0,000.