* ederal University of Commerce Needed
To Give Training for Foreign Service
. By DR. G. L SWJGGETT
AuuUst Secretary General Pan Amedcaa Financial Contrat
The foreign relations of a country refer no longer to that nation's
affairs of state. The flag will follow, henceforth, trade and social welfare
work as never before. 1 his kind of service is carried on by organizations
and individuals, with or without governmental patronage, and needs a
superior and particular kind of preparation in view of the services to be
undertaken. The nation s foreign policy may be elastic, but must be in
accord with and fundamentally true to the genius and political prin
ciples of the government.
Training for foreign service, adequate to achieve the end in view,
must be based on satisfactory courses in commercial education. This type
of education should be established in all cities of present potential foreign
trade. It should be established with due cognizance on the part of busi
ness men of the proper emphasis to be placed upon the inherent educative
value of certain studies, particularly for certain grades in the school
of the student, and with due recognition, as well, on the part of educators,
that not only is co-operation with local industrial, mercantile and manu
facturing interests essential for the most efficient and least wasteful
method of instruction in commercial branches, but that a readjustment of
j our traditional educational organization and its administration is highly
desirable in order to articulate and accredit the excellent instruction that
is now being given in extramural or nonacademic agencies as emergency
preparation for specific careers in business, domestic or foreign.
I foresee, therefore, the^ establishment in the early future of a federal
university of commerce, the natural culmination of the nation's local
efforts in this field of education. I refer particularly to those courses in
commerce that relate to foreign service. Providence, political wisdom,
educational integrity and economy demand that we all think in that direc
tion and work to the establishment of such an institution, whether there
be but one or several in the land.
Our nation must not be divided against itself in this respect. I do
not think that we can create a unity of conception in foreign policy in
separate and disparate institutions under varied control and catering to
diversified local interests. Only a federal university of commerce, with
proper establishment and direction, can train the young men and young
women of this nation for foreign missions with the singleness of aim and
lofty vision that such a career demands today.
Taxing of Extravagant Expenditures
Would Promote Productive Investment
By FRANK A. VANDERLIP
Pksadeat National City Bank of New York
==========g=gW— ' — ———————
I believe the whole theory of the taxation of incomes is wrong. In
•»ying that, I do not mean that I would deny the weight of taxation should
fall in an increasing ratio on great wealth.
Instead of taxing income«, I believe we should tax expenditures. The
income, no matter how large it may be, that is all promptly returned to
«productive investment is of the greatest value to society; its owner is
only a trustee, who give« his experienced judgment to returning the income
wisely to society. It is not great incomes that we should object to, but
expenditures that are made for unproductive purposes that represent
lavishness and extravagance.
Lavishness and extravagance are by no means confined to those who
receive great incomes. Such expenditures are a double destruction; they
destroy the capital so spent, robbing society of its service, and frequently
they destroy the ability of the spenders to render society full service. The
man who, by judgment , thrift and economy, by moderate living and
modest expenditure, accumulates an income which he promptly returns
to reproductive work, is rendering the highest type of service, while profli
gate expenditure, whoever is responsible for it, rob>s all men and leaves
the nation poorer by its double reaction.
United States One Nation in the World
That Can Bring About Permanent Peace
By Gov. Arthur Capper of Kauaai
Upon the American people rests the responsibility and duty of leader
ship in the movement for permanent peace among civilized nations. It
Is no quixotic enterprise to which we are called. We are not meddlers
in the affairs of others when we say that war must cease.
, The interdependence of nations, the bonds of commerce and finance,
entirely aside from the dictates of' common humanity, -make it impossible
for this plague of war to exist anywhere upon the globe without seriowly
affecting both our international relations and our domestic affairs. Our
protest is not sentimental, although we thank God we are moved by human
«offering and the waste of human life by this destroying world sicknesi.
The dose of the world war strikes the hour for the organization
among civilized nations of an actual federation with the purpose of main
taining a world peace. And America is the one nation which can pro.
,pose such a federation and effect its organization. The task is hopeleai
without us. This is because of our nonparticipation in the present struggle
and because of the magnitude of the nation and its resources.
Farm Dwellers Destined to Dominate
National Life of the United States
By CARL VROOMAN, Aaietent Secretary of Agriculture
The farmer is now in the saddle. There is no profession or occupa
tion in the world which to my mind offers as many attractions as that
«of the. farmer. The time is coming in this country when everybody who
can is going to live in the country. We are getting all the comforts of
city life in the country now, getting all sorts of things that our ancestors
did not have,
Country life is becoming every year more interesting, more attractive,
and we are going to build up, as I firmly believe, in this country a great
civilization, the dominant note of which is going to be the agricultural
note. I believe that the farmers, the country dwellers, of this country
in the future-Are going to dominate our national life, and i£ they do I
/eel sure the future of this country is assured.
HOW GREAT WARS
OF HISTORY WERE
BROOGHT TO END
Peace Talk Recalls How Negotia
tions Were Started in
GERMAN MOVE STANDS ALONE
History Does Not Disclose an Exact
Parallel to Course of Central Pow
ers— Mediation, Such as Of
fered by President, Seldom
Has Been Accepted.
New York.—How did great wars
and? Have peace offers such as Pres
ident Wilson's usually borne fruit?
Did an undefeated warring power like
Germany ever before hold out the olive
branch to the enemy?
These are questions of intense In
terest to humanity today. Their an
swers have a direct bearing on the
topic uppermost in almost every mind
—how soon the awful holocaust of
Europe's best and bravest will cease.
History does not disclose any exact
parallel to Germany's course, at least
In modern times. A belligerent,
boasting berself victorious, has never
before requested her adversaries to
meet her and discuss possible terms
Moreover, President Wilson's offer
•f mediation faces the fact that rare
ly have nations availed themselves of
such an opportunity. The United States
may now become the great peace
maker, the mediator between the en
tente and the central powers, but it
will be almost the first time such a
situation has developed.
Many times, indeed, In almost every
war, a beaten foe has requested peace
parleys through a neutral. Such an
act is usually rightly taken as a con
fession of defeat. In our last war,
the conflict with Spain, the Madrid
government on July 26, 1888, realiz
ing that further struggle was fruit
less, made overtures to the United
States through Jules Cambon, who
was then French Ambassador at
Protocol Was Signed.
The American government Immedi
ately availed Itself of this chance to
get together with the foe and 17 days
later the protocol was signed.
When England tired of the long,
losing fight with her American colo
nies, she first sent separate envoys to
the French government, America's
ally. These were followed by other
negotiators who discussed the situ
ation with the commissioners the
American government had sent to
The American commissioners had
been positively commanded by the
Continental Congress not to negotiate
peace without the participation of
France, which reminds us of the
agreement In force today between
the present entente allies.
But the commissioners did sign a
separate treaty with the reservation
that it should not go into effect until
France had made peace.
When the French 'government was
Informed by the commissioners of
iwhat had been done, it accepted the
(terms, which then came In force.
Our war of 1812 saw an offer of
the Russian czar to act as mediator
much like President Wilson's action
of a few days ago. The offer was re
jected by the British. But Lord Cas
tlereagh, speaking for the London
government, let It be known at the
time be refused the czar as media
tor that he was willing to negotiate
directly with the United States.
The United States Immediately sent
commissioners, but Great Britain de
layed a long time. She did not ap
point the promised envoys, who
signed the peace of Ghent, until her
troubles had aggravated greatly and
she was quite desirous of peace.
In the Mexican war President Polk
■would have made peace at almost any
Tliii photograph, taken just before the capture of Bucharest shows
advance pu the Roumanian capital.
an Austrian battery
in action during Um
time, but Mexico would not .ecelve
Finally he sent a re Pf* otnti J
Nicholas P. Trist, along with Gn. \\
field Scott's army. Trist w«l author
ized to treat with Mexico a*soon
the enemy government wold grant
him a hearing.
But Scott quarreled with Trist and
refused to transmit his l«ter to the
Mexican leaders. Trist w#i forced
get the British minister toforward
After repeated dlscaUNging fail
ures and rebuffs, he met com
missioners who had bees Appointed by
the new Mexican government which
succeeded that of Santa Anna. But
this was after President Polk had or
dered his recall. Tritt disregarded
the recall order and negotiated the
treaty of Guadalupe Hldfllgo, which
was accepted on both sides and end
ed the war.
President Theodore Roosevelt was
one of the most successful mediators
In history, a fact which was recog
nized when the Nobel commission
awarded him a peace prize.
On June 8, 1905, Roosevelt brought
the Russo-Japanese war to a close by
sending Identical dispatches to Petro
grad and Tokyo urging the belliger
ent governments to enter Into peace
Russia's defeats In the field and
Japan's serious financial straits im
pelled them to comply. Both sent en
voys to the United States, who ne
gotiated the treaty of Portsmouth.
The Napolaonic peace treaties usu
ally began with an armistice. The
most famous, the treaty of Tilsit, was
brought about by a personal meet
ing between Napoleon and Alexander
on a raft la the middle of the River
Niemen to agree upon an armistice
which the czar had already sought.
An armistice was also agreed upon
after the battle of Lutzen, but Napo
leon would not agree to the allies'
terms and resumed hostilities. His
fall in 1814 was accompanied by no
negotiations; the allies were actually
in Paris. Napoleon's generals per
suaded him to sign an act of abdica
tion, and the French senate dethroned
On the death of Czar Nicholas I,
his successor, Alexander H, announced
to the courts of Europe his desire that
the Crimean war should end, and this
is the nearest approach to a parallel
with Germany's action today.
A peace conference was held In
Vienna, but in three months it was
broken off and the war resumed. The
war went on until Austria, a neutral
power, threatened to Join the allies un
less the czar accepted her ultimatum.
He at first refused, but a personal let
ter from the neutral king of Prussia
induced him to reconsider, and the
final peace conference was held.
The war of Italy, France and Aus
tria, in 1859, was terminated in a sur
prising fashion by an armistice agreed
on personally between Napoleon III
and Franz Josef, Just as the French
and Italian armies were In the full
tide of success. Victor Emmanuel was
forced to agree, and the terms of the
armistice were embodied in a peace
The Civil Wer.
The war betwen Prussia and Den
mark in 1864 came abruptly to an end
when the Dane* learned that neither
England nor France would help them.
They dismissed their war ministry
from office and sent proposals for a
truce directly to Berlin and Vienna.
The terms df peace between the
United States and the Confederacy
were arranged by generals in the field.
In the war between Austria, Prus
sia, and Italy in 1806, Franz Josef, af
ter his defeats at Koenlggrqetz and else
where, Informed Napoleon HI of his
willingness to cede Venetia to Italy
and his desire that Napoleon be media
tor. Napoleon accepted, and Bismarck
drafted the terms and seul them to
Napoleon, who, as mediator, accepted
them. An armistice followed.
In 1870 the French government
which succeeded Napoleon ni asked
first for an armlstite, then for peace,
but the requests Here declined and
the siege of Paris began. After the
surrender of Paris the Germans con
sented to an armistice to permit the
election of a national assembly which
it could recognize. The preliminaries
of peace were agreed on between Bis
YSAYE AND SOLDIER SON
M. Ysaye, the famous Belgian violin
ist, touring the Belgian front with his
soldier son. Ysaye has played In many
concerts for the funds established for
the relief of his country. His son has
taken part In several Important en
gagements and has won the respect of
his compatriots for his courageous be
marck and Thiers at Versailles, and
the treaty followed at Frankfort.
The Russo-Turklsh war was cut
short by England's threat to enter it.
Russia arranged an armistice Immedi
ately and negotiated the treaty of San
Stefano directly with Turkey. Eng
land, backed by France and Austria,
refused to recognize it, and the con
gress of Berlin was summoned; but
before It met the czar had negotiated
a secret treaty with England embody
ing most of the agreements subsequent
ly made there.
China Gives Up.
China made two approaches to Ja
pan while the war of 1894 was going
on, but through envoys who had no
proper credentials, and Japan refused
to treat with them. When China was
wholly defeated and the Japanese
armies about to march on Peking, the
empire sent LI Hung Chang with prop
er credentials to Shimonosekg and the
treaty was at once drawn up.
Russia put an end to the Turco
Grecian war of 1897 by peremptorily
ordering an armistice Just as the vic
torious Turks were marching on Cen
The Boer war ended in an unprece
dented way. The members of *the
Transvaal government rode into Mld
dleburg and requested to be sent to
Lord Kitchener to arrange peace terms
with him. He met them, but held that
because of the peculiar character of
the Boer army the men In the field
would have to be consulted If any as
surance of peace was to be givep.
Steyn, De Wet and Delarey went to the
commanders, explained the situation to
them, and each body in the field chose
two delegates to meet at Vereeniging
and decide the mutter by vote.
An armistice In the first Balkan war
was ended by a breaking off of nego
tiations. The powers then agreed upon
terms and offered mediation. A sec
ond armistice was signed, but Mon
tenegro would not Join it and went on
with the war. She captured Scutari,
but Austria took it away from her, and
the second peace conference, which
was successful, met at London.
Ninety-Four, He Take* Fifth Bride.
Colorado Springs, Colo.—Married
for the first time in London, the day
Victoria was crowned queen, Capt.
Charles A. Gordon, now a resident of
this city, has celebrated his fifth wed
ding day. He Is ninety-four and his
bride, Mrs. Margaret Dixon, seventy
eight Gordon's only son is the same
age as his prospective step-mother,
Dies on Anniversary.
Pueblo, Colo.—Rev. Frank W. Ini
boden celebrated his fifty-ninth birth
day, his thirty-seventh wedding anni
versary and died on the same day
Ask for and Cet W*
THE HIGHEST QUALITY
36 Age Recipe Book. Free
SKINNER MFG.CO. OMAHA. USA
URCIST MACARONI FACTORY IN AMERICA
One Best Bet
"Yes, my son."
"They get coal out of the earth»
"Yes, my boy."
"And they get gold out of the earth,
too, don't they, pop?"
"Well, from the present outlook It
would appear that we've got to get
the gold out first. What?"
This Lady Tried Cardui. Let Her
Tell You in The Following
Statement The Results
Wise, Va. —Mrs. J. M. Elam, of thli
place, In writing of her female
troubles, says: "This trouble went on
for 14 years, often I was unable to
work and suffered badly at . . . times,
when I could not be on my feet at all.
Really In bad health all the time dur*
Ing those 14 years, and was neve»
without pain, with awful backaching,
had no appetite, was nervous, büt at
that time my husband's sister . . .
recommended that I try Cardui, which
began to take . . . and which has
caused me to be in better health ever
since. In a few days I felt that im
provement had begun. My back got
stronger and less painful. I got less
nervous and my appetite began to im
prove. In a few weeks my Improve
ment was noticeable, and I got Into
better health than I had had for 14
years. . . My walking before had been
very painful, and could not stand on
my feet to do any good. After using
these medicines, however, I could walk
without pain and was able to do the
work and housekeeping for an ordi
nary family. My back and appétit»
were better and also my nerves." •*
If you suffer as Mrs. Elam did, také
Cardui. It may be Just what yon
England Conserves War Timber.
The English crown woods, which
cover 125,000 acres and contain timber
worth $15,000,000, are being extensive
ly but carefully exploited to furnish
war timber for the front.
The Quinine That Doee Not Affect The Head
îecanie of lta tonic and laxative effect, Lexitlre
Bromo Quinine can be taken by anyone without
causing nerrooaness or ringing In tbe head. Thera
la only one "Bromo Qnlnlne.' B. W. ÜHOVSä
Signatare la on each box. 36c.
"Mrs. Jimps is a consistent nag
"Yes; she is always sticking her
husband for pin money."
TAKES OFF DANDRUFF,
HA IR STO PS FALLINQ
8.V. your Hair! Get a 25 cent bottl.
of Danderine right new—Aleo
stops itching scalp.
Thin, brittle, colorless and scraggy
hair is. mute evidence of a neglected
scalp; of dandruff—that awful scurf.
There is nothing so destructive tö
the hair as dandruff. It robs the hair
of its lustre, its strength and its very
life; eventually producing a feverish
ness and itching of the scalp, which
if not remedied causes the hair roots
to shrink, loosen and die—then the
hair falls out fast. A little Danderine
tonight—now—any time—will surely
save your hair. . ( .
Get a 25 cent bottle of Knowlton's
Danderine from any drug store. You
surely can have beautiful hair and lots
of it If you will just try a little Dan
derine. Save your hair 1 Try it !—Adv.
Gold, silver, copper, quicksilver or
mercury, iron, nickel, tin, zinc, lead
and aluminum are the ten minerals
generally to be found in every house.
do yoo think John Mid. Dhddy,
vbra 1 told him that whan we were married I wanted • city
• ***£}*? P ,aee ® «* *"tos md a lot of servantat**
Deddy—Well, ,h,t did the pm-agon M r V
"I' 1 th ** * *®uld eiaop more on my
right ado I wouldn't hare euch dream» "
S-"« * t®od«*n»l poor digestion, whoo the
tarf worked stomach begin to coaufain the whole
"" m * n L? ,e J" v * « — offensive
Wtntt. dyspepsia tad d sorts of shnilir disorder*
•very cqe of which. If y oe (fid bat know it. cries aloud tor
the beJth /L yea S t" contributed t
No oay - Besaite it» klîL"™ * otoœach remedy
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