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l©rthem SlfsulT i ^ All Q J JL 1 r 0 j hi j Tn 1 Ll[ L I «U rn n & ? ?:■ » vm « w w I It3 THE. ITALIAN TYROL I T IS now nearly two years sine Italy took her place beside the allies in the life and death strug gle that is holding the world in its grip, and yet tlie calm and quiet to be met with hero in North Italy and dost up to the firing line cannot fail t< strike even (lie most casi^fi observer writes a correspondent of Country Life. You hear the roar of the can in>n, some days almost continuously jest over the mountains that divide the "Veneto" from Austria; day by day I he hospital train passes along the val ley carrying its load of sick and wounded down from the front; day by day.motors and Rod Cross cars dash f'-'-'.ng the high road at breakneck speed,-giving the impression that mat ters of life and death hang on the pace at which they can reach their desti nation; and yet the peasants work on In steady adherence to their tasks barely looking up to notice ail this un wonted movement, absorbed more than usual at this moment in the land. This, however, is not from indiffer ence as to the war; far from It, for the subject is one that all alike are keenly Interested In, and every family has sent one and often two or more members to fight for their king and country. Hut the Italian peasant also loves the soil on which he and his fathers before him have worked ; his heart is in the land, and the success or failure of the crops is to him a matter of well-being or starvation. Hard Life, but Healthful. In these times, too, the work re quires au unwonted degree of attention and labor, for every acre must be fully cultivated. All the men from the age i a 7 **-"**m C' m A MARKET PLACE of twenty-one to forty are, with few exceptions, away at the front, and those who remain must make good the deficiency. In this they have, however, willing helpmates in the women. At all times the women work in propor tion as hard as their men-folk in the fields, and when to these duties are added those of mothers and house wives it is small wonder that they age before their time, and that a pret ty fresh girl of eighteen is an old wom an at forty. Their life, though hard In some ways, is on the other hand ex tremely healthful ; their habits are sim ple and frugal, and they slide into old age with constitutions untouched by sharp vicissitudes of climate—the win ters being excessively severe and the summers very hot—Interested and busy up to the last In all that relates to the land, the cattle, and their chil dren. Family life is on patriarchial lines ; sons, daughters-ln-law and their chil dren (of which there is never any lack) all live with the parents under the same roof ; all share the same food —composed chiefly of beans, Indian corn and cheese—and all share one purse, kept, often pretty tightly too, l>y the "head of the family" (il capo di famlglia), who receives any extrane ous sums that any of his children may earn on his or her own account, and doles out the money required for clothes, food, or any small expenses that the event of a wedding, a baptism or a funeral may call forth. The food question is, perhaps, the simplest of the lot. The peasant in this part of Italy shares with the own er of the land ail that the land pro (luces, lie puts into it his labor, he draws from it the half that that la bor brings as his portion ; and this ar rangement of the "mezzadria," or half and-half system as we might call it, is, if honestly adhered to, fairer and mure advantageous to all concerned than any other. By it the peasant lias as keen, if not a keener interest than his landlord in the tilling of the soil, in keeping under the Weeds, pruning and spraying the vines, hoeing the In dian corn, tending the cattle, and as from all these sources one-half goes to him, it concerns him closely to make the profits as abundant as possible. His day's work is generally a long one, especially in the summer when he will be up and alrtmt at 4 a. m., but as he can divide his hours entirely to suit his own convenience the hardship is not really a great one. In the hot months he will knock off work for a long spell in the middle of the day and after a good siesta he will begin again with a leisure that betokens much lib erty of action and a total absence of any hint of being "driven." If it be true that "it is the pace that kills," your Italian peasant will certainly not be exposed to that kind of death! Women Doing Men's Work. The war, though, has altered all this easy, calm-going state of things. The women, as in France, are acting in the place of the men, and are doing it, too, in a very thorough and admirable man ner. Many of them handle the scythe masterly fashion ; others, when j necessary, see to the management of the farm ; they pile up the high loads j >f hay on to the ox-drawn wagons with will and energy, and when once the ; difficulty (and it is a serious one just now in Italy) of obtaining wool can be got over they devote their spare mo ments to knitting socks for the men on the heights. The markets all through the country are the gainers by their industry, as well in picturesque effects as in useful and profitable supplies. Who that has ever been at Verona, in late summer, say, but will recall the scene in the "Piazza delle Erbe," with its sea of wide white umbrellas pitched all down that lovely market pluce, with the bas kets stacked with apples, white and black grapes, pears, peaches, medlars and quinces, while on every spare inch of ground are piled vegetables, bean«, carrots, potatoes, cabbages, cardoons, with any number of pumpkins, huge in size, and in Deautifui tones of color varying from dark green to bronze, orange and yellow? The sites chosen for these fruit and vegetable markets are, when possible, beside some fountain, or occasionally at the corner of some great palace, as for instance, at Florence at the Stroz zl and Riccardl palaces, where the wide projecting roofs make a welcome shade for the flowers which are ar ranged so tastefully upon their cool stones; more often, indeed, a small "piazza" or square Is chosen that boasts a supply of water In its midst, around which "the neighbors come and laugh and gossip," relating the suc cess or failure of their bargains, and more often than not indulging in lan guage—often used quite unconsciously —for which their parish priest will reprimand them one of these days from the altar. j FINDS TWO SONS; SOUGHT ONLY ONE __ Peculiar Experience of Hartford Woman While Sear ching for Offspring. Denver. Co!o.—To seek an only son Jind to learn she is the mother of two "sons," at least one of whom she did not know existed. Is the somewhat pe euliar experience of Mrs. Martha Con press of Mast Hartford. Conn. Another strange circumstance in connection with the quest of her lost heir is that Louis Congress, the miss- j ing son, was prosperous and robust j when he disappeared several months j ago. r J he two new "sons" of Mrs. Con gress are in precarious health and without funds. .Mrs. Congress asked a local paper to iind her lost son, believed to be in Colorado. Her ad got results. One of > A va The Other "Son" Wrote From the Im perial Hotel. ; j j the letters in reply was dated at La Junta, Colo.. I\ <). Box x4C.'5. It said: "Dearest Mother: I thought I would rite You a Few Lines to let you know I am not Very Well this is Why I am writing for Money, in an other letter you send me send $1- Be cause I Need it am in Hard Luck I will tell you the Results When I Get Home. From Yours Truly & Sincerely, "LOUIS CONGRESS." "B. S. La Junta, Colo. Send it in j Next Letter. Send it in Bills and Send j it Mother." The other son wrote from the Im perial hotel in Denver, and this is the touching appeal lie inscribed: "Mamma : Saw your ad in the Post today; am a little sick. Will explain all when I get back to you. I have not ; ÎT" ah ' e 1° set "'" rk for a ,on ~ tinie * Please send money to me care Impe rial hotel, 318 Fourteenth street, Den ver, Colo. I owe month's room rent at this hotel. Will leave town without their knowing it. "Your loving son, LOUIE. ' Mrs. Congress is still looking for her sou. STEAL DEAD MAN'S HEART Ghouls Dig Up Grave of Wealthiest and Most Popular Man in Southern Ohio. Bethel, O.—Ghouls dug up the grave of Daniel Hill, eighty-four years old, of this town, and cut out the dead man's heart. They then covered the coffin again and made their escape. A box of burnt matches and spots on the tombstone were the only clews left. Hill, one of the wealthiest and most popular men in southern Ohio had (lied of natural causes, according to his phy sician. A few days after the burial the sexton became suspicious and hud the grave dug up. He found that the • coffin had been sawed open. .> .j. ÿ .j. .j .j.4.4. ,j. 4,4. .j, 4, I DRUNKS TO RAISE CROP. | IS MAYOR'S ORDER % Lockhnven, Pa.—The mayor of this city has solved, partially at least, the problem of the threat ened food shortage. Recently, when a stranger was arrested for drunkenness and could not pay the city fine "Ills Honor" sentenced the man to dig the plot . of ground in the rear of the Ross J library, which will ho cultivated, t The mayor feels sure lie will get J enough of this class of labor In ♦ the next few months to take ex % cellent care of the crop. + 4 »+ ++ 4 * •> v •> *+-s- •> *;• •:< ^ •> Lays Seven Eggs in Four Days. Luverne, Minn.—C. II. Mareaux of this city is the owner of a hen that is unusually ambitious. Not satisfied with laying steadily, she occasionally produces two eggs a day. Recently she laid two eggs a day for three con secutive days, laying seven eggs in four days. The eggs are normal In size and well formed. Pair Separated Eleven Times. Fresno, Cal.—After his wife had de serted him 11 times in fear months, Clifton W. Cllnger obtained a divorce, dinger took his wife back after the first «parution, before deciding on di vorce. He obtained custody of their three children. in he j i ! : m italian Thieves Become Spies and Win Redemption From Government. GET VALUABLE PAPERS Deliver to Their Government All the Documents of the Austro-Hun garian Espionage Bureau at Zurich. Geneva. — A French-Swiss paper gives the following version of a sensa tional incident which has been told In several forms: Recently, two elegantly dressed men, carrying u heavy satchel, appeared at the office of the Italian general staiT in Rome and demanded an audience with the chief ..f the Intelligence de partment. When they were received by tIlls official they made sensational disclosures and delivered all the doc uments of the Austro-Hungarian es pionage bureau in Zurich. The men were two notorious Italian burglars, who were known and feared from one end of the kingdom to the other. When the war broke out they were called to the colors and detailed t" tlie same regiment. Life in the trenches did not suit them and they decided to desert. They escaped to Switzerland and settled in Zurich, where they plied their old trade with, considerable success. Turn Abilities to Use. Regretting ttieir desertion, the bur glars decided to ns,- their abilities in the interest of their country by "clean ing out" the Austro-Hungarian espion age bureau in the Zurich consulate of the dual monarchy. Accidentally they made the acquaintance of a former of ficer of the Italian navy, who had been cashiered many years before, and after tin adventurous life in many countries, had entered tin* service of Austria as a spy. From this man the two men ob tained detailed plans of the offices of the consulate, and after a thorough preparation they carried out their raid on the espionage bureau. They bought the most modern tools and with their in j j * TV ïïtîi % m CM Æ \ y They Worked Nearly Two Hours. aid they were able to open the safes in the consulate quickly and without much difficulty. The safes, which contained the most important documents, had compart ments filled with poisonous gases meant to kill any..burglar who might • ,Iare t0 tamper with them. Made Their Escape. The burglars had learned this from the former Italian naval «filter, who j had turned against his Austrian em ployers and aided the burglars on the promise of a liberal reward. Procur ijig masks like those worn by soldiers j to at at in the trendies they were able to open the compartments containing the dead ly gases without danger to themselves. Although they worked nearly two hours, they were not disturbed. They made their escape safely, but had dif ficulty in getting out of Switzerland, and were compelled to wait many weeks before they were able to smug gle the stolen documents across the Italian frontier. In February a cable dispatch from Berne reported that a burglary had been committed for political refusons in the Austro-Hungarian consulate general in Zurich, and that the perpetrators had not only ignored a large sum of money which was in one of the safes, but also left burglars' tools valued at more than $1,000 behind. Spent Fortune for Booze. Chicago. — When Mrs. Margaret Naughton told Judge Thomson that her husband, David A. Naughton, had spent more than $21,000 on liquor in less than two years, the judge granted her a divorce immediately. Boy Throws Dynamite Into Furnace. Shelbyville, Ind. — Paul McCain, eighteen, barely escaped death when he threw a box containing dynamite into the furnace at his home. The heater was torn to pieces and the boy knocked unconscious. to j DEHORNiNG FEEDER CATTLE IS GOOD PLAN Dehorning is a good plan with stock • and feeder cattle or calves to tie "pt for feeders, according to L. B. Mann, fellow in animal husbandry in the Kansas State Agricultural college. "The chief advantages of dehorn ing," says Mr. Mann, "are convenience und economy in tlie feed lot and in shipping, and possibly a slight increase 1 b market value. ''Animals being fitted for baby beef should not be dehorned, as with horned breeds the age cun be told ap proximately by the size of the horn, and when the horns are removed the buyer may suspect an animal of being over the age limit and may cut down somewhat on the price. May Dehorn Calves Early. "If the feeder is raising his mvn calves, the best method of dehorning will be found to be an application of caustic soda or caustic potash when the calf is a few days old, or when the button can lie felt through the skin., Wet the stick of caustic slightly and rub It well on the skin over the horn after first clipping the hair off the re gion. Do not get the stick too wet or it will be apt to run down over the s iÖSS» CRISSEY STEER, SPLENDID TYPE FOR BEEF. of TO HARVEST PEANUTS Not Considered Wise Policy tp Be in Great Hurry. Plow Them Out With Potato Digger, Allow Nuts »nd Vines to Dry Out and Then Place Them in Ven tilcted Stacks. (By FLETCHER DAVIS. Texas Depart ment of Agriculture.) Do not bo In too great a hurry to harvest peanuts. When the vines begin to ripen, or turji yellow and the nuts do not rattle in the shell after being dried a few days, plow them out with a potato digger, or turning plow from which the mold board lias been re moved. being careful to plow as shal low as possible, without leaving any of the nuts in the ground. The nitro gen-bearing nodules are on the roots of the plant and the roots, for that rea son, are more valuable left in the ground than harvested with the crop. Allow the plowed-out nuts and vines to dry an hour or two and then stuck or rain and watch stacks to see that they do not heat or mold. The aver age yield per acre the country over is 34 bushels and from one-half to two tons of hay, but a smaller yield should bring a reasonable profit to the grower. If grown only for feed, they can be stored in the barn or stacked in a larger stack when thoroughly cured; but if the nuts are to be crushed at the mills—and many cottonseed oil mills ure now prepared to crush them—or sold to buyers, they must be picked j from the vines. This can be done either by hand or by machinery, but it is best, if possible, to employ the lat ter as being more economical and j faster. There are two kinds of thresh ers—the rotary thresher nnd the pick er. The rotary thresher can be bought for from $400 to $Ti 00 , and there is a peanut attachment for the ordinary grain threshers that can be had at $90 to $100. Some object to the rotary thresher on account of the large per cent of the nuts that it damages and prefer the peanut picker, a machine that works on a different principle from the rotary thrasher. If a com munity grows a sufficient acreage of sound, clean peanuts, threshers will seek out those communities to cater to the custom of the growers. The peanut market opened last fall at 70 cents per bushel and advanced rapidly until some crushers paid $1.30 per bushel at the loading points. Plant ing-seed Is now much higher and that fact will go further than any one other thing to hold down the acreage this year. The state department of agricul ture will furnish interested parties with the names of mills that will buy your peanuts, and it will furnish you with the names of dealers from whom seeds for present planting can be pur chased. The vines have sold for hay at from $12 to $20 per ton. Taking the average yield and the minimum price in small well-ventilated stacks—pro ferably around a small pole nnd off the ground a few Inches— und let them cure thoroughly for five or six weeks. Do not handle when damp from dew for nuts and hfty. they ure a profitable I commercial crop. It is scarcely prob able that the price will fall below the minimum of last fall for some years ! to come, If ever. And should thoy, by j , , 1 ; i ! : side of the head, burning off the hair and causing needless pain. "If dehorning is not done at this time, wait until the horn has made it fair growth and then use either the saw or the clippers, which must be used in any case if feeders are pur chased." Clippers are quicker and less pain ful than the saw, in the opinion of Mr. Maun. They make a cleaner cut. however, which bleeds longer than that made with a saw. in either case, one should cut a little below the union of the horn and skin or the horn will start growing out again. In this part of the country the best time for dehorning by the last two methods Is in October or the latter part of March; that is, neither in real ly cold weather nor in fly time. In lly time the animal is somewhat run down and flies cause great suffering, pre vent the wound front healing, and are a source of infection. For a few days after the operation avoid giving the cattle (lusty hay or other feeds in which there is much dust, ns the wounds are liable to come infected and cause trouble. : j any untoward circumstances, fall to an unprofitable price, they are the best single crop that can be grown for stock feed. Their use ns human food on our tables Is becoming quite exten sive and it Is destined to become of far more general u.^g. In short, there are so many ways in which the plant can be profitably utilized that there is no risk involved in their production along this line. FEED FOR SKIM MILK CALVES Grain Mixture of Cracked Corn and Wheat Bran Is Recommended by Missouri Expert. Whole milk is nature's balanced ra tion for the calf, and it should be fed during the first two weeks of the calf's life. Whole milk, however, is Ph> ex pensive for prolonged calf-feeding, be cause the fat it contains is worth ap proximately 40 cents n pound. In view of this price, it is ndvisahl« to sell the fat and feed skim milk with a substitute for butter fat. The chief office of fat in the calf ration is to sup I*y heat to the body. When the fat is removed and skim milk is fed the en ergy can be supplied more ecouomical ; ly in the form of grain, ! Protein is also expensive, but nbso lutely essential to development of the : calf's body. None of the growth-pro dueing proteins is removed by skim I t*ing the milk. I When a calf is about two weeks old j It may be taught to eat grain. If It Is ! with older olives it will take grain ! without any special attention. Other wise It may be started to eating by rubbing a small 'amount of corn meal or bran on its nose. In licking its muzzle the calf will develop an nppe tlte for the grain. The grain may bo kept constantly before the calf for'a few days. \V. W. Swctt of the Missou ri College of Agriculture offers the following grain mixture for calves: Three parts cracked corn or cornmoal nnd one part wheat bran. To this one part outs may be added if desired. Linseed meal or blood meal may also be added in small quantities, but neither is necessary. The grain should be given in the dry form after the skim milk has been fed. After the calf Is old enough to (-at grain freely, it should be fed at regular intervals. During the first two months the grain taken will be less than one pound a day. This should be gradu ally increased so that at the age of six months, when the calf is weaned, about two pounds will lie taken daily! When only a few days of age the calves will begin to nibble hay, if It la within reach. It is preferable to feed timothy for the first two or three months, after which alfalfa or clover hay will give better satisfaction. ATTENTION TO BROOD SOWS Special Care Must Be Exercised In Feeding for Two or Three Weeks After Farrowing. The first two or three weeks after farrowing special care must be exer cised in feeding. Avoid too generous feeding at this period. As the pigs become a greater drain on the sow. her feed should gradually be Increased and at this period (when the pigs nr« ubont three weeks old) if skim milk is available It will be a great help in promoting growth of the pigs by ing it liberally to the sow.