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The St. Charles herald. [volume] (Hahnville, La.) 1873-1993, September 01, 1917, Image 3

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Persistent link: https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn85034322/1917-09-01/ed-1/seq-3/

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i ask Confronting Country Not
Confined to the Army and Navy
By Juo'ge E. H. Gary, Chairman Board of Directors, U. S. Steel Corporation
The task which confronts the country is not con
fined to the army and navy, although they will be
entitled to the larger part of the credit and glory if
we succeed. 'They offer their bodies as a sacrifice, and
they must have the undivided, unqualified support of
all outside their ranks. The time, money and prayers
of all civilians must be given for their soldiers. They
bear the brunt; they are the shield for our safety. All
of us are fighting in self-defense. This is our land and
the flag is ours. The administrators of the country, from
President Wilson down, are no more interested than
K
each of us. Life would not be worth living if our flag were to be perma
nently furled; if our country were subjugated by an alien enemy, espe
cially such a one as we now defend ourselves against.
The pecuniary burdens to be imposed upon us will be very great. We
knew in advance such would be the case. We must pay the enormous cost
of mobilizing, equipping, supplying and moving our own armies, and we
must advance money and provide supplies to our allies in accordance wnth
their necessities and our resources. We could not decline if we were dis
posed, for they are now fighting our battles and we are, with them, under
the whole burden. We must never falter nor retrace our steps. Wherever
or whenever the end is we must press forward, with all our strength,
might, minds and souls. 1 he more vigorously we proceed within tha
limits of intelligence the sooner will the end be reached.
Some of us are complaining or criticizing because of the enormous
, ,, , ... , . , . , , -1 i
taxes that are likely to he imposed, Ye are apt to consider ourselves as
oi»posed by the legislative or executive departments of the government,
as if they were partisans, seeking to punish or at least unfairly treat the
private individual. We do ourselves an injustice by harboring such
thoughts. We can rightfully claim that the burden of taxation be equi
tahly distributed; that all the people, after exempting the necessities of
life, shall he compelled to contribute, and that there shall he no waste or
extravagance in making expenditures. If possible taxes ought to be so
levied and distributed as to avoid clogging the channels of business pros
perity. All this we may properly demand. Equitable distribution is
fair and reasonable, and it makes all peculiarly interested in the subject,
including both the collection and the expenditure of the taxes levied,
Less than this would tend to create classes—the worse thing for any
country.
Now is the time to unite the whole country in a common cause. The
soldiers are on a level as they ought to be. All others should be on a level.
. .. .
Classes ßhould be obliterated and also politics, localities and religious dif- •
ferences, during war times at least. Opportunity should be open to all ; !
governmental burdens should be borne bv all. With such an adminis- I
p . , , _ . .. - . . j
tration of governmental affairs we should be satished, however severe !
the drafts which are made upon us or upon the larger interests which we
represent.
Universal Military Training Produces
Efficiency and Respect for Law
By R. À. White
I believe in universal military training and service because it is a
good thing for our young men: (1) It is good physical training; it takes
the kinks out of the stoop-shouldered and puts red blood into the anemic.
(2) It teaches young men to obey. We are suffering from lack of disci- !
pline. Young men do not know how to obey because they have not been j
made to obey. The schools are without effective discipline and the average 1
home has little or none. A large percentage of our lawbreakers are young
men from fifteen to twenty-one or twenty-two. Better for our young men
to know how to carry a rifle than a cigarette ; to send a lead ball to the
center of the bull's eye than to push ivory balls into the pockets of a
billiard table; to love the red-blooded service of the camp rather than
the anemic entertainment of cabarets. (3) Physical training and disci
pline breed efficiency for business. The time a young man may lose from
his early business life will be more than compensated by his increased
ability to do things.
That these are not theoretical assumptions Germany proves conclu
sively. When I first began going to Germany thirty years ago I decried
German military methods. For the last ten years I have felt otherwise.
In Germany a law is made to he obeyed, not broken. "Das ist verboten"
13 no idle sign. Military discipline is largely responsible for this respect
~or law. Germany estimates that her industrial and commercial effi
ciency has been increased 1 fii/o per cent through the military training of
her young men.
I believe in universal military training and service and a sane pre- :
paredness because it is the only way to avoid war. Only mighty provo
cation leads a nation to attack another if that other is as strong or stronger
than itself. Had England, France and Russia been as well prepared as
Germany there would have been no European war.
Knowledge of Food Values Necessary to
Proper Economy in the Home
By Mrs. Irving Brock of New Y ork
Before she starts her economics the housewife should know where
and how to begin, so that she will not proceed about her economizing j
unwisclv. While saving the food supply, she can do a whole lov cu harm
to her family and give absolutely no aid to the government if she has
no knowledge of food values. Every woman should know just what foods
the government lacks and what to substitute without damage ta the diet
of her family. i
Because our women have adopted war menus, that does not mean they
cannot serve just as appetizing and attractive meals as formerly. This is
e 0 f tlm things they are taught at the cooking schools. For the average j
housewife I think that the saving of fats will be the most difficult prob- ;
loin, and I want to warn her that fats are very necessary to the individual
and'that substitutes for them are few. For the protection of her family,
*he must study such things before she rushes blindly to the aid oi hei
country.
SCHOOL STAN!
Government Bureau Urges That
Efficiency Be Kept Up Dur
ing the War.
SECOND Ï0 DEFENSE NEEDS
Salaries of Teachers Should Not Be
Lowered, It is Urged, Although
Costly Building May Be
Postponed.
be no lowering in the efficiency of the
nation's systems of education because
of the war. They believe that schools
and other agencies of education must
he maintained at whatever necessary
cost and against all hurtful interfer
ence with their regular work, except
Officials of Uncle Ram's bureau of
education strongly contend that it is of
! the utmost importance that there shall
as may be necessary for the national
defense, "hieh is, of course, the im
stantly in rnintli an(1 havt , rlght ,, f wny
everywhere and at all times. From
; 1,10 beginning of our participation in
avoi(1 the nilstak( . s wlli ,. h „ oiae othl . r
countries llave made to their hurt and
"diich they are now trying to correct.
Right in this connection it is pointed
om th ., f , f the wj)r shntl](1 lo * nR anfl
severe, there will he great need in its
Jat
lays for young men and women
of scientific knowledge, training and
skill; and it may then he much more
difficult than it is now to support mir
school?
the very best advantage, except such
; 1S ,na \ f 11,1 !t net ''' ssury t ,° leav ®. for
immediate profitable employment in
some productive occupation or for the
acceptance of some position in some
to spare our children and
ith for other service and to permit
them to attend school. Therefore,
contend Uncle Sam's educational ex
perts, no selwiol should close its doors
now or shorten its term unnecessarily.
All young men and women in college
should remain and use their time to
branch of the military service, which
position cannot be so well filled by any
one e]se A q children ; n the elemen
tary schools, and, as nearly as possi
1,le ; "J 1 hl ^ h ® ch ° o1 P ^ I>I ' S shou,d re '
main in school through the entire ses
S j 0n _
Trained Men and Women Needed.
This question of the war and educa
tion lias been taken up seriously hy ex
perts of the bureau. They point out
further in this connection that when
the war is over, whether within a few
months or after many years, there will j
be such demands upon this country for
men and women of scientific knowl
edge, technical skill and general cul
ture as have never before come to any i
country. This country must play a far i
more important part than it has in the j
past in agriculture, manufacturing and j
commerce, and also in the things of
cultural fife—art, literature, music, sci
entific discovery.
A right conception of patriotism
should induce all students, say the
bureau officials, who cannot render
^remain Tn cofiegel'^LclntnRe The'lr
energy on their college work, and thus
the more ready and fit when
their services may be needed either for
war or for the important work of re
construction and development in ®ur
own and other countries when the war
shall have ended.
Should Not Cut Salaries.
All schools of whatever grade should
remain open with their full quota of
officers and teachers. The salaries of
teachers should not be lowered, it is
contended, in this time of unusual high
cost of living. When possible, salaries |
should be^ Increased in proportion to
the services rendered. Since the peo
pie of the country will bo taxed heav
ily hy the federal government for the ;
payment of the expenses of the* war.
it is urged by the officials that teachers
should be willing to continue to do
their work, and do it. as well as they
can as a patriotic duty, even if their
salaries cannot now he increased.
Schools should he continued in. full
efficiency, but in most cases costly
building may be postponed.
During school hours and out of
school, on mornings, afternoons, Sat
urdays and during vacation all older
children and youth should be encour
aged and directed to do as much use
ful productive work, it is urged by
these experts, as they can without in
terfering with their more important
school duties. This productive work
should be so directed as to give it the
highest possible value, both economic
ally and educationally. While the war
for the safety of democracy is in prog
ress and when it is over there will he
greater need for effective machinery
for the promotion of intelligent discus
sion of th e principles of dem ocracy,
Tea |mports From Japan
q'- ne tota j exports from Japan to
America during tiie 1016-17 season
—, —,
forwarde d to Uncle Sam,
Three Crops Where One Grew.
The people in the Pomona district,
California, who formerly took but one
(M*y, 1916, to April, 1917, inclusive)
were 41,534,706 pounds, according to
statistics published by the Yokohama
and Tokyo foreign board of trade and
crop from their land, by intensive cul
tivation this year will take from two
to three crops before December.
China Is beginning to export pig
Iron, - — -
EVERY fflEA
! Uncle Sam's Bureaus Maintain
"Open-Mind" Policy.
Men of High and Low Degree Give
Army Officials Tips on How to
Win the War.
Uncle Sam. in prosecuting the war,
: endeavoring to take advantage of
;
; every idea that a citizen of the coun
try may have regarding the proper
method of conducting military affairs,
Regarding this policy, the war depart
ment has made the following state
meat :
"Ever since the United States en
tered the present war it has been the
policy of the war department to bring
its executive personnel as much as pos
sitde into contact with the- sort of peo
pie who come to Washington with orig
inai ideas. This receptive attitude has
been very aptly nicknamed the 'open
mind' policy, and although it gets tho
bureau heads and executive officers
in for a great deal of extra work, any
body who carries with him the seed
of a useful idea is welcomed and his
plan given the most thoughtful con
sideration. In a word, the war de
partment wants to make use of the
brains of the American people and is
willing to comb out a great mass of
fanciful schemes, knowing as they do
that the thousand-and-first idea sub
mittod to them might contain the germ
of radical improvement in our method
of carrying out our end of the world
conflict.
"To maintain the 'open-mind' policy
requires a great deal <>f patience and
forbearance on the part of officers who,
ordinarily, would he too busy to listen
to elaborate amateur plans for ending
the war. Many of the propositions
have nothing to recommend them hut
11)
■ charm ofingf
unity
and ri
•ma nee. It
ha
s been said tha
t the
late Ji
les Verne
th
night of more
mill
tary in
novations
"th
in Zeppelin or
Edis
>n ever
dreamed
of
But the rec
ord
for dr<
anting is
he
Id by several <
f the
upplie
tnts who.
in
the past few w
eeks
have c
ome with
vast projects to
help
the g<
vernment
in
its present crisis.
"For instance, one enterprising
young man has a brilliant plan to
make the record number of recruits in
the shortest possible time. He has ap
plied for permission to walk the
streets clad in a patent suit of clothes
of his own designing. The suit con
sists of a half-in-half effect so built
that if you look at him from the right
side the wearer presents the appear
ance of a khaki-clad private of infan
try, but the view from the left side
shows the astonished spectator a rath
er effeminately clad civilian wearing a
monocle and a straw hat. The front
view of tliis apparition is that of a
man cut into two ill-matched halves—
right side, hero; left side, tango liz
ard. The placard to go with this mot
ley make-up is, "Don't Be Half a Man."
"Every hour a great many men—
and some women—come in with plans
to reorganize the array, plans to im
prove the card-index system of keeping
track of enlisted men, plans to speed
up military efficiency by means of
numbering the buttons on soldiers'
coats. As fast as the details of each
scheme are discussed the applicants
are turned over to the proper experts
and the merits or demerits of each
case carefully considered. The case
of the genius who discovered how to
locate lurking submarines by means of
a flock of sea gulls, trained to hover
and pounce upon the hidden monster,
is now a matter of record. New sys
tems of army discipline are continu
ally being offered and rejected on the
grounds that they were found anti
quated before the Civil war.
"Every day a groat many men of
importance and responsibility coine in
to offer suggestions. Also men, hith
erto obscure, frequently submit ideas
and inventions of inestimable impor
tance. In fuct, the war department
has profited Immensely hy its policy of
Ihe "open mind,' and many great plans
—quite naturally kept secret—have
been horn of these simple, serious con
ferences with all comers who think
they have found something which may !
aid the government."
; English Get New Name for ;
J War Profits From America ;
• — •
• The United Rtates has given *
• to the English vocabulary a new •
• word with which to describe »
• speculative profit on foodstuffs. •
• This is now uniformly alluded »
• to by the English press as the J
• "rake-off." On its first appear- «
• ance the word was carefully ex- *
• plained as an Americanism. •
J Then it appeared continucusly *
• in quotation marks, always with •
J a haziness as to whether it J
• should he two words or com- •
J pounded. Now it has been stand- J
• ardized, hut there stiil exisffs so •
J much doubt in regard to its deri- J
• ration that in fully half the pa- ®
• pers it appears capitalized, •
• which is regarded as a real trib- •
• ute to the great American game »
J from which it comes. The Eng- •
• lisli called it "profiteering." *
• •
Tilefish Records for Six Months.
The total known catch of tilefish
for the first half of 1917, as reported
to the United Rtates bureau of fish
eries, was 4,556,385 pounds, for which
the fishermen received $'Jiiî,087. The
quantity for the corresponding period
. . . „ „ .. . .
in 1916 was 4,00C,00O pounds uf an vq
determinable value.
i?™&! OF
! 3ïIV'ü» Ss-iSiîii u i as «er a 1 WS
ItiMRl
Uf>Cl0 Sam S ExpSl'tS investigate
Methods Used in European
Countries.
i
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COMPULSION IS
_
entrance of the United
Great Britain Decided That Labor
Could Be Managed Best During
War on Basis of Agreement
and Volunteering.
Before the
States into the
diet experts
meut of labor
labor conditions in European countries,
and now, since this country is actual
ly involved in the war, the results not
ed are of especial value, inasmuch as
in many instances the United States
can follow tiie steps of its
working out the industrial situation.
It was found during the course of
the investigative work that a primary
great European con
of Uncle Sam's depart
■ hful been watching the
allies in
problem confronting Great Britain was
To a
arge extent
the succ
ess of comp
on the s
trial conditii
history
>f a people.
been set
oolod to th*
military
compulsion
national
policy or a
needs of
national de
exists m
achiuery to
to determine whether compulsion
should be attempted, in an effort to
mobilize its labor forces for war pur
poses, and, if so, to what extent. For
the purposes of rapid and effective
mobilization the use'of some form of
compulsion, exercised by a central di
ority, suggested itself as
advantages. In practice,
• problem proved more
than it might appear on
Defends on National Policy.
it was found,
oitipulsion depends up
as and immediate
If a nation lias
idea of universal
either as a set
I a result of the
re
ctiug auth
ha
ving many
In
»wovor, th
CO
mplicated
lil
* surface.
iribution of men not only for military
purposes, but also for industrial pur
IRises, then some of the difficulties in
the way of compulsory labor mobiliza
tion are removed. Thus it appears
that the principal continental bellig
erents have, generally speaking, adopt
ed compulsion both for military and
for civilian purposes.
Even so, the experience of these
countries, in so far as information is
available, would seem to indicate, say
Uncle Sam's experts, that civil compul
sion is by no means an easy thing to
maintain over a long period and is, in
any case, a difficult tiling to administer.
/Vs illustrating the latter point, it is
pointed out that the strain of industrial
compulsion is undoubtedly beginning
to make itself felt in Germany. While
credence need not be given to exag
gerated reports of industrial unrest,
the labor experts say, and while full
allowance must he made for conditions
which obtain in that country, it is still
apparent that the. system of martial
law in civil fife tends in the long run
to exhaust the patience and to militate
against the most successful output of
a people, even though they have been
long accustomed to obedience and au
thority.
Difficulties in Way.
As to the difficulty of administra
tion, however well France and Ger
many may have utilized their resources
in man power in the early stages of
the war. It seems to be admitted that
the mistakes made hy both of these
countries were considerable. In other
words, that desire of placing ev'-ry man
at his right post lias by no means been
achieved 'ey the continental powers.
Indeed, so our own experts say. the
difficulties of the effort to do this on a
large scale have been shown to be
overwhelming by the experience of
Germany in its attempt to control
labor under the auxiliary service act.
It would appear, therefore, from all
available information regarding expe
rience in tiie present war, that coin
pulsion of labor generally is by no
means the complete solution of war
time problems in any country, say the
government experts. It may he safely
said that Ihe industrial organization A
so complex and reacts in so many thou
sand unexpected ways that no central
organization can be built up iu time of
stress which would make the best pos
sible use of each individual unit. The
experts beiiove that this is particularly
true of a country like Great Britain,
where the idea of compulsory service, j
even for purposes of national defense, '
was entirely alien. With this in mind,,
the British government, confronted by
the immediate question, decided at the
outbreak of the war that it was only
upon a basis of agreement and by vol
unteering that the labor of the country
coujd be managed.
Huge Phosphate Reserves.
Idaho, Utalu Wyoming and Montana
possess vast deposits of hign-grade
phosphate lock. Although the phos
phate areas are by no means com
pletely surveyed, the amount of phos
phate in the known di'imsits, as esti
mated by the United States geological
survey, department ui the interior, is
nearly five and one-half billion tons.
An idea of the immensity of this ton
nage may be obtained by comparing
it with last year's production in the
United States of 1,980,000 tons.
Those who have carefully invosti
1 uaDti *y straw wasted
hr thn /ni»mnra nf tho T T nitoH Ctutoo
by the farmers of the United Rtutes
claim that $65,000,000 worth at R l<j
burned each year.
IN PCI
New Type of Flying Sah; ;
tâbiishcd by Uncle Saw
ci
Future Aviators Spend Months :;nn.
ing Theoretic Instruction Before
Operating Airp'aoe.
di -1.
Maj. Hiram Bingham of rhf
division of the United St a I •- arn-v U
tiie father of the new type of gr and
school for aviators which 1ms be. n in
operation on college campus, Mu- mah
out the country. At these seta ero
hryo aviators spend several months on
the ground obtaining preliminary In
struction before they take to fie- air.
The course of training adopted in
; these schools has the enthusiast' • in
' dorsement of experienced B.remn a via
>rs \*ho have seen the work, hruclisn
t< , .
and French fliers are thorough!? •dive
to the importance of theorem,- in
struction us the first step toward earn
ing to fly. Many of the most s. ri -i.s
mistakes made by foreign flotillas at
the early part of the present war w re
due to minimizing the importance of
absolute technique In aerial lighting.
As the war progressed, the art of
code signaling fro#i the air was
oped, with the same rapidity
required
defense.
<>f about 7,000 feet, am
accuracy from this hoi
level
that was'
every -form of attack and
Ro perfect became tiie com
munication between the aviator- anl
the batteries that fire control from the
air lias now become an exact science.
Most of the aerial observation in
modern battles is taken from a h''i-ht
study of
imprlsed
one of the most important—and cer
tainly one of the most popular
courses given in our ground schools.
Tiie idea is to give the student perched
at the top of a ladder the picture of
! tie Belgian battle ground as it would
appear to one looking down from a
height of 7,000 feet. The student's
perch is 10 feet from the ground, and
tiie picture covers a surface of 16
square feet and has been drawn from
aviation photography. The cadet
works with the key or a radio outfit,
which for convenience gives forth vis
ible electric flashes governed by the
standard code. The instructor stands
at a switchboard from which at will
he can flash little electric fights on
any part of the map. Taking note of
these imaginary explosions, tiie young
aviator ticks off instructions to the
"batteries."
It is the idea in jm-dern air fighting
that the aviator shall he something
far more useful than a mere Hying
man. The ordinary aviator bears the
same relation to an air fighter that a
chauffeur bears to the driver of an ar
mored motor car. Before he can even
think of fighting ihe military aviator
must know his machine and be as fa
miliar with all the tricks of riding it as
the old-fashioned dispatch rider was
with his horse.
The up-to-date pilot must know how
to groom his machine and to attend to
every detail of its inner workings. He
must be expert to the point where his
machine is only secondary and he can
give all his attentive to his military
problem. In the experience of Eng
land it has been found that former of
ficers of cavalry and artillery often
make tiie best aviation officers, as an
able cavalryman is an expert at recon
naissance and artillerymen are trained
in all the subtle tricks of gunfire.
t Poison Gases Produced |
X From Venezuela Plants ±
While carrying oil botanical
explorations in Venezuela, Dr.
J. N. Rose, associate curator of
plants in the National museum,
secured specimens of sahadiila,
a Venezuelan plant of the lily
family, from the seeds of which
are produced some of the as
phyxiating and tear-producing
gases used by the Germans in
the present war. It is said that
the dust from the seeds in the
field irritates the eyes, throat,
and especially the nose so much
that the native laborers are
obliged to wear masks.
Another plant of the same ge
nus grows wild in Texas and
some botanists believe that
•should a need for sahadiila arise
in this country, it could easily
!"■ cultivated in Texas and
other Southern states.
---- -----
South Carolina and Texas no annual
registration fees were required.
MOTOR FEES VARY GREATLY
Stal£s Lack Uniform Basis for Regis
tration and License Charges, Re
ports Uncle Sam.
It cost Iiiotoo vehicle owners in the
United Stabs in 1916 an average at
87.36 per car for registration and li
eense fees, aeeording to figures com
piled by the office of publiq roads. Unit
ed Rtates department of agriculture.
New Hampshire secured in p.tjq , t
kross revenue of 819.67 and Vermont
819.02 for every motor car, while Min
nesota, where the registration is for a
three-year period, received only about
50 cents annually f,>r each car. In
No well-developed and d< finite basis
exists for determining tho fees ta
which different cars shall be subject,
In some states the fee is hosed on tW
net weight of the vehicle; in others she
carrying capacity, th<* horse powof, or
some combination of these factors is
used. Requirements for registration
or licensing of chauffeurs, owner
operators, and dealers vary widely» j

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