ni l h ' n " l0nths the United States
vice în V t *^° battle Planes in ser
emLl , T^- The Planes will he
tmr PPWj Wlül Am '' ri can motors of 250
horsepower, capable of driving them at
s P ee<1 of 100 miles an
nour. Furtliermore, these motors will
e constructed principally of aluminum
and will be of less weight per horse
ower than any airplane motor here
. ,, , ore hullt. Thu» the plans of the
adopted bTtî >° w thö . C0UndI of natl °nal defense,
Î™ ir n » r ^ ,;partmenl nnd financed by
summatV " & falr WRy tu be ^'edlly con
the ^ ashington correspondent of
the Kansas City Star, who signs himself -II. J.
H.. went to Dayton. O.. to Interview one of the
,^Tn ° f thU alrplane u, "' ut America's grlat
? 525^. P lanntd to -blind" the German
below \t Jit aS 0t the repom>r ' 8 story are printed
ls d inc ln th 9 ""f detalls of wl >nt Uncle Sam
birds — th<i product,OÜ of an army of man
blndJof^h m . a . n , Juni P ei1 an 'l caught the propeller
blade of the biplane and gave It a pull. It turned
half way around and stopped. He repeated the
performance two or three
times. Suddenly there was a
roar and the propeller became
It wag a hot morning in
Dayton and the breeze from
the revolving propeller fan
looked refreshing. The plane
wasn't going up. It was blocked on the ground
and they were merely trying out the engine. I
stepped forward into the breeze.
"The power isn't turned on yet.'' said Orville
>\ right, at my side. "It won't be so pleasant here
when it Is."
The roar turned into thunder. The ground
seemed to be blowing away in a cloud of dust.
We grabbed for our hats and retreated.
"Just one of the training planes," Mr. Wright
explained. "Only a hundred horsepower."
Of no Importance on a bnttle line, perhaps. But
one of the gathering squadrons that even now are
beginning to cast a faint black shadow across the
For this field, with its four
square miles, is to be one
of the great centers of
the aircraft work which is
relied on to turn the scale
of battle on the western
front. And there at one
end of the field, which has
been named the Wilbur
Wright field, in honor of
one of the two brothers
who invented the airplane, is the little, weather
beaten shed which was used by the brothers as
the hangar for their original plane, only thirteen
It Is just a plain shed, and beyond it stretches
the Imposing line of hangars off into the distance—
pretty nearly two miles of buildings, calculated
to house the 240 planes that are to be assembled
In the field eight miles east of Dayton. And, yet,
it is fittingly preserved as a memoriul to the days
when air flight was being slowly and painstakingly
developed by the daring scientific genius of the
In Washington I bad talked with the men whose
imagination had conceived the great 640-million
dollar aircraft program, and who are now in
charge of its execution. They are engineers and
executives, not practical aircraft men. They know
America's industrial and engineering resources.
Their enthusiasm is contagious.
I went to Dayton to talk with the world's fore
most aeronautical engineer and to learn some of
the difficulties that must be overcome before we
can put out the eyes of the Germans in the air,
■organize our surprise attacks, destroy the enemy
communications and blow up the Krupp works at
Orville Wright Is a man of 46, of medium size.
Modest and unassuming, he gives the impression
of independence in thought and action. He is
deliberative in manner, well-organized, perfectly
controlled, clear thinking.
"We can do the job," he said, as we drove to
the aviation field. "And it's worth doing. It offers
us the one big hope of winding up this war next
year, instead of permitting It to drag along for
years to come. All our information is that Ger
many and the allies are keeping about nn equal
number of planes on the battle front. We cun't
be sure, but their resources in building seem about
equal. Each side probably has about 3,500 planes
in active sendee on the western front, aside from
their reserves and training planes.
"If we were in a position to put several thou
sand planes, manned by trained aviators, on the
western front today, we might bring the war to an
^rBy using the planes to extend the range of
artillery, and bombing the enemy lines of com
munication and his munition plants and naval
hases 7" . , ,
'•Possibly, to some extent. I am not particularly
sanguine over bombing, and I do not believe other
flyers are. The men who have never flown are
the most enthusiastic over the possibilities of
dropping bombs. The antiaircraft guns keep the
flyers at a height of above two miles. Anyone
who has ever flown at that height knows the tre
mendous difficulty of hitting a target There is
nothing for him to gauge his speed by. The bomb
drops through air currents moving in different di
y récrions which deflect it
from Its course.
"The Krupp works at
Essen offer a large
enough target so that
squadron of airplanes
might be able to put
them out of business.
Other plants might be
successfully attacked. Under favorable conditions
other bombing operations might be carried out
successfully. But my idea of the effectiveness of
supremacy in the air is along different lines."
"In other wars the element of surprise has de
termined the outcome when the forces were of
approximately equal strength. The general who
could mass his men so as to fall on a smaller force
of the enemy won the battle. The airplane has
«topped that. Now a commander on the western
front knows exactly what his opponent is doing.
There is no chance to mass men for surprise
attacks. Consequently, we have the present dead
lock la France.
What we must do Is to drive every enemy air
plane out of the air. By doing this we not only
prevent the Germans from knowing what we are
doing, but we also cripple their artillery, for ar
tillery fire has been directed by the airplanes.
Then we can plan surprise attacks and can drive
the enemy back. In modern wurfure the side with
out airplanes Is at a hopeless disadvantage. When
we gain complete command of the air, when we
have literally smothered the enemy airplanes, we
break the deadlock and
win the war.
'The airplane has pro
duced the deudlock. The
airplane can end It."
"How soon can ^
hope to do this?"
"We have the best
men in the country at
work on the problem. But people must not be
impatient If at first our progress seems slow. Only
men who have tried It know the difficulties of
building a hlgh-power airplane motor."
In the matter of personnel. It may be noted, our
aircraft promoters believe we have a great supe
riority over the rest of the world, for this reason:
It takes an exceptional sort of man to make a
good flyer. He must be quick-witted and have the
steadiest sort of nerves. Otherwise, he comes to
grief and smashes an expensive machine. Men of
this type volunteered extensively in Britain and
Canuda early In the war. They constituted the
armies that went Into the battle line without
adequate artillery protection and so were largely
destroyed. The same forces operated to destroy
the strong and vigorous young men of France and
Germany who would have made good aviators.
So today America is the greatest reservoir in the
world of the right sort of material for the per
sonnel 'of the aircraft service. While the other
countries are having difficulty in getting proper
men for flyers—England has Invited us to send
men to her aviation schools because she cannot
keep them filled—our problem Is merely to train
them and provide them with equipment.
I asked Mr. Wright what speed plane we might
"xpect to develop.
"It is a complicated problem, the limit of useful
speed," he replied. "A good many reckless state
ments are made on the subject by persons with
vivid Imaginations. It Is safe to say there are
machines on the western front that can make 130
miles an hour. So far as speed Is concerned there
are no Inherent Impossibilities In developing a
plane that might make as high as two hundred
miles an hour. The difficulty Is In the landing.
"A machine's landing speed Is about half Its
maximum speed. That is, If a plane Is designed
to make a speed of fifty miles an hour Its wings
will not sustain it In the air If It travels slower
than twenty-five miles. It must be moving at a
"peed of at least twenty-five miles an hour to
make a successful landing. So a plane with a
speed of 130 miles an hour cannot land at a speed
of much less than sixty-five miles."
From the field we drove to the laboratory. It
Is simply a development of the crude shop In
which he and his brother together worked out the
problem of air flight. The airplane was no lucky
find. It was not developed by rule of thumb.
Wilbur and Orville Wright, sons of a Dayton
United Brethren bishop, after getting through high
school, set up a bicycle repair shop. They had a
natural taste for mechanics and for sports. Twen
ty-one years ago they became interested in the ex
periments of Lllienthal, the German experimenter,
in a glider. His death attracted their attention to
his work. For two years they worked on data
and "laws" that other investigators had produced,
only to find that the work so far done was
So in their own shop In Dayton they devised a
"wind tunnel"—a chute through which an air
blast was driven by an electric fan, and set to
work measuring the resistances of curved sur
faces by a wonderfully ingenious method of their
own devising. By a long series of exact measure
ments and elaborate mathematical calculations in
volving sines and cosines and such, they worked
out the problem of the curvature of the planes
and of the propellers.
The problems of balance were enormously in
tricate. But these, too, they solved. They were
pioneers. They had to discover the difficulties
and then find the way out. So they had to de
vise the methods. It took unlimited patience,
resourcefulness and hard thinking to win success.
Both the brothers were primarily scientific men.
They were impatient to devote themselves to the
scientific side of furthering
the development of aeronau
tics. But they necessarily
had to finance companies,
fight patent suits and con
duct the business of estab
lishing a new Industry.
Wilbur Wright died five
years ago. and in 1915 Or
ville Wright was able to dis
pose of his business inter
ests and devote himself to
the scientific work where his heart has always
In his well-equipped laboratory in Dayton he is
now conducting two lines of work which will be
of Immediate value in the great aircraft program
planned by the government. One is the measure
ment of the air resistance of curved surfaces ; the
other the development of a stabilizer to make the
control of the airplane more nearly automatic.
Other aeronautical laboratories the world over
have made these measurements of air resistance,
but the figure* have sometimes been as far as 100
or 200 per cent apart. The results obtained by
the Wright method fourteen years ago proved sub
stantially accurate, and now Orville Wright Is
taking up the work where he left it off.
"I hope to proride the propt-r measurements for
a hire* variety of planes." he said, "so that in
building different sorts we shall not have to de
pend on cut and try."
The stabilizer i* an intricate device by which
the action of a revolving fan holds the airplane
"We can set the stabilizer," 'ho inventor ex
plained. "in such a way, for instance, as to keep
the plane moving in a circle, leaving the pilot free
to use hi* hands for making photographs."
The stabilizer lias been tried out successfully,
but needs further refinements so as to do away
V'itb the need of daily adjustments before Mr.
Wright is willing to put it into service. He is
on intimate terms with members of the govern
ment's aircraft production board, and all his re
sults are at the disposal of the government for
the prosecution of the war.
He has great expectations of the development
of aircraft In practical use ufter the war, when
thousands of trained flyers shall return to civil
life, and when we shall have enormous factory
capacity for turning out the best machines in the
world. But that, again, is another story.
The Joy and Chivalry of Air Fighting.
Flying has become as much a matter of routine
In war as marching on land or steaming on the
sea, and men are ordered to fly. at fixed hours and
for stated periods, as though flying were a natural
act, and not the organized miracle that it really Is.
A correspondent of the London Times writes In
terestlngly about It, saying:
Out In France the last chivalries, the last beau
ties of battle have taken refuge In the air. From
the labors, butcheries, miseries, horrors and ush
plt desolation of the earth, the fighting romance
of war has taken wings and climbed sunwards,
There alone combat Is Individual, visual, decisive.
-There alone has the combatant to rely solely on
himself. There alone Is the
battle decided not through
veils of distance, between
impersonal and unknown
hosts, but wing to wing and
face to face. There alone
are the rare courtesies of
warfare still possible; it
was a British squadron that
suggested, and a British air
man who executed, the
dropping of a funeral
wreath over the German lines as a tribute to the
air-warrior Immelmann. And there alone can in
dividual skill and courage have their swift reward.
For one flash, between a dip and a. climb of bis
swallow flight, the fighting airman may catch the
glint of his opponent's eye, and, if the momentary
burst of lire be truly directed, see him crumple up
In his seat and the nose of his machine dip and
begin its fatal spinning dive, while the victor soars
up again to safety and solitude.
And what a solitude Is his ! From the moment
in the airplane when the mechanic has given his
last heave, and the last curt verbal exchange,
"'Contact, sir'—'Contact,'' has been given, aud
the engine sets up its mighty droning song, the
airman is alone, submerged in that roaring music,
deaf and dumb. For perhaps a minute he sits
there testing his engine, fingering his levers, as
suring himself that all Is well ; and then, as the
drone sinks to a hum, he makes
his last communication — the
characteristic quick outward
wave of the hands and arms.
The chocks are pulled away,
the hum rises to a drone, breaks
into a roar, and he Is off, bump
ing over the uneven earth until
his speed gives his wings their
life, the rough ground is shed away from beneath
his feet, and he rises into the sudden peace of
The "peace of the air" may seem like a con
tradiction in terms in war time; but it is the
supreme sensation of fair-weather flying, apart
from flying and fighting. Once you have got your
height, whether it be a thousand or ten thousand
feet, you seem to be absolutely at rest—at rest
in sunshine and a strong gale. Xhe dim carpet or
map beneath you hardly moves ; and although the
trembling fingers of the little clocks and dials
before you witness to the fluidity of your element
and the tenderness of your hold on It, yet the
only things that do not
seem to move are the
wings and stays of your
machine which surround
you, a rigid cage from
which you look forth
upon the slow-turning
earth or the rushing
clouds. It is not until
the engine has been
shut off. and you begin to plane in mighty circles
toward the earth again, that you get, in that de
licious rush down the hill of air, any sensation of
speed; and not until, a moment before landing,
you skim over the earth at 80 miles an hour, that
you realize with what pace you have been rushing
through the airy vacancy.
But these are the sensations of mere joy-riding
Ten or twenty minutes may take the fighting pilot
to his station in the air over the enemy's lines.
How puny the absurdity of the greatest war of |
as he sits In the breeze and the sun, high above
It all ; the danger to him Is not down there,
although to ascend Into his remote sphere he has
to pass through the zone of anti-aircraft fire; bis
own particular enemy is the German fighting ma- j
chine which may come down to harry or destroy
the observer, and which he must himself attack
the moment It makes Its appearance. Between
these two he watchfully patrols, and all this time,
although a battle may be raging beneath him, he
hears nothing but the strong, rasping hum of his
engine. He files and fights alone.
RAVAGING A WASTED COUNTRY.
The daring of the American girl of a century
ago an«l the Frenchman's traditional habit of
yielding to the will of "the ladies" form the
fabric of an amusing bit of family record that
Mr. William Allen Butler gives in "A Retrospect
of Forty Years."
My aunt. Mary Allen, having spent sorne
France, was proficient In her knowledge « f the
French languag- and manners, he say--. r>n a
Visit that she paid to Lafayette, who was rdwr v*
exc< ling y court* s t Arnei ns, she t
that -he had a great favor t<< If- ind;< •»-]
that L • would grant it, and she begged him for a
look of his hair.
"Madam." said the general. "I w- nr a
But t ■ show hi- willing!;«--* to ra«—• her -.vi-m.-,
he pr«*p*to r■■neve t:.«- wig and !• • h- r ; ; : ,
, :.y remaining natural h
.She nccepv-d his offer and prov
a g" 1 *• r*h*-r by getting a f-w • ; ■
she brought h« me. as a great treasur
vided honorably with my mother. Each si-t-r
carefully preserved her quota cf hadrs in a «1 .g.
EXPENSE OF SAVING CALVES
Cost Just as Much to Raise Poor Ani
mal as a Good One —Dispose of
Culls Early in Life.
Calf conservation looks like a good
thing to many of the wiseacres, says
the Farmer's Guide, but Is it? Cun
the farmer afford to save the measly
little specimens of bovinity that occa
sionally appear In the best herds?
There are always some culls that can
not he turned to good account either
as breeders or for beef. If every calf
dropped were a high-class Individual
that could he raised and fed econom
ically, the situation might he different,
j It costs just as much and sometimes
j more to raise a poor calf as a good
, , ,
one, and when you have It raised what
Is It good for? Let the conservation
ist go out Into the open country and
visit a number of farms where he can
get next to the actual conditions; then
let him study up on the economy of
beef production and he may change
his mind. Most certainly It is wise
to save the good calves, the kind that
can be raised into profitable breeders,
milk or beef producers, but the other
kind had better be disposed of early
in life before they have time to be
come nn expense.
1. Have the herd examined
at least once a year by a com
petent veterinarian. Promptly
remove animals suspected of be
ing in bad health. Never add
an animal to the herd until cer
tain it is free from disease, par
2. Never allow a cow to be
excited by fast driving, abuse
or unnecessary disturbance.
3. Clean the entire body of
the cow dally. Hair In the re
gion of the udder should be kept
short by clipping.
4. Do not allow strong-flavor
ed food, like cabbage or turnips,
to be eaten except Immediately
after milking. Changes in feed
should be made gradually.
5. Provide fresh, pure drink
ing water In abundance.
IMPORTANT FEATURE OF COW
Good Udders and Teats Are Often
Overlooked by Dairy Cattle Breed
ers—Lack Wedge Shape.
There is so much real satisfaction
in the milking and handling of cowg
that have good udders and good teats
that it seems very strange that in
dairy cattle breeding this Important
Part of Splendid Jersey Herd.
feature has been so much neglected
end by this seeming neglect far too
many cows have small udders and con
sequently small, short teats.
It will nearly always be noticed that
sows with small udders, even In the
best dairy breeds, usually carry too
much flesh and lack that double-wedge
shape which Is so desirable in the eyes
of the modern and progressive dalry
TAINT OF MILK AVOIDABLE
Unless some unusual food has been
eaten, milk is delivered from the cow
Unclean Utensils Are Common Source
of Trouble—Particles Get Into
Seams or Joints.
free from taint. It Is also free from
bacteria. Between the cow and the
consumer it picks up a multitude of
the latter and sometimes more or less
of the former. The milk can Is a com
mon source of both. Minute particles
of organic matter get Into the seams
or joints of the can, where they be
come the habitation of countless bacte
ria. Disagreeable odors arise as a re
sult of the decomposition which en
Put your nose Into the
empty milk can after
cleaned and Is ready to us
e. It is
entirely free from o«!er.
a distinct diff*-r«-r.ce betw.
smell and a "foul" one.
een a "«
HELFS GROWTH OF BACTERIA
VVawn Milk Offe r s Splendid Medium
for Growth cf Organisms—Handle
cow off- rs a *
favoral le grow
teria that ma;
1*.-*sea this dev
be done as «
■ f all kin :
gain aec*'-* '
I paient miik;
r-fci'.y tad «.
the miik si
ai i be
strained anJ se: away or separated.
■ ; k- n \ * -s
Change Safe!y Passed by
Taking Lydia E. Pinkham'*
Wagoner, Ok!a.~"I never get tired
of praising Lydia E. Pink ham's Vege
Change of Life I
was in bed two
years and had two
operations, but all
the doctors and op
erations did me no
good, and I would
nave been in my
grave today had it
■which brought me out of it all right, so
not been for Lydia
E. Pinkham 's veg
I am now well and do all my housework,
besides working in my garden. Sevend
of my neighbors have got well by tak
Lydia E...... _
pound."— Mrs. Viola Finical, Wagon*
ing Lydia E. Pinkham's Vegetable Com
Such warning symptoms as sense of
suffocation, hot flashes, headaches, back
aches, dread of impending evil, timidity,
sounds in the ears, palpitation of th*
heart, sparks before the eyes, irregu
larities, constipation, variable appetite,
weakness and rfizziness should be heedea
by middie-agei] women. Lydia E. Pink
ham's Vegetable Compound has carried
many women safely through the crisia.
îhii Murray School Snpply (>»., B!on.n*n»m ai*.
I*:**«, hftator* aha4ea. crayon «raser*. bi&rKboanl«,
trtryihing. rpec.ai discounts ou uia-ü bus'neba.
W. N. U., MEMPHIS, NO. 37-1917.
. Louis « lairns
',650 population j
Granulated Eyelids. S«l«a, Inflamed Eye#
relieved over night hy Roman Kyo Balaam.
One trial prov< a Its m«-rlt. Adv.
The world makes way f«»r the deter
mined man.— <». S. Manien.
WHY HAVE CHILLS AND FEVER?
"Plantation" Chill Tonic Is guarao*
teed ami will do the work In a wet-k.
Your money cheerfully refunded by
dealers if it fails after giving it Ê
proper trial. Price 50c.—Adv.
A Slow One.
Mary—He'd make you a model hut
band, my dear.
Elsie—Yes, last year's model.
PRAISES DR. KILMER'S
I believe you have a splendid, reliable
kidney, liver and bladder medicine in Dr.
Kilmer's Swamp-Root, and my customers
who have taken.it during the past thirty
six years have nothing but praise for what
it accomplished for them. On account of
the splendid reputation which it enjoys ia
the trade I have no hesitancy in recom
mending it for the troubles for which it 1»
Yours very truly,
J. G. SIEBEN", Druggist,
Slept. 21, 1916. Hastings, iLnn.
Dr. Kilmer £*• Co.
Binghamton, N. Y.
Prove What Swamp-Root Will Do For Yo«
Send ten cents to Dr. Kilriier & Co.,
Binghamton, N. Y., for a sample siza
bottle. » It will convince anyone. Yoo
will also receive a booklet of valuable in
formation. telling about the kidneys and
bladder. When writing, be sure anti men
tion this paper. Large and medium size
bottles for sale at all drug stores.—Adv.
Here Is a Record!
Talk about records I Here's one thal
apparently has every reeord«.-d record
beaten to a frazzle.
Think of It—ocean to ocean in hall
We might possibly have believed It U
our national defense board had an
nounced the invention of some new
and wonderful 100-rnile-a-mlnute air
plane—but on a bicycle—never.
But It's a fact. On August 2 Ed
ward G. Arrninger and two other young
men covered the distance in twelve
hours on bicycles—and what's more,
they did It partly on railroad ties and
l«x>se gravel roads—and, of course, It'*
the first time it's ever been done.
Well, come on. What's the answer?
If you must know, here it is. They
did It across the Panama canal zone.
The Other 8ide.
"Young man," said the office man»
ger, "if you knew as much about th*
business of this firm as you do about
baseball, you'd be holding down my
"I know that, sir," replied the office
boy. "And if you'd make your busi
ness as Interesting as baseball you'd
have kids beggln' for a chance to work
for you and willing to pay for the
r .«„■ happiness
we are doing
is the consciousnes*
what we ought to do.
I'm glad there's such
a big corn crop —says
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